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Annotated captions of The Power Principle - Part II: Propaganda in English

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This film contains controversial subject matter.

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Interview subjects and creators of some source material

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may not agree with certain views presented.

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The power principle is a non-profit documentary and has been released for free.

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The 20th century has been characterized by

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three developments of great political importance:

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The growth of democracy, the growth of corporate power,

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and the growth of corporate propaganda

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as a means of protecting corporate power against democracy. - Alex Carey

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(Announcer) This is the Kremlin, citadel of Russian communism.

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Looking at Russia, we might see it as a country to be studied

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as we study other nations of the world.

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Yet, we know that Russia today is regarded as a grave threat to our nation

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to our freedom, to the peace of the world.

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Why so? What makes it a threat?

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Looking closer, we see a clue:

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public display of giant portraits of communist leaders.

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These leaders, by their actions, have caused the world to stand guard.

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Here in Russia, you see the reason

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why so many nations are building up their defenses.

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Here in Russia, you see the reason

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why we are spending billions of dollars in defense production,

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why your family is paying the highest taxes in our history.

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The leaders of Russia tell us their only concern

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is the defense of their own nation. Is this so,

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or are they ambitious for world conquest?

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(Narrator) Produced in collaboration with the defense department

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it is one of thousands of propaganda reels created during the Cold War

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to mold the opinions of the American people.

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According to the dominant narrative, the Soviet Union,

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was engaged in a massive conspiracy, ran out of the Kremlin.

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The goal: world domination.

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In light of this threat, the United States had no choice

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but to counter the soviet menace with massive military spending

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and constant interventions in the internal politics

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of sovereign states around the world.

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In Iran, prime minister Mossadegh was overthrown in a coup d'état,

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after nationalizing oil reserves.

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In Guatemala, Jacobo Árbenz suffered a similar fate

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after engaging in land reform and supporting union rights.

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In the Congo, Patrice Lumumba was overthrown and executed

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after initially coming to the United States for help.

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In Grenada, the New Jewel Movement

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was removed from power after a military intervention.

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And in Chile, the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende

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was overthrown and replaced with a dictatorship.

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The interventions continued:

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in the Dominican Republic, the CIA

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overthrew the democratically elected Juan Bosch.

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Bosch has written a liberal constitution pledging support for unions,

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women and the homeless.

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In Brazil, a CIA-backed coup

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overthrew the democratically elected labor government of João Goulart.

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As a contingency plan, the U.S.

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drew up a scheme to provide a naval task force

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to intimidate Goulart's supporters.

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In Bolivia, a CIA-backed military coup

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overthrew the leftist president Juan Torres.

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He was replaced by dictator Hugo Banzer

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who banned all political parties and began a regime of torture and murder.

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In Argentina, the U.S. backed a military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla

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which went on to commit massive atrocities.

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In El Salvador, a U.S. backed junta

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killed tens of thousands of civilians.

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The infiltration into the Americas

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by terrorists and by outside interference

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and those who aren't just aiming at El Salvador but, I think,

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are aiming at

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the whole of Central and possibly later South America

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and I'm sure eventually North America.

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His name was Bishop Romero.

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Unlike so many Christian leaders, he took seriously the idea

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that you cannot serve both God and money

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and that it is the duty of every Christian to help uplift the poor.

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He was murdered by U.S. backed forces, on March 24, 1980.

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Not content with murdering Romero,

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the death squads detonated a bomb at his funeral.

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During the carnage, military aid by the United States

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was suspended for one month, following the rape

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and murder of 4 American nuns.

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Then, it was resumed.

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The question is: why are we supporting El Salvador?

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- No, the question was why are we killing priests in El Salvador?

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- The answer is: we're not. Now, you be quiet.

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President Cristiani is trying to do a job for democracy

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and the left wing gorillas must not take over El Salvador.

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(Narrator) The most notorious intervention by the Reagan administration

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occurred in Nicaragua, where U.S. intelligence created the Contra army.

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Am I correct Mr. Secord that from December 1984

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until July 1985

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you were engaged in selling arms to the Contras for profit?

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- That's correct.

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Prior to the rise of the Sandinistas

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members of the same family had ruled Nicaragua for over 40 years.

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The Somoza clan had monopolized almost every industry in the country

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stealing millions from their own people.

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When Anastasio Somoza (II) was finally overthrown and fled to Miami,

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a U.S. intelligence report placed his net worth at nearly $100 million.

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Anastasio had been a particularly sadistic ruler.

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One of his favorite methods of execution

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was to throw dissidents from helicopters into the Masaya Volcano.

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In 1979, the people revolted.

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The Sandinistas undertook radical reforms.

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They established the first public education system for children,

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building thousands of schools and playgrounds.

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They cut illiteracy to less than 10% of the population.

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They cut infant mortality by a third.

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They established a national health service.

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They abolished the death penalty.

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They allowed the development of independent cooperatives,

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increasing food production by over 100%

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and they enjoyed the support of the vast majority of Nicaragua's people.

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This revolution was not made by a proletariat party,

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it was produced by a popular insurrection.

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Everybody took part in the destruction of the dictatorship.

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This is not a political party. It's a front who made the revolution

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and you have in this front different parties: the socialist party,

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the Christian democratic party, the liberals, the conservatives;

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all of them took part in this insurrection.

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Christians took part in this insurrection at the same time as Marxists.

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The church, many prisoners supported the insurrection,

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even fought in the insurrection.

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(Narrator) After a study of 76 developing countries,

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Oxfam stated that Nicaragua "was exceptional in the strength

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of that government's commitment to improving the condition of the people

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and encouraging their act of participation in the development process."

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But it was not to last.

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Fearing that the Sandinista model may spread to other countries,

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former treasury secretary George Schultz called the Sandinistas:

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"A cancer, Right here on our landmass".

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Trained in neighboring Honduras as well as back home in Florida

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the Contras would unleash a rain of terror on the people of Nicaragua.

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They focused heavily on economic targets.

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Missions included the blowing up of oil pipelines,

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the illegal mining of Nicaraguan ports,

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the burning and bombing of grain silos, farmhouses and machinery

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and numerous other wanton attacks.

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It is possible that the Nicaraguan people

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may have been able to withstand these assaults,

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but the brutality of the Contras took its toll.

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So I guess in a way they're counter-revolutionary

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and God bless them for being that way.

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I guess that makes them Contras and so it makes me a Contra too.

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As long as there is breath in this body,

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I will speak and work, strive and struggle for the cause

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of the Nicaraguan freedom fighters.

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(Narrator) A later congressional intelligence committee revealed that the Contras

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had raped, tortured and killed unarmed civilians,

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including children

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and that groups of civilians, including women and children

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were burned, dismembered, blinded and beheaded.

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(Journalist) There was an election here in Nicaragua in 1984;

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I think most people must have forgotten that because there was

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a brilliant piece of agenda setting up in Washington

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whereby they certainly decided that the Sandinistas

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where getting MiGs into the country and a lot of the press corps down here

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knew that this wasn't true because it had been announced in Washington

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we were obligated by our news desks to go running up

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to the port and investigate the arrival

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of these mythical and non-existent MiGs

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and the whole election coverage was abandoned.

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Everybody had covered the entire campaign,

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but everybody ceased to cover the election itself

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because Washington very cleverly changed the issue,

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from the issue of democracy in Nicaragua

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to the issue of national security.

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The United States has circumstantial evidence

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suggesting that as many as a dozen Soviet MiG 21 jets

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may have arrived today at the Nicaraguan port of Corinto.

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The Power Principle

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II. Propaganda

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(Narrator) Following World War II,

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American policy planners were faced with a choice:

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to embrace democracy in all its forms

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or suppress huge populations around the globe through violence.

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Metropolitan Cathedral, El Salvador (May 9, 1979)

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The first major test came from Greece.

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Rejecting the participatory government

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created by the anti-nazi resistance during the war

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both the British and Americans chose to support fascist elements

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that the resistance had been fighting only months before.

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The resulting civil war caused over 100,000 deaths.

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Though seldom acknowledged in official histories,

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Western elites had long supported fascism in Europe

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as a means of counteracting the left.

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Do you think we're going to win this war against Russian communism?

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- Yes I'm an American Mr. Haslett, I'm not very good a being a pessimist.

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We can't afford to do anything which isn't honorable.

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The honor comes before peace, it comes before victory,

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it comes before anything else.

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(Narrator) For many American leaders, as well as military and intelligence officers,

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the Soviet Union and the philosophy of communism

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were seen as real existential threats.

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According to Phillip Agee, one of the first CIA whistle-blowers,

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the reading list at The Farm, an advanced training facility for CIA officers

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consisted almost entirely of critical books about the Soviet Union.

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Notably absent was any literature dealing with democratic

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or libertarian socialism or any text written by socialists themselves.

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Not even Marx himself was part of the reading list.

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According to Agee, CIA recruits were taught

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that communist attempts to set up dictatorships around the world

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were really "manifestations of Soviet expansion

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which in turn was determined by the need to maintain power at home.

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Our country was the real target."

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One of the most interesting things about propaganda

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is the relationship between what the propagandist believes

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and what he or she has to say.

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What we see is a system of propaganda

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in which the main propagandists believe what they're saying.

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They believe in what they're doing or acting for

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the greater good of humanity or whatever their cause is.

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What happens in that kind of circumstance

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is a phenomenon that some people call blowback.

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In other words, you come up with

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messages that are aimed at ideologies or world views,

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you put them out and then the messages comes back to you

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as though they were truthful,

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of wars in particular but self-destructive actions of all sorts.

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When the public sits back and looks at it later

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they'll ask themselves "How did they get into this foolishness?"

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Part of it is this cycle of self-deception.

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When I joined the agency, I was a dedicated Cold Warrior

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who felt the agency was out there where fighting for liberty,

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justice, democracy and religion around the world;

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I believed whole-heartedly in this.

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I just felt proud everyday that I went to work

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because I was out at the vanguard of the battle against the international

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evil empire, international communist evil empire.

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(Narrator) If the overriding belief system cultivated amongst foot soldiers

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was that the Soviet Union was fanatically imperialist,

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others were more skeptical.

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Speaking of the claim that Soviet Russia was determined to conquer the world,

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republican Senator Robert Taft remarked that:

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"No Russian military attack is threatened in Western Europe...

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I certainly do not pretend to understand the Russian mind,

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but for 4 years they have shown no intention of making a military advance

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beyond the zones of influence in Central Europe

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allotted to them at Yalta."

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History would prove Taft correct.

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While occasionally lending token support to liberation movements

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in the Third World, Soviet foreign policy would remain remarkably conservative

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throughout the Cold War.

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The Soviet Union,

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contrary to what all Americans were taught,

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was not a revolutionary society at home or abroad.

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After the initial overthrow of the Tsar and of a capitalist system,

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they settled into a very conservative pattern.

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They fought against change.

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Their main concern was to be on good terms with the West,

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which would surprise most Americans,

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but being in good terms with the West was what they wanted.

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They wanted to pursue what was known as

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'socialism in one country', not expanding it.

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This is Stalin now who was in charge. Trotsky felt otherwise;

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that's why he had that great dispute with Stalin.

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He lost that internal battle, that's why he was forced into exile.

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About the Cold War, one must keep this in mind:

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we're taught it was a struggle between the U.S. and the Soviet Union;

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I maintain that as fallacious.

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The Cold War was a struggle between the United States

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and the Third World, that's who they were fighting against.

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The native left wing forces who were agitating

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for very radical change.

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The Soviet Union, in almost all cases,

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played either no role whatsoever in these scenarios or a very insignificant role.

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Whatever they did was highly exaggerated by the Western media.

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A world communist conspiracy? The Soviet Union was not in a position

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to bring communism around the world.

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There were people in their own countries who wanted communist revolutions.

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The Soviet Union was not behind a...

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They didn't start the revolution in Cuba, in Vietnam,

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or in China; they didn't start revolutionaty movements around the world.

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No, revolutionary movements came out of

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the needs of people in those countries.

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When they created revolutionary movements,

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all of this was attributed to the Soviet Union.

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When people in Vietnam created

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their own nationalist movements, first against the French then the U.S.,

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this was seen, or portrayed, I should say,

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by the American elite which I think understood

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this was not a part of a world communist conspiracy.

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They may have justified it to themselves that way,

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but they also knew something else and they said it

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in their secret memos which were all revealed

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if you read the Pentagon papers and the secret defense history

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of the Vietnam war. Their real intent

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was to have a base in Vietnam.

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A base that would be near all the tin, rubber and oil, the rich resources

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of that area of South-East Asia

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and also to have another military base in the world.

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Their motives were not given to the American people,

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but their motives were clear

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and really had nothing to do with a world communist conspiracy

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but with economic and military power.

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Lying, dirty: its goal of world conquest.

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Shrewd, godless: its insidious tactics.

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Murderous, determined: its cunning strategy.

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It's an international criminal conspiracy!

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(Narrator) Numerous internal documents from the State Department

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the Defense Department, the CIA and other Western intelligence services

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revealed that many top policy planners were well-aware

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that the international communist conspiracy was a myth.

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One such document speaking of American designs against Syria

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notes that: "the USSR has shown no intention of direct intervention

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in any of the previous Mid-Eastern crises, and we believe it is unlikely

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that they would intervene."

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Another declassified document

tzmofficial 21:27
21:30

this from the British Foreign Office joint intelligence committee

tzmofficial 21:31
21:35

states that: "The Soviet Union will not deliberately start general war

tzmofficial 21:35
21:39

or even limited war in Europe", and that: "Soviet foreign policy

tzmofficial 21:39
21:41

has been cautious and realistic".

tzmofficial 21:41
21:45

(Interpreter) There were so many suspicions on both sides.

tzmofficial 21:49
21:53

The West exaggerated the strength of the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 21:53
21:56

We could not possibly have moved into Europe.

tzmofficial 21:58
22:01

We were a devastated country.

tzmofficial 22:02
22:05

We had lost millions of people.

tzmofficial 22:07
22:10

(Narrator) Despite popular belief, post-war doves in the United States

tzmofficial 22:10
22:12

were not limited to leftists.

tzmofficial 22:12
22:15

Among the advocates of non-interventionism

tzmofficial 22:15
22:19

were conservative and libertarian figures that foresaw in determined doctrine

tzmofficial 22:19
22:22

a dangerous ideology that would lead to massive empire

tzmofficial 22:22
22:24

and self-destruction.

tzmofficial 22:24
22:27

Yet the voices of these men and women were a minority,

tzmofficial 22:27
22:31

and there were far more powerful interests with a seat at Truman's side.

tzmofficial 22:32
22:34

One of these was Charles E. Wilson,

tzmofficial 22:34
22:37

the president of General Electric Corporation.

tzmofficial 22:37
22:41

GE had garnered enormous profits during World War II

tzmofficial 22:41
22:44

and Charlie Wilson saw no reason why the prospect of peace

tzmofficial 22:44
22:47

should interfere with his prerogative.

tzmofficial 22:47
22:51

He suggested what he called 'a permanent war economy'.

tzmofficial 22:52
22:54

It was only one of the General Electric networks,

tzmofficial 22:54
22:58

employing 125,000 workers.

tzmofficial 22:59
23:02

Westinghouse employed 75,000.

tzmofficial 23:03
23:06

General Motors electrical division: 25,000.

tzmofficial 23:07
23:09

(Narrator) Echoing Wilson's sentiments

tzmofficial 23:09
23:12

was a chorus of voices in the corporate media.

tzmofficial 23:13
23:15

Businessweek spoke of military spending as "a way to maintain

tzmofficial 23:15
23:18

a generally upward tone" and "inject new strength

tzmofficial 23:19
23:21

into the entire economy".

tzmofficial 23:22
23:24

On June 25, 1950

tzmofficial 23:24
23:29

President Truman signed National Security Council Document #68.

tzmofficial 23:30
23:33

It would not be released to the public for 25 years,

tzmofficial 23:33
23:36

but its contents are illuminating.

tzmofficial 23:37
23:42

Endless money forms the sinews of war. - Cicero

tzmofficial 23:47
23:49

Military expenditures in the United States are the motor

tzmofficial 23:49
23:54

of the U.S. economy, and they've been that ever since about 1950.

tzmofficial 23:54
23:57

It's worth reviewing the history because that's where this crisis,

tzmofficial 23:57
24:01

I think, comes from, this sought for, needed crisis.

tzmofficial 24:01
24:04

In early 1950, there was extreme worry

tzmofficial 24:05
24:07

at the highest levels of the Truman administration

tzmofficial 24:07
24:11

that the United States was likely to return

tzmofficial 24:11
24:15

to the conditions of the Great Depression of the 1930s.

tzmofficial 24:16
24:20

Until early in 1950, the decision was taken that this domestic,

tzmofficial 24:20
24:23

economic problem was going to be solved through militarism;

tzmofficial 24:24
24:27

that is through rearmament in the United States

tzmofficial 24:27
24:31

and through U.S. financing of the rearmament of Western Europe,

tzmofficial 24:31
24:34

particularly Western Germany.

tzmofficial 24:35
24:40

The document which provides the analysis of the world at that time,

tzmofficial 24:40
24:46

the U.S. place in the world and the internal situation in the United States

tzmofficial 24:46
24:49

was top secret for 25 years.

tzmofficial 24:49
24:54

In 1975, it was accidentally or through error,

tzmofficial 24:54
24:56

released and published.

tzmofficial 24:57
25:01

It is known as NSC-68, NSC standing for National Security Council.

tzmofficial 25:01
25:05

It was written by Paul Nitze and it is a very detailed document.

tzmofficial 25:06
25:11

The main operative conclusion though was this,

tzmofficial 25:11
25:13

as quoted from the document:

tzmofficial 25:13
25:15

"The United States and other free nations

tzmofficial 25:16
25:18

will within a period of a few years at most

tzmofficial 25:19
25:24

experience a decline in economic activity of serious proportions

tzmofficial 25:24
25:28

unless more positive governmental programs are developed."

tzmofficial 25:28
25:31

The solution adopted by those 'more positive governmental programs'

tzmofficial 25:31
25:34

was expansion of the military.

tzmofficial 25:34
25:39

He mastered all the hype and emotion he could, and Truman said:

tzmofficial 25:40
25:46

"Our homes, our nation: all the things that we believe in are in great danger.

tzmofficial 25:46
25:49

This danger has been created by the rulers of the Soviet Union."

tzmofficial 25:50
25:54

In his speech, he also called for massive increases in military spending

tzmofficial 25:54
25:58

for U.S. and European forces quite apart from the needs in Korea.

tzmofficial 25:59
26:03

There was no threat from the Soviet Union. They were still rebuilding

tzmofficial 26:03
26:07

from the rubble of World War II in which they had lost 20 million people.

tzmofficial 26:07
26:11

They were no threat but they were manufactured from 1950 on,

tzmofficial 26:11
26:15

from the time of Korea on, as a great threat to the United States.

tzmofficial 26:15
26:18

And that became the justification for this program,

tzmofficial 26:18
26:21

which Truman, through manipulation of the Korean war,

tzmofficial 26:21
26:24

had been able finally to get through Congress.

tzmofficial 26:24
26:27

The result was that in the first 2 years

tzmofficial 26:27
26:30

that is the two years between 1950 and 1952,

tzmofficial 26:30
26:33

the U.S. military budget more than tripled

tzmofficial 26:33
26:38

from $13 billion in 1950 to $44 billion in 1952.

tzmofficial 26:39
26:41

During the same two-year period,

tzmofficial 26:41
26:46

U.S military forces doubled to 3.6 million people under arms.

tzmofficial 26:46
26:50

This was the beginning of the permanent war economy in the United States.

tzmofficial 26:50
26:54

The Korean war, by the way, went on 3 more years after it could have ended.

tzmofficial 26:55
26:58

In the end, 34,000 U.S. were dead, more or less,

tzmofficial 26:58
27:01

more than 100,000 wounded,

tzmofficial 27:01
27:04

and the total casualty count was in the millions.

tzmofficial 27:07
27:10

It is worth recalling that,

tzmofficial 27:10
27:15

because from 1950 on the Soviet threat was the justification;

tzmofficial 27:17
27:20

the justification for the permanent war economy

tzmofficial 27:20
27:24

and the justification for these enormous military expenditures.

tzmofficial 27:26
27:29

(Narrator) Few decades after NSC-68,

tzmofficial 27:29
27:32

15 giant corporations would swallow up

tzmofficial 27:32
27:36

two thirds of the 40 billion dollars a year spent on the Pentagon.

tzmofficial 27:37
27:40

Five decades later, the armament industry

tzmofficial 27:40
27:43

would take up over 50% of all discretionary spending.

tzmofficial 27:43
27:46

The Pentagon system came to function not only as a means

tzmofficial 27:47
27:50

of waging war but as a Keynesian mechanism

tzmofficial 27:50
27:53

designed to transfer public wealth to private industry.

tzmofficial 27:53
27:56

The myth of the free market is a very interesting kind of mythology.

tzmofficial 27:57
27:59

I'll take the U.S. economy because it's the dominant one,

tzmofficial 27:59
28:01

but it's more or less the same everywhere.

tzmofficial 28:01
28:04

The U.S. economy relies crucially

tzmofficial 28:05
28:07

on the dynamic state sector.

tzmofficial 28:07
28:11

Where we're sitting, MIT, it's almost impossible to miss.

tzmofficial 28:11
28:14

Things like computers and the Internet

tzmofficial 28:14
28:18

complicated software, information technology, lasers

tzmofficial 28:19
28:22

microelectronics, pharmaceuticals: it's developed

tzmofficial 28:22
28:24

at MIT and places like this

tzmofficial 28:25
28:28

under government funding, that means at taxpayer expense

tzmofficial 28:28
28:30

and for long periods.

tzmofficial 28:30
28:32

Computers and the Internet are supposed to be

tzmofficial 28:32
28:35

at the heart of the high tech economy now;

tzmofficial 28:35
28:37

they were in the public sector for about 30 years

tzmofficial 28:37
28:41

before they were handed over to private enterprise to make profit from.

tzmofficial 28:41
28:45

Bill Gates was living off of public funding.

tzmofficial 28:46
28:51

The basic structure of software, computers, the Internet, etc.

tzmofficial 28:51
28:56

was developed, and he managed to use it to create a quasi-monopoly.

tzmofficial 28:56
29:01

The world of entrepreneurial initiative and consumer choice

tzmofficial 29:01
29:05

is virtually nothing, except at the marketing end.

tzmofficial 29:05
29:08

The same is true with the pharmaceutical industries, etc.

tzmofficial 29:08
29:10

Actually, at MIT, you see it very strikingly:

tzmofficial 29:10
29:15

in the '50s and '60s, MIT was almost completely funded by the Pentagon.

tzmofficial 29:15
29:17

It's not because it was doing war work,

tzmofficial 29:17
29:21

it's because it was creating the basis of the future economy;

tzmofficial 29:21
29:23

the Pentagon understands that.

tzmofficial 29:23
29:26

So, public funds are channeled

tzmofficial 29:26
29:30

to research and development for ultimate profit

tzmofficial 29:30
29:32

under the pretext that it's the defenders of us

tzmofficial 29:33
29:34

therefore the public pays the cost.

tzmofficial 29:35
29:37

The way the system works is

tzmofficial 29:37
29:42

cost and risk are socialized: that's for the public;

tzmofficial 29:42
29:45

profit is privatized.

tzmofficial 29:45
29:48

It's a very convenient system and it's called the free market.

tzmofficial 29:48
29:51

But you have to really think about what happened

tzmofficial 29:51
29:54

most recently with 2008,

tzmofficial 29:55
29:58

the beginning of the meltdown of the American economy

tzmofficial 29:59
30:03

what ultimately happened is that we took care

tzmofficial 30:03
30:06

of those of were driving business interests, we took care of Wall Street

tzmofficial 30:06
30:12

on the backs of Main Street. We continue to do this today

tzmofficial 30:12
30:15

because we have bought in and persuaded ourselves

tzmofficial 30:16
30:19

that it's business that is the most protected sector.

tzmofficial 30:19
30:22

In many respects, they are allowed to make mistakes

tzmofficial 30:22
30:26

and when they make mistakes, these financial firms...

tzmofficial 30:27
30:31

Who pays for it? We do! The taxpayer is paying for it.

tzmofficial 30:31
30:34

When a worker makes a mistake on an assembly line,

tzmofficial 30:34
30:37

the worker pays for it! He might lose his job

tzmofficial 30:37
30:40

or maybe will get demoted.

tzmofficial 30:40
30:44

But that's an individual result, whereas at the business level,

tzmofficial 30:45
30:49

this is all partly feeding into

tzmofficial 30:49
30:53

these American ideals of who we are.

tzmofficial 30:53
30:58

The business sector or the military sector often work very much interlocked.

tzmofficial 31:00
31:02

There's still no other country on the planet

tzmofficial 31:03
31:08

that is so militarized as is the United States.

tzmofficial 31:08
31:11

It's almost like this 'sleeper effect'.

tzmofficial 31:12
31:15

It's often what we say about propaganda,

tzmofficial 31:15
31:18

the fish isn't aware of the water surrounding it.

tzmofficial 31:18
31:23

It's the same thing with this pro-military, pro-business

tzmofficial 31:23
31:28

type of mentality that we have, almost knee-jerk support

tzmofficial 31:28
31:31

in that it's our surround sound.

tzmofficial 31:31
31:34

We're just not aware of anything that's countering

tzmofficial 31:35
31:36

that surround sound.

tzmofficial 31:37
31:41

The Eisenhower statement: 'military-industrial complex'

tzmofficial 31:41
31:45

is just a continuation of the rise of the corporate sector.

tzmofficial 31:45
31:49

The rise of the corporate sector in the 20th century

tzmofficial 31:50
31:52

is probably the most...

tzmofficial 31:53
31:57

If I were doing a top 10 list of propaganda events, that would be at the very top.

tzmofficial 32:13
32:17

We see it now: its tentacles have really taken over

tzmofficial 32:17
32:23

through into entertainment, into virtually every sector of our society

tzmofficial 32:23
32:27

including education; we've had a corporatization of education.

tzmofficial 32:29
32:32

What results is that in everything you do,

tzmofficial 32:32
32:36

there has to be a bottom line effect to it.

tzmofficial 32:36
32:39

"What's the profit from this? How can we profit from this?"

tzmofficial 32:39
32:43

I think once we had declared a Cold War,

tzmofficial 32:43
32:46

we often tried to make the building blocks

tzmofficial 32:46
32:50

that would support this continuation.

tzmofficial 32:50
32:54

What you have happen is a lot of people will show up

tzmofficial 32:54
32:57

with their own vested interests in this industry.

tzmofficial 32:57
33:03

It's almost like any industry can be the fashion or entertainment industry.

tzmofficial 33:03
33:05

This is a war industry.

tzmofficial 33:10
33:14

(Announcer) Trident 1: a powerful new three stage missile

tzmofficial 33:14
33:17

with a range of 4,000 nautical miles

tzmofficial 33:17
33:21

capable of delivering multiple warheads to widely scattered targets.

tzmofficial 33:23
33:27

Someday, jet airplanes will be invisible to radar waves.

tzmofficial 33:30
33:34

(Announcer) Imagine man-made moons helping us to communicate.

tzmofficial 33:34
33:39

Tomorrow, electronic highways in the sky will guide... [Radio chatter]

tzmofficial 33:41
33:46

(Announcer) Year after year, Lockheed Martin takes the most amazing ideas

tzmofficial 33:46
33:48

about the future,

tzmofficial 33:48
33:52

and makes them fly.

tzmofficial 35:12
35:16

(Narrator) The new system of perpetual war would create economic growth,

tzmofficial 35:16
35:19

but a special kind of economic growth.

tzmofficial 35:19
35:22

Instead of developing more extensive social programs,

tzmofficial 35:22
35:26

the government would use tax dollars to enrich the already rich.

tzmofficial 35:26
35:31

At the same time, America would become a full-fledged empire.

tzmofficial 35:33
35:35

CIA whistleblower John Stockwell

tzmofficial 35:35
35:38

would describe the Cold War enemy as follows:

tzmofficial 35:39
35:41

"Far more Catholics than communists,

tzmofficial 35:41
35:43

far more Buddhists than communists;

tzmofficial 35:44
35:46

most of them couldn't give you an intelligent definition

tzmofficial 35:46
35:49

of communism or of capitalism.

tzmofficial 35:49
35:52

My expertise as CIA, Marine Corps,

tzmofficial 35:52
35:57

three CI secret wars, I had a position in the National Security Council.

tzmofficial 35:57
36:02

In 1975 as the chief of the Angola task force,

tzmofficial 36:02
36:06

running the secret war in Angola, it was the 3rd CI secret war I was a part of.

tzmofficial 36:07
36:10

The national security law

tzmofficial 36:10
36:15

creating the National Security Council and the CIA was passed in 1947.

tzmofficial 36:15
36:19

The CIA was given this charter to perform such other duties and functions

tzmofficial 36:19
36:23

as might be necessary to the national security interests

tzmofficial 36:23
36:27

and given a vague authority to protect its sources and methods.

tzmofficial 36:28
36:32

I think it was in the mid-'80s that I coined this phrase 'the Third World War'

tzmofficial 36:32
36:35

because in my research, I realized that we were not attacking

tzmofficial 36:35
36:38

the Soviet Union and the CI's activities,

tzmofficial 36:38
36:40

we were attacking people in the Third World.

tzmofficial 36:41
36:45

I'm going to, quickly, in the interest of time, give you a little sense

tzmofficial 36:46
36:49

of what that means, this Third World war.

tzmofficial 36:49
36:53

Basically, I believe, in terms of loss of life

tzmofficial 36:53
36:58

and human destruction, it's the third bloodiest war in all of history.

tzmofficial 36:58
37:02

They undertake to run operations in every corner of the globe.

tzmofficial 37:02
37:06

They also undertook the license of operating

tzmofficial 37:06
37:09

just totally above and beyond U.S. laws.

tzmofficial 37:09
37:11

They had a license, if you will, to kill

tzmofficial 37:11
37:15

but also they also took that to a license to smuggle drugs

tzmofficial 37:15
37:20

a license to do all kinds of things to other people and other societies

tzmofficial 37:21
37:24

in violation of international or our law

tzmofficial 37:24
37:27

and every principle of nations working together for a healthier

tzmofficial 37:27
37:29

and more peaceful world.

tzmofficial 37:29
37:34

Meanwhile, they battled to convert the U.S. legal system

tzmofficial 37:34
37:38

in such a way that it would give them control of our society.

tzmofficial 37:38
37:42

We have massive documentation of what they call

tzmofficial 37:42
37:46

'the secret wars of the CIA'. We don't have to guess or speculate.

tzmofficial 37:46
37:48

We had the Church Committee investigate them.

tzmofficial 37:48
37:51

In 1975, it gave us our first really in depth,

tzmofficial 37:52
37:55

powerful look inside this structure. Senator Church said

tzmofficial 37:55
37:58

in the 14 years before he did his investigation,

tzmofficial 37:58
38:01

that he found they had run 900 major operations

tzmofficial 38:01
38:04

and 3,000 minor operations.

tzmofficial 38:04
38:07

If you extrapolate that over the whole period

tzmofficial 38:07
38:10

of the 40-odd years that we've had a CIA,

tzmofficial 38:10
38:13

you come up with 3,000 major operations

tzmofficial 38:13
38:15

and 10,000 minor operations.

tzmofficial 38:15
38:18

Every one of them illegal,

tzmofficial 38:18
38:22

everyone of them disruptive of the lives and societies of other peoples

tzmofficial 38:22
38:25

and many of them bloody and gory

tzmofficial 38:26
38:28

beyond comprehension, almost.

tzmofficial 38:28
38:32

Extensively, we manipulated and organized the overthrow

tzmofficial 38:32
38:36

of functioning constitutional democracies in other countries.

tzmofficial 38:36
38:39

We organized secret armies and directed them to fight

tzmofficial 38:40
38:42

in just about every continent in the world.

tzmofficial 38:42
38:46

We encouraged ethnic minorities to rise up and fight,

tzmofficial 38:46
38:48

people like the Miskito Indians in Nicaragua.

tzmofficial 38:49
38:52

the Kurds in the Middle-East, the Hmong in South-East Asia.

tzmofficial 38:52
38:55

We have organized and funded death squads and we still do

tzmofficial 38:55
38:59

in countries around the world like the treasury police in El Salvador

tzmofficial 38:59
39:03

which are responsible for most of the killing of the 50,000 people

tzmofficial 39:03
39:06

just in the '80s and there were 70,000 before that.

tzmofficial 39:07
39:10

Trying to summarize this third world war that the CI,

tzmofficial 39:10
39:14

the U.S national security complex with the military all interwoven in it

tzmofficial 39:14
39:18

in many different ways has been waging...

tzmofficial 39:18
39:21

Let me put it this way: the best heads that I coordinate with

tzmofficial 39:21
39:26

studying this thing, we count at least 6 million people

tzmofficial 39:26
39:29

who have been killed in this long 40-year war

tzmofficial 39:29
39:31

that we've waged against the people of the Third World.

tzmofficial 39:32
39:34

These are not Soviets, we have not been parachuting teams

tzmofficial 39:34
39:38

into the Soviet Union to kill, hurt and maim people.

tzmofficial 39:38
39:42

Especially not since 1954, when they developed an actual capability

tzmofficial 39:42
39:44

of dropping atomic weapons on the United States.

tzmofficial 39:44
39:48

These are all people of the Third World, they're people of countries

tzmofficial 39:48
39:53

like the Congo, Vietnam, Kampuchea, Indonesia, Nicaragua,

tzmofficial 39:53
39:58

where conspicuously, neither they, nor their governments have

tzmofficial 39:59
40:02

the capability of doing any physical hurt to the United States.

tzmofficial 40:02
40:07

They don't have ICBMs, armies or navies, they could not hurt us

tzmofficial 40:07
40:11

if they wanted to, there's rarely been any evidence that they really wanted to;

tzmofficial 40:11
40:15

that in fact is perhaps the whole point: if they had had ICBMs

tzmofficial 40:15
40:17

we probably wouldn't have done the things to them

tzmofficial 40:17
40:19

for fear of retaliation.

tzmofficial 40:19
40:23

Cheap shots, if you will, killing people of other countries of the world

tzmofficial 40:23
40:27

who cannot defend themselves under the guise of secrecy

tzmofficial 40:27
40:30

and under the rubric of national security.

tzmofficial 40:30
40:33

I'm John Wayne.

tzmofficial 40:33
40:37

"Is there any better or equal hope in the world", Lincoln asked,

tzmofficial 40:37
40:40

"than the ultimate justice of the people?"

tzmofficial 40:40
40:43

We Americans believe there is not.

tzmofficial 40:43
40:47

The stonework of our national life is made of this belief.

tzmofficial 40:47
40:49

We believe in many things,

tzmofficial 40:49
40:53

but this belief that man is a responsible being

tzmofficial 40:54
40:57

bears out our own unique stamp as a nation.

tzmofficial 41:26
41:31

Imperialism is the process of empire.

tzmofficial 41:31
41:34

It's more than just dominion and control.

tzmofficial 41:34
41:40

Imperialism is when the dominant interests of the empire country

tzmofficial 41:42
41:45

go out and they expropriate the land,

tzmofficial 41:45
41:49

the natural resources, the labor,

tzmofficial 41:49
41:52

and the markets of another country

tzmofficial 41:52
41:56

for the benefit of the rich of the imperial country

tzmofficial 41:56
42:00

and sometimes for the benefit of a collaborating,

tzmofficial 42:00
42:04

controlling class in the colonized country.

tzmofficial 42:04
42:09

Imperialism today no longer means direct colonization.

tzmofficial 42:10
42:14

You have what's called neo-imperialism, which involves

tzmofficial 42:15
42:19

not taking over the country, planting the flag and conquering it

tzmofficial 42:20
42:23

but it involves simply

tzmofficial 42:23
42:27

moving in and dominating its economic and political life.

tzmofficial 42:28
42:32

The fundamental contradiction in world society

tzmofficial 42:32
42:35

over the last few centuries

tzmofficial 42:35
42:37

has been between the haves and the have nots,

tzmofficial 42:37
42:40

between a dispossessed majority in the world

tzmofficial 42:40
42:44

disproportionately concentrated in the Third World and the former colonized world

tzmofficial 42:44
42:48

and the powerful states and the elites that benefit and control these powerful states

tzmofficial 42:48
42:51

in this world system.

tzmofficial 42:51
42:54

Depending on what moment in the last few centuries we've been talking about,

tzmofficial 42:54
42:56

there's always been one or another way in which

tzmofficial 42:56
42:59

that contradiction had been ideologically framed.

tzmofficial 42:59
43:02

It was ideologically framed as the manifest destiny, the superiority

tzmofficial 43:03
43:06

of the Anglo-Saxon race and its destiny to rule the world

tzmofficial 43:06
43:09

before there was any such thing as communism or the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 43:10
43:14

Then it was framed as anarchists

tzmofficial 43:14
43:16

that were going to create an anarchic society

tzmofficial 43:17
43:19

before the Soviet Union came into existence.

tzmofficial 43:19
43:23

During the Cold War, the principal way in which

tzmofficial 43:23
43:27

the war of the rich and powerful against the poor majority of the world

tzmofficial 43:27
43:30

was framed as a struggle against communism.

tzmofficial 43:30
43:32

Then the Cold War comes to an end

tzmofficial 43:32
43:35

and it's a struggle against international drug trafficking.

tzmofficial 43:35
43:40

Then we had 9/11 and now the principal lines of battle

tzmofficial 43:40
43:43

are ideologically expressed as a war against terrorism.

tzmofficial 43:43
43:47

So there's been one or the other justification or legitimation

tzmofficial 43:47
43:52

for the domination of a small minority of humanity over a majority of humanity.

tzmofficial 43:52
43:55

What has not changed is that system of domination.

tzmofficial 43:55
43:59

What has changed is how it is justified

tzmofficial 43:59
44:01

and legitimated.

tzmofficial 44:02
44:04

The U.S. has intervened,

tzmofficial 44:05
44:09

coup d'états have taken place, wars of intervention have unfolded

tzmofficial 44:09
44:11

before, during and after the Cold War.

tzmofficial 44:12
44:15

So we can now attribute the nature of this global system

tzmofficial 44:16
44:20

to a mid-20th century battle between a communist and a capitalist system.

tzmofficial 44:21
44:24

A lot of people seem to think that American imperialism

tzmofficial 44:24
44:28

is of recent vintage, but actually it goes way back.

tzmofficial 44:28
44:30

You can argue that it goes back at least certainly

tzmofficial 44:30
44:35

to the Spanish-American war and the takeover of the Philippines,

tzmofficial 44:35
44:37

Cuba and Puerto Rico,

tzmofficial 44:37
44:40

but you can also find it going much further back

tzmofficial 44:40
44:42

really its roots perhaps in the Monroe doctrine.

tzmofficial 44:43
44:47

By the 1920s, we see an article in The Nation magazine

tzmofficial 44:47
44:51

called 'The Republic of Brown Brothers' and this was about a bank

tzmofficial 44:52
44:56

that would later be... one of its partners would be Prescott Bush

tzmofficial 44:56
44:58

the grandfather of George W. Bush

tzmofficial 44:58
45:01

and how they were using the U.S. government,

tzmofficial 45:01
45:06

particularly the military, the Marines, etc. to go into various countries

tzmofficial 45:06
45:10

where the financial interests of private corporations were threatened

tzmofficial 45:10
45:13

and essentially neutralize or even remove governments,

tzmofficial 45:13
45:16

so there's a long history of this.

tzmofficial 45:16
45:20

Always (we are being told) serving the interest of the American people?

tzmofficial 45:20
45:24

Questionable. Whether it served the interests of these corporations? Always.

tzmofficial 45:25
45:28

Again, we go back to Haiti. The best example

tzmofficial 45:28
45:30

historically has been Haiti.

tzmofficial 45:55
45:59

The history of Haiti is the history of the world capitalist system.

tzmofficial 45:59
46:02

You study what's happened in Haiti, you study the struggle of the Haitian people

tzmofficial 46:03
46:07

and you've studied the history of humanity for the last 500 years.

tzmofficial 46:07
46:11

What is today the country of Haiti was the first country that Columbus

tzmofficial 46:11
46:13

touched down in and conquered.

tzmofficial 46:13
46:17

The conquest of 1492 and on which was initiated by Columbus

tzmofficial 46:17
46:20

opened up this era of world capitalism

tzmofficial 46:20
46:24

that we've gone through now for the last 519 years.

tzmofficial 46:28
46:31

Haiti became and very quickly

tzmofficial 46:31
46:34

the indigenous in Haiti were completely eliminated in a genocide ;

tzmofficial 46:34
46:37

the indigenous basically disappeared from Haiti

tzmofficial 46:37
46:39

and the Spanish began to import African slaves

tzmofficial 46:40
46:43

to run sugar plantations which now spread all over the island of Haiti.

tzmofficial 46:43
46:47

Later on, France and Spain competed for control over Haiti.

tzmofficial 46:47
46:50

The French kicked out the Spanish and turned Haiti

tzmofficial 46:50
46:53

into this gem of its colonial system.

tzmofficial 46:54
46:58

The vast majority of the wealth of France was now generated by

tzmofficial 46:59
47:01

400,000 slaves in Haiti

tzmofficial 47:01
47:04

run by a few thousand slave masters.

tzmofficial 47:04
47:06

So the Haitians revolt.

tzmofficial 47:06
47:09

The Haitian slaves began an uprising in 1793.

tzmofficial 47:09
47:12

In 1802, they successfully kick out the French colonialists

tzmofficial 47:12
47:16

and set up the first independent and free republic in the Americas.

tzmofficial 47:28
47:31

I say independent and free because the U.S. sets up

tzmofficial 47:31
47:36

an independent republic in 1776 but not a free one, one based on slavery,

tzmofficial 47:36
47:38

in half of this U.S. republic.

tzmofficial 47:38
47:41

As a result of setting up an independent and free republic

tzmofficial 47:41
47:47

on the basis of the one successful slave rebellion in the Americas,

tzmofficial 47:47
47:50

the powers that be in the world capitalist system

tzmofficial 47:50
47:53

unleash on Haiti terror and misery

tzmofficial 47:53
47:56

and punishment the likes the world has never seen.

tzmofficial 48:50
48:55

We feel that Haiti's historic handlebars are in our hands.

tzmofficial 48:55
49:00

It is like a two-wheeled bike and we are the ones steering it.

tzmofficial 49:00
49:05

The corrupt always want us to turn the bicycle this way

tzmofficial 49:08
49:12

that will make us even more miserable, so we fall into the abyss.

tzmofficial 49:12
49:16

But we say no to this. And we say yes

tzmofficial 49:17
49:21

to the left movement, which we don't have now.

tzmofficial 49:21
49:25

In 1986, the Haitian people have another uprising.

tzmofficial 49:25
49:27

This is 300 years...

tzmofficial 49:28
49:31

almost 300 years after their first uprising against slavery,

tzmofficial 49:31
49:34

they throw out baby duck,

tzmofficial 49:34
49:38

and after a series of fits and bouts

tzmofficial 49:38
49:40

there's free elections held in 1991.

tzmofficial 49:41
49:44

1990 excuse me. The person that wins those elections is Aristide.

tzmofficial 49:45
49:48

Aristide begins to transform these structures

tzmofficial 49:48
49:50

that have been molded over nearly 500 years:

tzmofficial 49:50
49:55

the structures of colonialism, of economic backwardness and of domination.

tzmofficial 49:55
49:58

What's the result? The army stages a coup d'état with the support

tzmofficial 49:58
50:02

of the United States and of France and the other great powers in the world.

tzmofficial 50:03
50:05

Aristide is forced to flee.

tzmofficial 50:06
50:08

He comes back in, in 1994,

tzmofficial 50:08
50:10

he's not allowed to really make any of the substantial changes

tzmofficial 50:10
50:13

that he was trying to make. He finishes up his term.

tzmofficial 50:13
50:17

He's then reelected, a number of years later, in 2000

tzmofficial 50:17
50:19

and he's not allowed to finish up his term.

tzmofficial 50:19
50:22

He, again, tries to make just the mildest of changes

tzmofficial 50:22
50:25

in these structures that had been put in place over several centuries

tzmofficial 50:25
50:28

and he's removed from power in another U.S. invasion.

tzmofficial 50:28
50:30

This time the Marines literally arrive in Port-au-Prince,

tzmofficial 50:31
50:34

the capital of Haiti, remove him and send him into exile in Africa.

tzmofficial 50:34
50:38

When you ask about first and Third Worlds, you're really asking about

tzmofficial 50:38
50:42

how this world capitalist system came into being

tzmofficial 50:42
50:44

and how the vanquished became the Third World

tzmofficial 50:44
50:47

and how the victors became the First World

tzmofficial 50:47
50:51

and these global power relations are being sustained

tzmofficial 50:51
50:54

right up through to the 21st century.

tzmofficial 51:14
51:17

These people are saying that they'd rather get shot instead of move,

tzmofficial 51:17
51:19

so be ready for some resistance.

tzmofficial 51:19
51:22

The Haitian police said they're going to take them in

tzmofficial 51:22
51:25

and charge them with trespassing and suspicious activity.

tzmofficial 51:26
51:31

Jamaica give me job, they give me money... - Back up!

tzmofficial 51:31
51:34

Tell them to get into a single file line.

tzmofficial 51:37
51:39

Come on, let's go!

tzmofficial 51:44
51:46

Duncan, number one...

tzmofficial 51:47
51:49

Don't mess with me, let's go!

tzmofficial 52:11
52:16

We Americans are always at our best when we hear and heed the cries of others.

tzmofficial 52:16
52:18

When confronted with massive human suffering,

tzmofficial 52:18
52:22

Americans have always stepped up and answered the call to help.

tzmofficial 52:22
52:24

But there's never been anything on the scale of human tragedy

tzmofficial 52:24
52:28

in our own hemisphere, like what we're now witnessing in Haiti.

tzmofficial 52:28
52:30

Today, President Clinton and I are joining together

tzmofficial 52:30
52:32

to appeal to you with real urgency.

tzmofficial 52:33
52:35

Give now, and lives will be saved.

tzmofficial 52:36
52:37

Thank you.

tzmofficial 52:38
52:42

(Narrator) Bill Clinton and George Bush would later help to organize relief efforts

tzmofficial 52:42
52:46

after a disastrous earthquake struck Haiti in 2010.

tzmofficial 52:46
52:50

Yet, if it weren't for the actions on Clinton and Bush while in office,

tzmofficial 52:50
52:53

the Haitian people may have been able to create infrastructure

tzmofficial 52:53
52:57

that would have significantly reduced the terrible human toll of the earthquake.

tzmofficial 52:57
53:02

As it turned out, the aid itself was grossly insufficient.

tzmofficial 53:24
53:27

As was Serbia and more recently Libya,

tzmofficial 53:28
53:32

events in Haiti were sold to the public as humanitarian intervention.

tzmofficial 53:32
53:37

This technique has long been used as a justification for imperialism.

tzmofficial 53:41
53:45

Originally, the idea was to civilize the savages,

tzmofficial 53:45
53:48

then to promote what was termed 'democracy'.

tzmofficial 53:49
53:51

In the early 20th century,

tzmofficial 53:51
53:54

General Smedley Butler described with remarkable candor

tzmofficial 53:54
53:56

his actual role in the U.S. army:

tzmofficial 53:57
53:59

"I helped make Mexico, especially Tampico,

tzmofficial 53:59
54:03

safe for American oil interests in 1914.

tzmofficial 54:03
54:05

I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place

tzmofficial 54:06
54:09

for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in.

tzmofficial 54:09
54:12

I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics

tzmofficial 54:12
54:15

for the benefits of Wall Street.

tzmofficial 54:15
54:17

I helped purify Nicaragua

tzmofficial 54:17
54:22

for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1909 to 1912.

tzmofficial 54:22
54:25

I brought light to the Dominican Republic

tzmofficial 54:25
54:28

for American sugar interests in 1916.

tzmofficial 54:28
54:31

In China, I helped to see to it that Standard Oil

tzmofficial 54:31
54:33

went its way unmolested."

tzmofficial 54:34
54:38

Butler summed up his message with four simple words:

tzmofficial 54:38
54:41

"War is a racket."

tzmofficial 54:47
54:50

Perhaps the greatest propaganda feat in modern history

tzmofficial 54:50
54:53

has been the profound ignorance of the American public

tzmofficial 54:53
54:56

of the atrocities committed in their name.

tzmofficial 54:56
54:58

This did not occur by accident.

tzmofficial 54:59
55:03

Diplomatic historian Richard Immerman observes of President Eisenhower that:

tzmofficial 55:03
55:07

"[He] took it as an article of faith that America's strength and security

tzmofficial 55:07
55:10

depended on its maintaining access to, indeed control of

tzmofficial 55:10
55:15

global markets and resources, particularly in the Third World."

tzmofficial 55:15
55:18

He also notes that: "Eisenhower rejected the notion

tzmofficial 55:18
55:21

of an international communist conspiracy

tzmofficial 55:21
55:24

as the product of paranoid imagination."

tzmofficial 55:24
55:28

Unfortunately for the American public, a paranoid imagination

tzmofficial 55:28
55:31

was exactly what Cold War propagandists

tzmofficial 55:31
55:34

desired in their target audience.

tzmofficial 55:34
55:38

John Forster Dulles, brother of CIA director Allen Dulles

tzmofficial 55:38
55:40

proclaimed after World War II that:

tzmofficial 55:40
55:42

"In order to make the country bear the burden,

tzmofficial 55:43
55:47

we have to create an emotional atmosphere akin to wartime psychology.

tzmofficial 55:47
55:50

We must create the idea of a threat from without."

tzmofficial 55:50
55:53

Senator Arthur Vandenberg was more blunt.

tzmofficial 55:54
55:58

In 1947, he advised President Truman

tzmofficial 55:58
56:02

to "scare the hell out of the American people."

tzmofficial 56:03
56:06

And that's exactly what they proceeded to do.

tzmofficial 56:08
56:12

"Our country is now geared to an arms economy

tzmofficial 56:12
56:16

which was bred in an artificially induced psychosis

tzmofficial 56:16
56:21

of war hysteria and nurtured upon an incessant propaganda of fear." - General Douglas MacArthur

tzmofficial 56:26
56:30

Columbia Broadcasting System (October 30, 1938) - "The War of the Worlds"

tzmofficial 56:30
56:34

Ladies and Gentleman, here's the latest bulletin from the intercontinental radio news.

tzmofficial 56:34
56:39

Trenton, New Jersey. It is reported that at 8:50 PM, a huge flaming object

tzmofficial 56:39
56:41

believed to be a meteorite, fell on a farm

tzmofficial 56:41
56:45

in the neighborhood of Grovers Mill, New Jersey, twenty two miles from Trenton.

tzmofficial 56:45
56:48

We have dispatched a special mobile unit to the scene...

tzmofficial 56:48
56:51

...We take you now to Grovers Mill, New Jersey.

tzmofficial 56:53
56:58

Ladies and gentlemen, this is Carl Phillips again, at the Wilmuth farm, Grovers Mill, New Jersey.

tzmofficial 56:58
57:01

...I guess that's it. Just a minute!

tzmofficial 57:01
57:04

Something's happening! Ladies and gentlemen, this is terrific!

tzmofficial 57:05
57:07

The top is beginning to rotate like a screw! The thing must be hollow!

tzmofficial 57:08
57:11

[chatter]

tzmofficial 57:11
57:13

Ladies and gentlemen, it's indescribable. I can hardly force myself to keep looking at it...

tzmofficial 57:14
57:18

...saliva dripping from its rimless lips that seem to quiver and pulsate.

tzmofficial 57:18
57:24

The monster or whatever it is can hardly move. It seems weighed down by possibly gravity or something...

tzmofficial 57:25
57:27

Wait a minute, something is happening;

tzmofficial 57:27
57:30

A humped shape is rising out of the pit.

tzmofficial 57:30
57:33

I can make out a small beam of light against a mirror.

tzmofficial 57:35
57:40

What's that? There's a jet of flame springing from the mirror, and it leaps right at the advancing men.

tzmofficial 57:40
57:43

It strikes them head on! Good Lord, they're turning into flame!

tzmofficial 57:43
57:45

[Screaming]

tzmofficial 57:45
57:50

The barns... the gas tanks of automobiles... it's spreading everywhere. It's coming this way....

tzmofficial 57:52
57:57

(Narrator) It is perhaps the single most famous radio broadcast in human history.

tzmofficial 57:57
58:00

The night before Halloween, in 1938,

tzmofficial 58:00
58:02

thousands of people became panicked

tzmofficial 58:02
58:05

when Orson Welles interrupted a regularly scheduled program

tzmofficial 58:06
58:09

to broadcast a fictitious news account of alien invaders.

tzmofficial 58:10
58:14

Though many listeners found the idea of an alien invasion ridiculous

tzmofficial 58:14
58:16

they were equally frightened at the prospect the Germans

tzmofficial 58:16
58:19

were invading under the guise of little gray men.

tzmofficial 58:20
58:22

One of the reasons for the effectiveness of the broadcast

tzmofficial 58:22
58:25

was Welles' use of late breaking news bulletins

tzmofficial 58:25
58:30

which audiences associated with updates of nazi aggression in Europe.

tzmofficial 58:30
58:33

Radio station's "Attack by Mars" panics thousands

tzmofficial 58:43
58:46

I'm quite surprised that

tzmofficial 58:46
58:48

the H.G Wells classic

tzmofficial 58:49
58:52

which is the original for many fantasies about

tzmofficial 58:54
58:59

invasions by mythical monsters from the planet Mars,

tzmofficial 59:01
59:04

I'm extremely surprised to learn that

tzmofficial 59:04
59:06

a story which has become familiar to children

tzmofficial 59:07
59:10

through the medium of comic strips

tzmofficial 59:11
59:16

and many succeeding novels and adventure stories

tzmofficial 59:17
59:22

should have such an immediate and profound effect upon radio listeners.

tzmofficial 59:23
59:25

(Narrator) The public's response to the broadcast

tzmofficial 59:26
59:28

was of intense interest to communication theorists

tzmofficial 59:28
59:30

and social psychologists.

tzmofficial 59:30
59:33

One example was the Princeton Office of Radio Research

tzmofficial 59:34
59:37

established by a grant from the Rockefeller foundation.

tzmofficial 59:37
59:42

It created a 10-page interview questionnaire given to several study groups.

tzmofficial 59:42
59:44

The data was used to write a report

tzmofficial 59:44
59:49

entitled "Invasion from Mars: a study in the psychology of panic".

tzmofficial 59:49
59:53

It was studied up one wall and down the other by various social scientists

tzmofficial 59:53
59:58

trying to get a handle on what is the impact of radio broadcasting

tzmofficial 59:58
1:00:01

and most particularly what is the impact

tzmofficial 1:00:02
1:00:05

of fear in radio broadcasting,

tzmofficial 1:00:05
1:00:10

to what extent are either individuals or crowds of people

tzmofficial 1:00:10
1:00:13

affected by things they hear on the radio.

tzmofficial 1:00:13
1:00:16

This was of intense interest in the United States.

tzmofficial 1:00:17
1:00:19

It's important to keep in mind that

tzmofficial 1:00:19
1:00:23

over across the ocean, during exactly the same time period

tzmofficial 1:00:23
1:00:26

the nazis had come to power in Germany.

tzmofficial 1:00:27
1:00:31

Goebbels, who was the propaganda minister, was highly effective

tzmofficial 1:00:31
1:00:34

at using radio

tzmofficial 1:00:35
1:00:38

to shape crowds,

tzmofficial 1:00:39
1:00:42

to shape political movements, this type of thing.

tzmofficial 1:00:42
1:00:45

The common thread though is that

tzmofficial 1:00:46
1:00:49

political elites in both countries

tzmofficial 1:00:49
1:00:54

were deeply interested in how to use the medium

tzmofficial 1:00:55
1:00:58

to advance their own interests.

tzmofficial 1:00:58
1:01:01

If you step back and think about it, this is not a particularly radical

tzmofficial 1:01:01
1:01:04

point of view or radical analysis.

tzmofficial 1:01:04
1:01:06

This is pretty much the way the world works.

tzmofficial 1:01:06
1:01:10

Elites in the United States responded in different ways

tzmofficial 1:01:10
1:01:14

because on the one hand, they were worried

tzmofficial 1:01:15
1:01:19

that if crowds of people

tzmofficial 1:01:19
1:01:22

"took things into their own hands"

tzmofficial 1:01:23
1:01:25

that that would be dangerous!

tzmofficial 1:01:26
1:01:27

On the other hand,

tzmofficial 1:01:29
1:01:32

in some ways, it provided great promise

tzmofficial 1:01:32
1:01:37

because it held out the possibility as that if you could

tzmofficial 1:01:37
1:01:39

figure out a way to turn that key,

tzmofficial 1:01:39
1:01:42

then the crowds would do what you wanted them to do.

tzmofficial 1:01:43
1:01:46

(Narrator) If the 'War of the Worlds' broadcast demonstrated

tzmofficial 1:01:47
1:01:50

the power of radio to instill terror in the public,

tzmofficial 1:01:50
1:01:53

it was the Nuremberg rallies that would perform the same function

tzmofficial 1:01:53
1:01:55

for the moving image.

tzmofficial 1:01:55
1:01:58

The idea for the rallies came from Ernst Huntsstengel

tzmofficial 1:01:58
1:02:00

who had previously attended Harvard University

tzmofficial 1:02:00
1:02:03

and written several songs for Harvard's football team.

tzmofficial 1:02:04
1:02:06

Huntsstengel proposed using Harvard pep rallies

tzmofficial 1:02:06
1:02:10

as models for a demonstration of nazi solidarity.

tzmofficial 1:02:10
1:02:15

What emerged was an awesome display of obedience to power.

tzmofficial 1:02:15
1:02:18

In 1934, filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl

tzmofficial 1:02:18
1:02:21

chronicled one of the mass spectacles in her film:

tzmofficial 1:02:21
1:02:23

"Triumph des Willens" or "Triumph of the will".

tzmofficial 1:02:24
1:02:28

Her artful techniques earned acclaim not only from propaganda minister

tzmofficial 1:02:28
1:02:32

Joseph Goebbels, but film critics throughout the world.

tzmofficial 1:02:32
1:02:35

Ultimately however, Ms. Riefenstahl's work

tzmofficial 1:02:35
1:02:38

presents but one piece of the nazi puzzle.

tzmofficial 1:02:39
1:02:42

Weltanschauungskrieg is german

tzmofficial 1:02:42
1:02:45

and it means 'worldview warfare'.

tzmofficial 1:02:45
1:02:48

The activists who were most

tzmofficial 1:02:49
1:02:52

committed to nazi principles

tzmofficial 1:02:52
1:02:55

would confront other parts of this society

tzmofficial 1:02:55
1:02:58

and say: "You have the wrong worldview."

tzmofficial 1:02:58
1:03:02

So this worldview warfare was a way in which

tzmofficial 1:03:02
1:03:06

they went about consolidating their hold on German society.

tzmofficial 1:03:07
1:03:09

In nazifying universities,

tzmofficial 1:03:10
1:03:13

in nazifying companies

tzmofficial 1:03:14
1:03:17

or cultural institutions or churches;

tzmofficial 1:03:18
1:03:22

that was worldview warfare. You could call it propaganda,

tzmofficial 1:03:22
1:03:25

but it wasn't propaganda in the narrow sense of the term

tzmofficial 1:03:26
1:03:28

like simply radio broadcasts or something.

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1:03:31

This is not just publicity.

tzmofficial 1:03:31
1:03:35

This is not just persuasion in the sense of

tzmofficial 1:03:35
1:03:38

what somebody on the radio has to say,

tzmofficial 1:03:38
1:03:40

this is a whole range of techniques.

tzmofficial 1:03:41
1:03:45

From religious or pseudo-religious techniques, evangelism

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1:03:48

to exploiting the psychology of fear,

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1:03:53

to exploiting tensions between races and ethnic groups,

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1:03:57

use of terror, use of violence:

tzmofficial 1:03:58
1:04:00

it's a whole range of

tzmofficial 1:04:00
1:04:04

applied manipulation of people.

tzmofficial 1:04:05
1:04:10

When war finally did break out between nazi Germany and the U.S.,

tzmofficial 1:04:10
1:04:14

"Wild Bill" Donovan who was a Wall Street guy

tzmofficial 1:04:14
1:04:16

who was great friends with the President

tzmofficial 1:04:16
1:04:20

who was strongly anti-nazi Germany...

tzmofficial 1:04:20
1:04:25

He was not a pro-nazi ideologue,

tzmofficial 1:04:26
1:04:29

but he looked at what the nazis where doing with this worldview warfare.

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1:04:32

He believed that it was successful

tzmofficial 1:04:32
1:04:36

and so he tried to come up with an American version of the same sort of thing.

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1:04:52

While the nazis would appeal to German pride,

tzmofficial 1:04:54
1:04:56

German racial pride,

tzmofficial 1:04:56
1:05:01

Bill Donovan attempted to apply to American pride,

tzmofficial 1:05:01
1:05:05

Americanism, without such an explicit racial component.

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1:05:10

For example, the nazi version would appeal to

tzmofficial 1:05:10
1:05:13

a desire for a strong leader.

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1:05:17

The American version would appeal to a desire for

tzmofficial 1:05:17
1:05:19

a legitimate leader.

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1:05:23

Some sort of national consent, national unity, etc.

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1:05:28

I'm not saying that these are the same things.

tzmofficial 1:05:29
1:05:33

What I'm saying is that these are two different approaches

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1:05:36

to a single problem or to a similar problem.

tzmofficial 1:05:41
1:05:45

(Worker) We have grown used to our workplaces,

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1:05:49

factories and building sites looking ugly and filthy.

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1:05:56

Now there will be a change!

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1:06:00

Our workplaces will be beautiful and worthy of us.

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1:06:16

This is no superficial matter. Entrepreneurs must realize

tzmofficial 1:06:16
1:06:20

that even more important a factory's machines are its people.

tzmofficial 1:06:21
1:06:24

It's a question of a new lease on life.

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1:06:28

It concerns creative German people's joy in their work.

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1:06:48

(Announcer) We are shareholders in the greatest enterprise on Earth.

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1:06:51

The United States of America, unlimited.

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1:06:55

Our strength lies in the character of our people:

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1:07:01

young in heart, independent in thought and nature, skilled of hand.

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1:07:07

American enterprise has harnessed fire, water, wind

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1:07:11

sun and soil, and produce an abundance of everything.

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1:07:15

(Narrator) During the Cold War and beyond, the moving image

tzmofficial 1:07:15
1:07:18

would transmit the American Weltanschauungskrieg

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1:07:22

to millions of citizens through small flickering screens.

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1:07:26

Television is the perfect propaganda medium

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1:07:29

because television really appeals to emotion.

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1:07:33

It's a very powerful medium.

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1:07:37

People see something on television, we actually internalize it.

tzmofficial 1:07:37
1:07:40

If you grew up in the '50s

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1:07:45

and somebody says what did you think of Ward Cleaver?

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1:07:49

Anyone who watched television can picture in their minds

tzmofficial 1:07:50
1:07:54

Ward Cleaver as the father of young Beaver in "Leave it to Beaver"

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1:07:57

as clearly as we can see our own parents.

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1:08:00

- You know dad, it's funny. - What's funny?

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1:08:04

- Well, whenever we cook inside, mamma always does the cooking,

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1:08:08

but whenever we cook outside, you always do it. How come?

tzmofficial 1:08:09
1:08:11

- It's sort of traditional, I guess.

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1:08:14

You know, they say a woman's place is in the home.

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1:08:17

I suppose as long as she's in the home, she might as well be in the kitchen.

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1:08:19

I would say that

tzmofficial 1:08:23
1:08:25

the TV news has shown itself to be probably

tzmofficial 1:08:25
1:08:28

the worst source of information across the board.

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1:08:31

There's been some interesting studies

tzmofficial 1:08:31
1:08:33

that document this. For one thing,

tzmofficial 1:08:34
1:08:36

if you ever look at transcripts from TV news programs,

tzmofficial 1:08:36
1:08:39

they actually look sort of weird without the visuals and sometimes it's even hard

tzmofficial 1:08:40
1:08:43

to get the gist of the story, you need the whole gestalt.

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1:08:46

But the first thing you notice is that there's very little information

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1:08:49

actually imparted

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1:08:52

in TV news, it's not a long script.

tzmofficial 1:08:52
1:08:55

But after the first Gulf War for instance,

tzmofficial 1:08:55
1:08:58

the University of Massachusetts Amherst did a study

tzmofficial 1:08:58
1:09:02

to see how public opinion was affected by news coverage of the war.

tzmofficial 1:09:03
1:09:07

What they found was that people who watched the most coverage

tzmofficial 1:09:07
1:09:10

of the first Gulf War

tzmofficial 1:09:12
1:09:15

were convinced that they knew the most about the war

tzmofficial 1:09:15
1:09:20

were the most likely to support the U.S. war

tzmofficial 1:09:20
1:09:23

to drive Saddam Hussein out of Kuweit.

tzmofficial 1:09:23
1:09:25

But an actual test,

tzmofficial 1:09:26
1:09:31

when asked to give factual responses to questions about the war

tzmofficial 1:09:31
1:09:34

actually tended to know the least

tzmofficial 1:09:34
1:09:37

and get the most information wrong.

tzmofficial 1:09:38
1:09:41

(Narrator) When it came to foreign policy in the post-war era

tzmofficial 1:09:41
1:09:43

there was one central theme:

tzmofficial 1:09:44
1:09:46

the Russians were coming.

tzmofficial 1:10:01
1:10:04

Collier's Magazine called it...

tzmofficial 1:10:04
1:10:07

"The Nightmare that threatens the world!"

tzmofficial 1:10:08
1:10:10

[Scream]

tzmofficial 1:10:10
1:10:12

"Invasion of the body snatchers"

tzmofficial 1:10:15
1:10:19

(Announcer) But some will get through to your home.

tzmofficial 1:10:25
1:10:28

This, our country and all its people

tzmofficial 1:10:28
1:10:30

could be in danger of nuclear attack.

tzmofficial 1:10:41
1:10:44

It can't happen here? Well, this is what it looks like!

tzmofficial 1:10:53
1:10:57

A light flash and a heat wave, then the blast tears away part of each roof.

tzmofficial 1:10:58
1:10:59

Let's see it again, in stop motion.

tzmofficial 1:10:59
1:11:03

THEY'RE HERE ALREADY, YOU'RE NEXT!

tzmofficial 1:11:15
1:11:17

(Announcer) It's a happy, go spending world,

tzmofficial 1:11:17
1:11:20

reflected in the windows of the suburban shopping centers

tzmofficial 1:11:20
1:11:23

where they go to buy.

tzmofficial 1:11:32
1:11:35

(Narrator) At least as important as news programming

tzmofficial 1:11:35
1:11:39

in molding public opinion has been the motion picture.

tzmofficial 1:11:44
1:11:47

Though Hollywood is popularly regarded as a left wing conspiracy,

tzmofficial 1:11:47
1:11:52

the movie industry has always had an ambivalent relationship with power.

tzmofficial 1:11:54
1:11:57

During World War I, moving images were used

tzmofficial 1:11:57
1:12:00

to mobilize the public in support of war.

tzmofficial 1:12:01
1:12:03

During World War II, the trend continued,

tzmofficial 1:12:04
1:12:07

but with considerably more star power.

tzmofficial 1:12:07
1:12:10

In 1956, the joint chiefs of staff

tzmofficial 1:12:10
1:12:14

met with John Ford, John Wayne and Merian Cooper

tzmofficial 1:12:14
1:12:18

to brainstorm the subject of what they called 'militant liberty'.

tzmofficial 1:12:20
1:12:22

By the time "Top Gun" was released in 1986,

tzmofficial 1:12:23
1:12:27

the American Navy was setting up recruiting booths outside theaters.

tzmofficial 1:12:30
1:12:35

The Pentagon routinely loans out military hardware to film projects.

tzmofficial 1:12:37
1:12:39

Here are a few recent examples:

tzmofficial 1:12:39
1:12:43

- The U.S. government just asked us to save the world. - Beam me up, Scotty:

tzmofficial 1:12:44
1:12:48

(Reporter) In the streets tonight in Moscow, the president issued a direct challenge

tzmofficial 1:12:48
1:12:50

to terrorist nations across the world...

tzmofficial 1:12:50
1:12:52

What are the risks involved in such a bold policy?

tzmofficial 1:12:59
1:13:01

For your consideration:

tzmofficial 1:13:02
1:13:04

the Jericho.

tzmofficial 1:13:08
1:13:13

(Narrator) Sir Ridley Scott's "Black Hawk Down" was given similar support.

tzmofficial 1:13:13
1:13:16

This might help to explain why the character John Grimes

tzmofficial 1:13:16
1:13:18

is not shown raping a 12-year-old Somali girl

tzmofficial 1:13:18
1:13:21

as he did in the mission portrayed in the film.

tzmofficial 1:13:22
1:13:24

Nobody asked to me a hero.

tzmofficial 1:13:24
1:13:27

It just sometimes turns out that way.

tzmofficial 1:13:27
1:13:31

(Narrator) Equally revealing are films that were turned down by the Pentagon:

tzmofficial 1:13:34
1:13:36

(Character) I love the smell of Napalm in the morning.

tzmofficial 1:14:02
1:14:05

I can no longer sit back and allow

tzmofficial 1:14:06
1:14:10

communist infiltration, communist indoctrination,

tzmofficial 1:14:11
1:14:13

communist subversion,

tzmofficial 1:14:14
1:14:17

and the international communist conspiracy

tzmofficial 1:14:18
1:14:23

to sap and impurify all of our precious bodily fluids.

tzmofficial 1:14:24
1:14:28

(Narrator) Under the Third Reich, Joseph Goebbels advanced a theory

tzmofficial 1:14:28
1:14:32

that media should be uniform in principle but polyform in nuances.

tzmofficial 1:14:33
1:14:37

In this manner, the illusion of plurality and openness could be maintained

tzmofficial 1:14:37
1:14:42

when in fact, the same basic message was being broadcast from all frequencies.

tzmofficial 1:14:44
1:14:47

Party comrades,

tzmofficial 1:14:48
1:14:53

a good government can no more exist without propaganda

tzmofficial 1:14:53
1:14:57

than good propaganda without a good government.

tzmofficial 1:14:57
1:15:01

(Narrator) In the United States, dissident voices would be tolerated

tzmofficial 1:15:01
1:15:03

but at the same time marginalized

tzmofficial 1:15:03
1:15:06

by what became known as the mainstream media.

tzmofficial 1:15:07
1:15:10

During the 1950s, Soviets themselves

tzmofficial 1:15:10
1:15:13

marveled at the uniformity of American public opinion.

tzmofficial 1:15:13
1:15:16

After Stalin's death in the '50s there was a thaw,

tzmofficial 1:15:18
1:15:22

a détente in the relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States.

tzmofficial 1:15:23
1:15:26

During that time,

tzmofficial 1:15:27
1:15:31

about two dozen apparatchiki were invited from the Soviet Union

tzmofficial 1:15:32
1:15:35

to come to the United States for a couple of weeks and run free,

tzmofficial 1:15:35
1:15:37

just looking at our institutions.

tzmofficial 1:15:37
1:15:41

The Senate, going to the Senate debates, the Supreme Court,

tzmofficial 1:15:41
1:15:45

high schools, newspapers, see what our institutions are like.

tzmofficial 1:15:46
1:15:48

At the end of that, they got them all together.

tzmofficial 1:15:49
1:15:51

Of course, they were very excited because the idea was to show

tzmofficial 1:15:51
1:15:54

the Soviets what a truly pluralistic society it was.

tzmofficial 1:15:54
1:15:57

The response they got was a little different than the one they expected.

tzmofficial 1:15:57
1:16:00

What the Soviet apparatchiki said to them was:

tzmofficial 1:16:01
1:16:05

"How do you do it? How have you created such a degree of conformity

tzmofficial 1:16:05
1:16:09

that everybody repeats the same thing over and over again?"

tzmofficial 1:16:09
1:16:13

The American politicians weren't too happy with this answer,

tzmofficial 1:16:13
1:16:17

but it's larger than truth, there isn't much of a spectrum of opinion.

tzmofficial 1:16:18
1:16:21

So what you have is, people believing that

tzmofficial 1:16:22
1:16:26

the democrat and republican parties are fundamentally different

tzmofficial 1:16:26
1:16:28

whereas the truth is, to quote Gore Vidal:

tzmofficial 1:16:29
1:16:31

"What you've got is one political party with two right wings."

tzmofficial 1:16:32
1:16:35

These are differences in style, not differences in substance,

tzmofficial 1:16:35
1:16:39

but Americans get very excited about these minor differences.

tzmofficial 1:16:39
1:16:42

What's going on then is this brainwashing.

tzmofficial 1:16:42
1:16:46

Certainly, corporate media today is very similar to

tzmofficial 1:16:46
1:16:49

in terms of presenting stories that support the government

tzmofficial 1:16:50
1:16:53

like Pravda was under the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 1:16:53
1:16:56

The difference is that the people in Russia

tzmofficial 1:16:57
1:17:00

they knew that Pravda was an organ of the State.

tzmofficial 1:17:00
1:17:05

In the United States, we still think it's a free press.

tzmofficial 1:17:05
1:17:08

Essentially, the corporate media is in the entertainment business.

tzmofficial 1:17:08
1:17:12

Most of content is keeping us...

tzmofficial 1:17:13
1:17:16

Updates on personalities, movie stars

tzmofficial 1:17:16
1:17:20

or scary events, some terrible crime somewhere

tzmofficial 1:17:20
1:17:23

that gets broadcast all over the country.

tzmofficial 1:17:23
1:17:27

Very little analysis in terms of working people

tzmofficial 1:17:27
1:17:30

or what the powerful are doing, what kind of decisions they're making...

tzmofficial 1:17:30
1:17:34

It was the same in the Soviet Union: Pravda wasn't exposing

tzmofficial 1:17:35
1:17:38

the communist party or corruption inside of it.

tzmofficial 1:17:38
1:17:41

They just weren't able to do that. In the U.S. you might get

tzmofficial 1:17:42
1:17:46

somebody, a single person identified, but you don't look at it systematically

tzmofficial 1:17:47
1:17:51

or the problems that are addressed in terms of class structure,

tzmofficial 1:17:52
1:17:54

race, or gender problems in a major way.

tzmofficial 1:17:55
1:17:59

It almost comes full circle back to Edward Bernays

tzmofficial 1:17:59
1:18:02

and to Walter Lippman because these were men

tzmofficial 1:18:03
1:18:06

who were the founders, in many respects,

tzmofficial 1:18:06
1:18:11

of my discipline in communications, journalism and public relations.

tzmofficial 1:18:11
1:18:16

But they all really touted the need to have a professional,

tzmofficial 1:18:16
1:18:20

managerial intelligentsia: the best and the brightest

tzmofficial 1:18:20
1:18:25

who knew better than the rest of us that the masses as a whole

tzmofficial 1:18:25
1:18:29

were just not smart enough, were driven more by impulse

tzmofficial 1:18:30
1:18:34

and emotion and what Walter Lippman 'a bewildered herd'.

tzmofficial 1:18:35
1:18:37

You can't trust the people as a whole

tzmofficial 1:18:37
1:18:40

so you have to create a very small elite.

tzmofficial 1:18:40
1:18:44

You wonder now, looking back, was the Cold War

tzmofficial 1:18:44
1:18:49

just this perpetuation of controlling people's minds

tzmofficial 1:18:49
1:18:54

in order to really benefit this minority elite class?

tzmofficial 1:19:03
1:19:06

Who's up there? Who's running the pictures?

tzmofficial 1:19:31
1:19:36

(Narrator) To help us understand why the message conveyed through American media

tzmofficial 1:19:36
1:19:39

in the post-war era was so remarkably uniform,

tzmofficial 1:19:40
1:19:44

it is useful to examine exactly who was controlling the message.

tzmofficial 1:19:44
1:19:47

During World War II, the field of psychological warfare grew from

tzmofficial 1:19:48
1:19:52

a minor component in the government's arsenal to a flagship weapon.

tzmofficial 1:19:52
1:19:56

Yet this weapon was not deactivated after the war.

tzmofficial 1:19:57
1:20:00

Many key personnel from World War II psyops divisions

tzmofficial 1:20:00
1:20:03

went on to play major roles in the allegedly free

tzmofficial 1:20:03
1:20:06

and independent American press.

tzmofficial 1:20:07
1:20:13

The country has been demobilized, at least to some extent, after the war.

tzmofficial 1:20:13
1:20:18

What happens is leading lights in the OSS for example

tzmofficial 1:20:19
1:20:23

included the publishers of Life Magazine

tzmofficial 1:20:24
1:20:29

key editorial people in Reader's Digest, Time-Life.

tzmofficial 1:20:30
1:20:35

William Paley, president of CBS was an OSS man during the war

tzmofficial 1:20:36
1:20:41

and worked specifically with the psychological warfare side

tzmofficial 1:20:43
1:20:45

of the U.S. effort in World War II.

tzmofficial 1:20:46
1:20:50

He goes back to Wall Street

tzmofficial 1:20:50
1:20:54

and is president of CBS

tzmofficial 1:20:54
1:20:58

and CBS then, under his leadership,

tzmofficial 1:20:58
1:21:01

works hand in glove with

tzmofficial 1:21:01
1:21:05

what were CIA propaganda operations

tzmofficial 1:21:05
1:21:09

such as Radio for Europe, Radio Liberty, etc.,

tzmofficial 1:21:09
1:21:14

and with basically both the overt

tzmofficial 1:21:15
1:21:19

and the clandestine side of U.S. military operations

tzmofficial 1:21:19
1:21:22

throughout the Vietnam period and later.

tzmofficial 1:21:22
1:21:27

Edward Barrett, who was chief of psywar during the early 1950s,

tzmofficial 1:21:27
1:21:32

was a noteworthy media figure in his own right and later became

tzmofficial 1:21:32
1:21:36

the dean of the Columbia graduate school of journalism.

tzmofficial 1:21:37
1:21:40

There are many other examples along these lines.

tzmofficial 1:21:41
1:21:45

What it points to, and you can read this in their memoirs,

tzmofficial 1:21:45
1:21:48

is a network of people

tzmofficial 1:21:48
1:21:51

whose relationship was forged during World War II

tzmofficial 1:21:51
1:21:56

and then in a common political warfare effort

tzmofficial 1:21:56
1:21:59

against a specific enemy:

tzmofficial 1:21:59
1:22:02

nazi Germany or imperial Japan

tzmofficial 1:22:02
1:22:06

that took that sensibility about media

tzmofficial 1:22:07
1:22:11

being able to operate both in war and peace

tzmofficial 1:22:13
1:22:16

and use that and forge that

tzmofficial 1:22:16
1:22:20

as mainstream media in the United States in the wake of World War II.

tzmofficial 1:22:21
1:22:25

(Otis Pike) Do you have any people being paid

tzmofficial 1:22:27
1:22:32

by the CIA who are contributing

tzmofficial 1:22:33
1:22:36

to a major circulation American journal?

tzmofficial 1:22:37
1:22:41

- We do have people who submit pieces to American journals.

tzmofficial 1:22:41
1:22:44

(Pike) Do you have any people

tzmofficial 1:22:45
1:22:48

paid by the CIA

tzmofficial 1:22:49
1:22:51

who are working for

tzmofficial 1:22:53
1:22:56

television networks?

tzmofficial 1:22:58
1:23:02

This I think gets into the details, Mr. Chairman,

tzmofficial 1:23:02
1:23:05

that I'd like to get into in executive session.

tzmofficial 1:23:05
1:23:09

(Pike) Do you have any people

tzmofficial 1:23:09
1:23:13

being paid by the CIA

tzmofficial 1:23:14
1:23:18

who are contributing to

tzmofficial 1:23:18
1:23:24

the national news services: AP and UPI?

tzmofficial 1:23:25
1:23:28

Again, I think we're getting into the kind of detail, Mr. Chairman,

tzmofficial 1:23:28
1:23:31

that I'd prefer to handle in executive session.

tzmofficial 1:23:33
1:23:37

(Narrator) One of the most important figures in the new media empire

tzmofficial 1:23:37
1:23:40

was Henry Luce, the founder of Time Magazine.

tzmofficial 1:23:40
1:23:42

An early supporter of fascism

tzmofficial 1:23:42
1:23:46

and a member of the elite secret society "Skull and Bones",

tzmofficial 1:23:46
1:23:49

Luce has written in 1941 of an "American century"

tzmofficial 1:23:49
1:23:52

in which the United States had the right to "exert upon the world

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1:23:57

the full impact of our influence, for such purposes as we see fit

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1:24:00

and by such means as we see fit."

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1:24:04

(Announcer) Foreign big business was weakened during the war,

tzmofficial 1:24:04
1:24:07

and today American big business is the strongest.

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1:24:10

And they have a dream

tzmofficial 1:24:11
1:24:14

to dominate the world.

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1:24:18

They call their dream 'the American century'.

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1:24:23

The American century means the century of big business

tzmofficial 1:24:23
1:24:25

instead of the century of the common people.

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1:24:28

(Narrator) After the fall of the Soviet Union,

tzmofficial 1:24:29
1:24:33

Luce's theory would be rebranded as "the project for a new American century".

tzmofficial 1:24:34
1:24:37

The latter document laid out a program for full-spectrum dominance

tzmofficial 1:24:37
1:24:41

of the U.S. military across the entire planet.

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1:24:45

Following in Luce's footsteps was C.D. Jackson

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1:24:49

would had served as deputy chief at the psychological warfare division,

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1:24:53

a supreme headquarters allied expeditionary force.

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1:24:58

After the war, Jackson became managing director of Time-Life International.

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1:25:01

According to journalist Carl Bernstein of Watergate fame

tzmofficial 1:25:01
1:25:06

Jackson was "Henry Luce's personal emissary to the CIA".

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1:25:09

Jackson would play a significant role

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1:25:13

in what became known as 'Operation Mockingbird':

tzmofficial 1:25:13
1:25:17

a blatantly unconstitutional program by the new intelligence agency

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1:25:20

to buy influence at major media outlets.

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1:25:25

Media assets were created at ABC, NBC,

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1:25:29

CBS, Associated Press, Reuters

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1:25:32

Hearst Newspapers, Scripps Howard

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1:25:36

and virtually every other major news organization.

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1:25:40

We had been contacted by the CIA.

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1:25:42

By the time I became the head of the whole news

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1:25:46

and public affairs operation in 1954, the shifts had been established.

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1:25:51

(Narrator) Bernstein reported in 1977 that for over 25 years,

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1:25:54

more than 400 reporters had willingly carried out

tzmofficial 1:25:55
1:25:57

intelligence assignments for the CIA.

tzmofficial 1:25:58
1:26:00

The very important critiques

tzmofficial 1:26:01
1:26:06

of the corporate media and how it functions as part of the establishment

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1:26:10

need to be supplemented by an understanding of the role

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1:26:14

of infiltration of the media itself.

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1:26:19

These are not mutually exclusive: while on the one hand you certainly have

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1:26:25

the institutional problems with a media owned by wealthy, powerful people,

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1:26:28

deciding what information we ought to have, but on another level,

tzmofficial 1:26:28
1:26:31

you actually have this operational capacity

tzmofficial 1:26:32
1:26:37

in which intelligence agencies have infiltrated and influenced

tzmofficial 1:26:37
1:26:41

people within the media and the reporting ranks themselves.

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1:26:44

There are many examples of this,

tzmofficial 1:26:44
1:26:48

even Carl Bernstein of the famed Woodward and Bernstein duo, wrote an article

tzmofficial 1:26:48
1:26:52

after he left the [Washington] Post, documenting the role

tzmofficial 1:26:53
1:26:57

of the intelligence agencies in putting people into news organizations

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1:27:02

including the Washington Post, Newsweek and many other of the brand names.

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1:27:09

If you look at the relationship between media organizations

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1:27:14

and national security agencies in the early Cold War years

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1:27:17

the characteristic there was:

tzmofficial 1:27:17
1:27:20

there are two different bodies of people

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1:27:25

two different groups, but they have a common mission in mind;

tzmofficial 1:27:25
1:27:28

a common conception of what patriotism was

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1:27:32

a common conception of that the enemy was, etc.

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1:27:35

It was really rather simple

tzmofficial 1:27:36
1:27:41

for CIA agents to go to their old buddies and say:

tzmofficial 1:27:41
1:27:44

"The country needs you, and here's what we want you to do",

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1:27:50

or alternately if one of their buddies in the media

tzmofficial 1:27:50
1:27:53

was getting too out of line

tzmofficial 1:27:53
1:27:58

as to the discussion of what should U.S. policy about Yugoslavia be

tzmofficial 1:27:58
1:28:03

or other Cold War era controversies of that sort

tzmofficial 1:28:04
1:28:08

to have a meeting with them, sit down and say:

tzmofficial 1:28:09
1:28:12

"We think you're out of line. You're doing a bad thing,

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1:28:14

because you're raising this question

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1:28:17

and we think you should not do that."

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1:28:22

There was that type of social pressure in cooperation.

tzmofficial 1:28:22
1:28:26

Let's fast forward to the present day.

tzmofficial 1:28:26
1:28:31

That same type of relationship does still exist.

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1:28:35

What happened here is a psyops campaign,

tzmofficial 1:28:35
1:28:38

an incredible government propaganda campaign

tzmofficial 1:28:38
1:28:42

whereby Donald Rumsfeld and Torie Clarke,

tzmofficial 1:28:42
1:28:45

the head of public relations for the Pentagon,

tzmofficial 1:28:45
1:28:51

designed a program to recruit at least 75 former military officers

tzmofficial 1:28:51
1:28:54

as your report said, most of them now lobbyists or consultants

tzmofficial 1:28:54
1:28:57

to military contractors and they insert them

tzmofficial 1:28:57
1:29:02

beginning in 2002, before the attack on Iraq was even launched

tzmofficial 1:29:02
1:29:06

into the major networks to manage the messages,

tzmofficial 1:29:06
1:29:09

to be surrogates, and that's the words that are actually used.

tzmofficial 1:29:10
1:29:14

Message multipliers for the Secretary of Defense and for the Pentagon.

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1:29:16

This program continues right up to now.

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1:29:22

- Is it that the essence of what the Pentagon did was illegal?

tzmofficial 1:29:23
1:29:25

Yes, what they did was illegal.

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1:29:28

The Pentagon might contest that,

tzmofficial 1:29:29
1:29:34

but we've had various laws on the books going back to the 1920s;

tzmofficial 1:29:34
1:29:40

it is illegal for the U.S. government to propagandize citizens in this way.

tzmofficial 1:29:40
1:29:43

In my opinion, this war could have never been sold

tzmofficial 1:29:43
1:29:48

if it were not for this sophisticated propaganda campaign.

tzmofficial 1:29:48
1:29:52

What we need is congressional investigation

tzmofficial 1:29:52
1:29:56

of not just this Pentagon military analyst program

tzmofficial 1:29:56
1:29:59

but all the rest of the deception and propaganda

tzmofficial 1:29:59
1:30:03

that came out of the Bush administration and out of the Pentagon

tzmofficial 1:30:03
1:30:07

that allowed them to sell and manage this war. - We want to keep,

tzmofficial 1:30:07
1:30:10

for the purposes of this discussion, focused on

tzmofficial 1:30:11
1:30:13

this particular report.

tzmofficial 1:30:13
1:30:18

And the war on Iraq goes forward for 3, 4, 5 years

tzmofficial 1:30:18
1:30:22

before questions that were obvious even before the war began

tzmofficial 1:30:23
1:30:27

began to be discussed in the public debate.

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1:30:29

(Narrator) Illustrating the shared mindset between the state

tzmofficial 1:30:30
1:30:33

and elite media institutions was Katharine Graham

tzmofficial 1:30:33
1:30:36

who led the Washington Post for over two decades.

tzmofficial 1:30:36
1:30:39

In a 1988 speech given to senior CIA employees

tzmofficial 1:30:40
1:30:42

at agency headquarters, she remarked:

tzmofficial 1:30:42
1:30:45

"We live in a dirty and dangerous world.

tzmofficial 1:30:45
1:30:48

There are some things the general public does not need to know and shouldn't.

tzmofficial 1:30:48
1:30:51

I believe democracy flourishes when the government

tzmofficial 1:30:51
1:30:53

can take legitimate steps to keep its secrets

tzmofficial 1:30:53
1:30:56

and when the press can decide whether to print what it knows."

tzmofficial 1:30:59
1:31:03

Meanwhile, the military was conducting its own experiments in public opinion,

tzmofficial 1:31:03
1:31:07

military mobilization, propaganda and related fields.

tzmofficial 1:31:08
1:31:11

Approximately one billion a year was spent on these endeavors,

tzmofficial 1:31:11
1:31:14

an incredible amount for the time period.

tzmofficial 1:31:17
1:31:19

One of the most revealing internal propaganda efforts

tzmofficial 1:31:19
1:31:22

was "Project Revere".

tzmofficial 1:31:22
1:31:26

It entailed the dropping of millions of leaflets by American bombers

tzmofficial 1:31:26
1:31:30

not over a newly occupied territory, but over Washington state

tzmofficial 1:31:30
1:31:35

Idaho, Montana, Utah and Alabama.

tzmofficial 1:31:40
1:31:43

To have airplanes drop leaflets

tzmofficial 1:31:43
1:31:48

in Louisiana and in the northern U.S. states

tzmofficial 1:31:49
1:31:54

saying essentially: "Warning, this could be a Russian bomb.

tzmofficial 1:31:54
1:31:58

We need to have people to sign up for watch centers

tzmofficial 1:31:59
1:32:02

that will watch the skies for Russian bombers

tzmofficial 1:32:02
1:32:04

and in this way we will protect ourselves.

tzmofficial 1:32:04
1:32:08

Call such and such a number, and you can join this team."

tzmofficial 1:32:09
1:32:12

They would dump millions of these leaflets

tzmofficial 1:32:12
1:32:17

on rural communities and small towns in these areas of the country.

tzmofficial 1:32:18
1:32:21

Then, the scholars would go in there and see:

tzmofficial 1:32:21
1:32:23

how many people called the watch center?

tzmofficial 1:32:24
1:32:26

What happened when kids picked it up?

tzmofficial 1:32:26
1:32:30

Did the kids take the leaflet to their parents or did they just throw it away?

tzmofficial 1:32:30
1:32:34

If a parent picked it up, did they take it to their church

tzmofficial 1:32:34
1:32:37

or school or business, or did they just keep it at home?

tzmofficial 1:32:37
1:32:40

So this is all studied out.

tzmofficial 1:32:40
1:32:46

This was both a study of how propaganda works

tzmofficial 1:32:47
1:32:51

and it was also a propaganda event in its own right

tzmofficial 1:32:51
1:32:55

that was aimed at the American public at the height of the Cold War

tzmofficial 1:32:56
1:33:00

with a message of potential fear and devastation

tzmofficial 1:33:01
1:33:04

to see how they would respond.

tzmofficial 1:33:04
1:33:08

The realities of warfare at that time

tzmofficial 1:33:08
1:33:11

were that Russian planes could not reach

tzmofficial 1:33:12
1:33:16

Europe, often, much less the United States.

tzmofficial 1:33:16
1:33:21

They simply did not have that capability, the technical capability,

tzmofficial 1:33:21
1:33:24

and the military organizations knew it.

tzmofficial 1:33:24
1:33:29

But nevertheless, the projected fear of war

tzmofficial 1:33:29
1:33:32

was used to, eventually,

tzmofficial 1:33:32
1:33:37

push the bomber gap into becoming a major political issue of the era

tzmofficial 1:33:37
1:33:40

and a major source of funding for the agencies

tzmofficial 1:33:41
1:33:44

that were running this propaganda study in the United States.

tzmofficial 1:33:44
1:33:48

Continuously, the American elite

tzmofficial 1:33:48
1:33:52

had to keep the American public frightened

tzmofficial 1:33:52
1:33:55

about a foreign invasion, in this case communism.

tzmofficial 1:33:55
1:33:58

The American Congress also had to be kept intimidated.

tzmofficial 1:33:58
1:34:01

There was always some gap they could point to

tzmofficial 1:34:02
1:34:05

between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 1:34:05
1:34:07

There was, in some sequence or other, a bomber gap

tzmofficial 1:34:07
1:34:10

a laser gap, a missile gap;

tzmofficial 1:34:10
1:34:16

there was always some gap which, if we didn't go in and overcome

tzmofficial 1:34:16
1:34:18

would lead to a terrible war

tzmofficial 1:34:18
1:34:21

where we would be at a great disadvantage.

tzmofficial 1:34:21
1:34:24

That was the idea behind these gap warnings.

tzmofficial 1:34:25
1:34:28

There always had to be some warning or some great danger abroad.

tzmofficial 1:34:28
1:34:31

Of course, that hasn't changed at all today.

tzmofficial 1:34:32
1:34:33

Let there be no doubt.

tzmofficial 1:34:34
1:34:38

America is determined to prevent Iran from getting a nuclear weapon

tzmofficial 1:34:38
1:34:41

and will take no options off the table to achieve that goal.

tzmofficial 1:34:42
1:34:43

[Applause]

tzmofficial 1:34:44
1:34:47

We believe he has in fact reconstituted nuclear weapons.

tzmofficial 1:34:47
1:34:51

There is no question that Hussein possesses biological and chemical weapons

tzmofficial 1:34:51
1:34:55

We know where they are, they're in the area around Tikrit and Bagdad.

tzmofficial 1:34:56
1:34:58

The Soviet Union has been busy, they've been busy in terms of

tzmofficial 1:34:58
1:35:02

their level of effort, in terms of the actual weapons they've been producing

tzmofficial 1:35:03
1:35:05

and in terms of expanding production rates.

tzmofficial 1:35:05
1:35:09

They've been busy in terms of expanding their institutional capability

tzmofficial 1:35:10
1:35:12

to produce additional weapons at additional rates.

tzmofficial 1:35:13
1:35:16

They've been busy in terms of expanding their capability

tzmofficial 1:35:16
1:35:19

to increasingly improve the sophistication of those weapons.

tzmofficial 1:35:19
1:35:23

I'm not saying with certainty that the Russians are coming, I'm saying the trains are here.

tzmofficial 1:35:23
1:35:25

I'm not saying the Russians are 10 feet tall,

tzmofficial 1:35:25
1:35:28

I'm saying they used to be 5 foot 3 and now they're 5'9'½" and growing.

tzmofficial 1:35:28
1:35:33

Year after year, they've been demonstrating that they have steadiness of purpose,

tzmofficial 1:35:33
1:35:36

that they're purposeful about what they're doing.

tzmofficial 1:35:36
1:35:39

Now your question is: "What ought one to be doing about that?"

tzmofficial 1:35:40
1:35:42

(Narrator) If, for domestic purposes,

tzmofficial 1:35:43
1:35:46

the Cold War was largely an exercise in propaganda,

tzmofficial 1:35:46
1:35:48

there can be no doubt that military leaders

tzmofficial 1:35:48
1:35:50

were sincerely frightened of the Soviet Union

tzmofficial 1:35:51
1:35:54

in one essential aspect: it was the one rival

tzmofficial 1:35:54
1:35:57

that had the ability to approach the U.S. in terms of nuclear firepower.

tzmofficial 1:35:58
1:36:01

The incessant fear-mongering of potential nuclear war

tzmofficial 1:36:01
1:36:06

became a self-fulfilling prophecy when on October 8th, 1962,

tzmofficial 1:36:06
1:36:09

U.S. reconnaissance revealed missile bases being built in Cuba

tzmofficial 1:36:10
1:36:12

for stationing of Soviet missiles.

tzmofficial 1:36:12
1:36:13

The privileged,

tzmofficial 1:36:14
1:36:15

the parasites,

tzmofficial 1:36:15
1:36:18

and the sons of parasites

tzmofficial 1:36:18
1:36:21

want to hoist the [shameful flag of crime]...

tzmofficial 1:36:24
1:36:26

End of Part 2