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First-Aid-and-Bloodborne-Pathogens

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[MUSIC PLAYING] Delivering care to an injured crew member requires confidence. Confidence that comes from knowing how to respond with appropriate techniques in emergency situations. First aid is important for everybody, anywhere, anytime. You may be your first victim, the first person to help yourself if you're hurt so it's generally a good thing to know. It also helps prepare somebody when they see someone who's ill or very significantly injured not panic, being familiar with what to do. This video will demonstrate the correct way to respond to a variety of injuries, as well as how to minimize exposure to blood-borne pathogens. It's important to never provide care beyond your level of training or knowledge as this could lead to further injury or create an unsafe environment for you and your co-workers. In this program, you'll learn how to approach the scene of an accident, respond to simple injuries, and how to determine the proper way to care for the patient. We'll learn how and when to perform compression only cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR. We'll also show you how to operate an automated external defibrillator, or AED. We'll discuss basic first aid and how to bandage puncture wounds, cuts, burns, and how to splint a fracture. We'll explain how to observe standard precautions to avoid exposure to blood-borne pathogens, disease causing bacteria, and viruses, including hepatitis B, C, and HIV. We'll learn why it's important to use protective equipment and how to manage blood and bodily fluid spills. And we'll also list what are the most basic medical supplies to keep on hand. In an emergency the first step is to survey the scene, determining if it's safe for you or others to get close to the victim. An accident scene can be chaotic, but it's important to stay calm and remember the three C's, check the scene, call for assistance, and care for the injured. The first thing you should do when you come across another person who appears to be injured, or is unconscious, is assess the situation before you put yourself at risk. The last thing that needs to happen is to have two victims. Before providing care, check to see if the patient is awake and breathing normally. Are they bleeding? Are there immediate signs of injury? Can you see burns, broken bones, or puncture wounds? Do not move the victim or leave them alone once you arrive, unless you have to get help. You can now check for vital signs. Watch for shallow or irregular breathing. Look at the appearance of the skin. Is it pale, bluish, or washed out looking? Quickly scan the condition of the head, neck, chest, and the rest of the body for injuries. If the patient is not responding there's a good chance you're dealing with a cardiac event. If the per person isn't displaying normal breathing that's an alert. If they seem to be unresponsive that's another level of alert. The most sudden risk is from cardiac arrest. That's why defibrillators are on vessels and at airports, casinos, retail centers, and gyms. So if the person is not breathing normally you should probably try to stimulate them, if they don't respond start CPR. Step one in administering CPR is to activate the emergency response system. If you can, have someone call 911. If you're out to sea have them contact your consulting physician service. If your vessel is equipped with an AED, have them bring it to you. Step two is to make sure the patient is flat on their back on a hard surface. Place one hand over the patient's sternum, and your other hand over that hand interlocking the fingers and then lock your elbows. Make sure your shoulders are directly over your hands. Begin downward compressions, pressing down at least two inches with each compression. Try for a rhythm of 100 compressions per minute and a rocking motion. You may break some of the patient's ribs. While this may seem upsetting, the greater risk to the patient is dying from cardiac arrest. Continue chest compressions until the AED becomes available, or trained medical personnel arrive. Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, are portable medical devices which analyze the condition of the heart, and if necessary supply an electric shock to stabilize heart arrhythmia's that lead to cardiac arrest. To used the AED, remove the patient's shirt. If you're not able to unbutton or pull the shirt off, some units contain shears for cutting fabric out of the way. Make sure there is no metal on the patient's chest. Place the electrodes in the correct position as per the illustration on the pads. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for operation on monitoring the patient as well as administering a shock if necessary. After each shock continue chest compressions until help arrives, or the patient regains consciousness. When performing basic first aid protect yourself first. Treat all bodily fluids as contaminated. Make sure you're wearing personal protective equipment such as safety glasses, a face shield, and gloves. For a cut with minor to medium bleeding, apply firm but gentle pressure with a gauze pad until bleeding stops. Depending on the type of wound and the patient this may take up to 20 minutes. Once bleeding stops, clean the wound and apply a clean and sterile bandage. If the bleeding is severe have the patient lay down, preferably on a rug or blanket to prevent loss of body heat. Place firm pressure on the wound by binding it with a bandage or clean cloth, and do not remove it even if it is soaked through, add another bandage on top of it. If severe bleeding cannot be controlled on an arm or leg a tourniquet may be used. Research has shown a proper tourniquet left on for an hour will not result in the loss of the limb. Tourniquets had really fallen out of favor, they're coming back into favor, more in very severe bleeding than any other reason. It has to be very significant bleeding, but if you think the person is going to exsanguinate or lose enough blood that it puts their life at risk then a tourniquet becomes reasonable. In the case of a puncture wound there may be minimal bleeding, and it may close right away, but it is still important to properly treat to avoid infection and further complications. Use an antiseptic such as Betadine or Chloraprep to clean and treat the wound, then apply a clean dressing. Burns can present a significant challenge depending on their severity. Well you need to assess whether it's a superficial burn, meaning partial thickness, or what used to be called first or second degree, or full thickness, or third degree burn, or even deeper. Most importantly the first and second degree burns respond well to first aid. When you're at sea, no matter what the depth of the burn is, you have to apply first aid. First and second degree burns are commonly caused by sunburn or exposure to significant heat sources which affect the top layers of skin causing redness, blisters, and severe pain. Cool the burn through evaporation by applying water and a clean sheet. You can also use ice, but make sure it's regular ice, and not artificial cooler packs which can further damage the skin through freezing. When you're ready to apply a dressing after the wound has been cleaned and all foreign material has been removed, use clean petroleum jelly or triple antibiotic ointment to keep the burn area moist. Burns to the face and neck can be serious, and it's important to watch the patient for difficulty breathing. Third degree burns involve all layers of skin and can even affect fat, muscle, and bone. As with first and second degree burns, clean the burned area carefully, possibly even removing dead tissue if your consulting medical service physician recommends it. Then cover the area of the burn with clean Vaseline or antibiotic ointment, and loosely dress with a sterile gauze bandage. Electrical burns often need to be evaluated by a medical professional. Serious injuries could be under the skin and not visible to the eye. Monitor the patient for breathing difficulties. If a broken bone is suspected keep the patient still and with gloves on lightly touch the injured area feeling for swelling or bumps. If you're not sure if the bone is broken, treat it as if it is. Keep the injured area from moving by gently placing it in a splint, and apply ice to limit swelling and relieve pain when possible. When a simple visual examination indicates the patient definitely has a broken bone treatment becomes more complicated. It's hard to know on the vessel, or in a remote wilderness situation, if there's not a deformity and if there is a deformity you have a pretty clear idea. Should there be a deformity you want to try to re-approximate the broken bone, which is often a very painful process. In the case of a compound fracture the outcome can be far more serious. If you have an open fracture, where the bone has protruded through the skin, it is a very complicated situation. It really requires professional medical support to make a determination. You can bleed heavily, a fractured femur can kill you. Either one would require contacting your consulting physician for guidance. When responding to the scene of an accident assess the risk of exposure to bodily fluids or contaminated substances before starting first aid. First protect yourself. Make sure you have adequate personal protective equipment on, gloves, gown, mask. If you don't have that, try to protect yourself by taking off your shirt and using it to try to control the bleeding. A large bandage, compressive bandage, best place to start. You could also be exposed to disease while cleaning up the scene of an accident. It's important to wear your personal protective clothing and equipment or PPE. Soak up excess fluids using disposable paper towels and clean any exposed areas with a chlorine based disinfectant. Leaving it on the surface for at least five minutes until it dries. Dispose of all waste contaminated with blood or bodily fluids in a manner that prevents skin and mucous membrane exposure. Be careful not to expose others to contaminated waste, and always clean and disinfect all surfaces and reusable equipment. Always wash your hands after possible exposure to bloodborne pathogens. A reliable method is to wet your hands and apply a disinfectant soap or scrub washing all exposed skin for 40 to 60 seconds and dry with a clean towel. If water is not available, use a gel type disinfecting product and rubble all exposed areas until your hands are dry. Having a well stocked medical chest is critical, especially for vessels that will be out at sea for extended periods of time. A fully stocked kit should contain masks and gloves, adhesive bandages and gauze pads in multiple sizes, wraps and adhesive tape, splints, trauma shears and tweezers, as well as a flashlight, antiseptic solution, such as Betadine or chlorhexidine, and nonprescription painkillers, such as acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen. In addition, you should also carry clean petroleum jelly, triple antibiotic ointment, cooling blankets, heat packs, and cool packs that do not lower the temperature below freezing. In this program we learned how to approach the scene of an accident, examining the patient for injuries and vital signs while reducing the risk of injury to ourselves. We saw how to evaluate an unconscious patient for possible cardiac events, how to perform CPR, and how to operate an AED. We learned basic first aid techniques, including bandaging, treating simple cuts, puncture wounds, as well as serious burns and broken bones. We also learned about standard precautions to prevent exposure to bloodborne pathogens like hepatitis and HIV. And we discovered what materials you need to keep on hand in case of a medical emergency. Regardless of whether you're responding to a simple cut, or performing CPR, knowing how to perform first aid on board is a significant skill and one that can help create a positive outcome in the most difficult of circumstances. The bulk with illness and injury, it's a challenging environment, it's a very remote environment, it's an unstable platform, your days and sometimes, well, certainly hours, if not days away from help. That is the biggest challenge, is the self sufficiency required on a vessel, the good medical chest, satellite access to a consulting physician, and training. It's a very rewarding opportunity, many lives have been saved by well trained first responders and medical officers. But it is certainly a very challenging, if not one of the most challenging environments to provide medical support in the world. [MUSIC PLAYING]

Video Details

Duration: 14 minutes and 11 seconds
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Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
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Views: 7
Posted by: maritimetraining on Feb 8, 2017

First-Aid-and-Bloodborne-Pathogens

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