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In order to evaluate a litter, you have to have an excellent understanding of breed type, structure, and movement. Therefore, you should read everything you can on structure and movement and review and understand your breed standard. Invite breeders and judges whom you respect to evaluate the litter with you. Also ask breeders of other breeds to evaluate the litter with you. Having someone outside your breed look at the litter can bring a new and fresh look at the evaluation. Take side and front stacked photos, and if possible, film the evaluations. This information will prove invaluable to help you understand how your particular line matures. When it comes to puppy temperament testing, there are many systems out there, so you should do your own research and find one that makes sense for you. However, there are some basic guidelines that we think everyone should follow. Puppy testing should not be performed when the puppies are eight weeks old. Their fear imprinting period can interfere with the results and also traumatize the puppy. The tester should be a stranger, and the puppy should be taken to a place they've never been before, even if it's a new room in your house. What's normal and desirable will vary from breed to breed, but in our opinion, a seven-week old puppy should be happy, confident, and comfortable in the presence of strangers no matter what the breed. Some breeds of puppy will be more outgoing than other breeds, but every puppy should be comfortable. Take the results of your puppy testing and work with your puppies if they show any overly fearful responses, any overly aggressive responses, or any shyness or resistance to handling. Here's a review of the things you should be aware of when the puppy's eight through nine weeks old. At eight weeks old the puppies usually go through a strong fear imprint period. This fear period can last a few minutes to a week. The fear period may not be obvious if you've raised your puppy well, but be alert to signs of extra fear, and protect your puppy during this time. Reasonable minds differ, but we avoid placing or taking puppies off premises between eight and none weeks old. For puppies that show a high level of fear to a specific situation, such as Amelia showed with the vacuum, the way you proceed will depend on how the puppy was raised. If the puppy is otherwise well-raised and stable, work with it. If the puppy's not too terrified, you can just work with things as they are. Present the thing that the puppy's afraid of and give the puppy a treat. But if the puppy's truly terrified, you need to modify the situation to reduce the fear. In our example, you would move the vacuum cleaner further away. Continue doing this until you get a good, conditioned, emotional response from the puppy. And make sure you can recognize when your puppy does in fact have a good CER. If the puppy was not raised to be an enrichment seeker, wait until this period is past and begin training away the fear at nine weeks old. Again, reasonable minds differ, but we feel it's probably best to avoid placing puppies during this week. At nine weeks old you can resume prudently cautious socialization in the outside world. We currently recommend vaccinating now. An alternative is to vaccinate at seven weeks, but we avoid vaccinating during the eight week fear period. When you do take your puppy to the vet, bring food and treats. Feed the puppy when he's being handled, manipulated, or procedures are being performed. And then ask the vet to give the puppy treats afterwards. Here are our recommendations and advice for placing puppies. Make choices about when to place puppies based on the size of the litter, the experience of the puppy buyers, and your vaccination protocol. If you only have two puppies, you might consider holding onto those puppies longer to get them through the first 12 critical weeks. But if you have 12 puppies, chances are you won't be able to give them all the individual attention they need. If you have extremely experienced puppy buyers with friendly dogs at home, you might consider placing those puppies first and hanging on to the puppies that are going to less experienced homes or homes that don't have another adult dog. Your vaccination protocol also can dictate when you place puppies. Be aware that it takes seven days past the puppies first vaccination to be sure that the puppy's mounted an immune response. We'll discuss more about this in the vaccination versus socialization section, but for us, we like our puppies to have at least one vaccine on board before they go to their new homes. When a puppy goes to his new home at 10 weeks, he's gotten over his fear period, we've had a chance to instill some foundation training, and we've had the opportunity to expose him to some carefully scripted socialization experiences. Yet he still has two weeks left in the critical socialization period, which will allow the puppy's socialization experience to be customized to the needs of that particular home. We feel this strikes a nice balance between allowing the puppies to benefit from our experience during the critical socialization period, yet still integrate well into his new home. When you place puppies. We recommend you make these four key points to your new puppy owners-- from age 10 to 12 weeks they should meet as many friendly dogs as possible. Again, dogs don't generalize, so they should meet dogs of different sizes, different colors, especially black dogs with dark eyes, short and long coats, prick and drop ears. Accustom him to the venues he'll experience as an adult. If the puppy's going to a home where the people like to camp, the puppy should ride in their camper. If the family likes to boat, the puppy should go on their boat. Again, no matter what, emphasize quality over quantity. One bad experience can imprint just as easily as a good experience during this time. Finally, puppies need a lot of rest. At 10 weeks old, a bull terrier puppy will have about one hour out and then need a two to three hour nap. Some breeds sleep much more and some much less, but generally speaking, puppies need a lot of rest. In addition, the puppy buyers should continue actively socializing the puppies to as many different types of humans as possible. Finally, although there can be different situations and reasonable minds can differ on the best age to place puppies, it should raise a red flag for you if a breeder tries to place a puppy under eight weeks old. Here's a recap of how to teach a puppy a wonderful recall. Breeders should pre-install a good recall in their puppies. Pre-installing a good recall in puppies is effortless and one of the best value [INAUDIBLE] a breeder can give a puppy buyer. All you have to do is use a unique puppy call whenever you put the food down for the puppies. We use puppy, puppy, puppy, but any unique call would do. Make sure you use your puppy call just before you put the food down. The puppy call has to predict the food. If you use the puppy call after you put the food down, it won't predict the food. In no time, the puppy should become unhinged with excitement when they hear the puppy call. We begin [INAUDIBLE] the puppies to an adult recall when they're about six weeks old. But the procedure is the same for puppies of any age, so the recommendations in this section apply to both puppy owners and breeders. You can use any recall word you like, but it should be high-pitched and staccato. Our grown-up recall word is come, but you can use any high-pitched, staccato sound. Another good one frequently used is here. Next, you should add the adult recall word to the puppy call. It's probably best to use the adult recall word first and then the puppy call, but in reality, we sometimes use the puppy call first and then the adult recall word and it works fine. You then fade the puppy call gradually. For example say, puppy, puppy, puppy, come. Then pup, pup, come. Then pup, come. And finally, just come. Even if you've acquired a puppy whose breeder did not teach him a puppy call, this will still work for you. Puppies tend to move toward high pitched sounds, so you can use the puppy call in the same way that breeders do. Just use the puppy call each time right before you put your puppy's meal down. Once you have a solid, conditioned emotional response on the puppy call, you can start fading the call and introducing your adult recall word in the way we described above. See the resource [INAUDIBLE] section for more information on conditioned emotional responses. That's really all you need to do to teach a nearly bomb-proof recall, but there are seven important things to keep in mind. We're creating a classically conditioned response so that your dog almost involuntarily comes running when he hears the recall word. In order for this to work, the puppy has to get something wonderful every time he responds to the call. And that has to continue for the rest of his life. Make sure you use the correct reinforcer because what's wonderful to one dog or puppy, won't be wonderful to another. For young puppies, particularly under five to six weeks old, praise and play is usually enough to maintain a good recall. But as they grow older, giving the puppy treats when he comes to you will usually be more effective to help maintain a good response to the recall. Certainly, by 16 weeks most puppies will respond much better to food than to praise, Remember dogs don't speak English, but they read music. Make your recall word unique. Even if it's a common word, say it in a different way and always say it in the same way. So, come and here are great recall words, but come and here are going to be ineffective recall words because they sound like things the dog hears 100 times a day. Because your recall word has to be sacred, meaning to say that the dog has to receive something wonderful every time he comes to you, you'll need a second more casual recall, such as let's go or come on for those times when you're not prepared to reinforce the recall heavily. A name is not a recall. To paraphrase Dale Carnegie, a dog's name should be to that dog the sweetest and most important sound in the world. You should use your dog's name often in connection with affection, treats, and other pleasant things, but a dog's name is not a recall. It's a signifier that you're speaking to him. Dogs love verbs. As a dog trainer, I can tell you it's a universal problem that when people want their dog to come to them they blindly say the dog's name over and over again, and then become annoyed when the dog fails to come to them. The problem is when you say your dogs name, you haven't actually asked him to do anything. Nine times out of 10, when I ask the owner to add a trained recall command such as, come or here, the dog comes running. Dogs love verbs. Ask them for an action item and they'll almost always do it. Always recall to good. You should never call your dog to you and then do something unpleasant. For example, clipping nails or cleaning ears. If you're about to do something that your particular puppy does not like, just go over to where he is and either lure him with a treat or put a leash on him and walk him where you need to go. Either way, he should get a treat for going along with your plans, even if it is reluctantly. Here's a review of how to introduce a puppy under 12 weeks to crates. Before you begin any formal crate training, the puppy should be accustomed to sleeping in the crate on his own. Breeders should leave open crates in the weaning pen to get puppies used to them. If you acquire a puppy that has not been accustomed to crates in this way, you can leave an open crate in the puppy's playpen and he'll climb right in. Once the puppy's comfortable sleeping in his crate on his own, you can begin actual crate training. To prepare for a crate training session withhold food for three hours, and withhold water for one hour. Take the puppy outside and make sure he does at least pee. Inspect your puppy and make sure he's 100% well and not injured in any way. Now you're ready to close the puppy in his crate. Place the puppy in a crate with a nice meaty bone. Close the door. Make sure the puppy is engaged in chewing and then leave the puppy for just a few seconds. Return and let him out before he starts fussing. Remember, when you take away his bone do an exchange for the chew object. You can gradually work up to longer and longer periods. And you'll find, when your puppy's tired after a long play or training session, he'll be almost grateful to go in his crate and take a nap. Here's a recap of the procedures for teaching your dog to sit automatically when he wants something. When you approach puppies in their pen, feed or pay attention to the puppies that are sitting. Ask all your guests to participate. At first, you may have to reinforce puppies for just putting one front paw in the ground. But once they seem to understand that they need to back off the walls of the pen, wait for them to sit. Don't ask the puppies to sit. The cue for the sit should be people approaching the weaning pen. Once the puppies have mastered sitting politely for attention, increase the difficulty by having other dogs outside the pen. Start with the outside dog stationary and several feet away. Go as far away as you have to so that the puppies can actually pay attention. You'll need an assistant to stay near the pen and reinforce the puppies that stay calm when the distraction dog is present. Gradually move the distraction dog closer, but the distraction dog should still be stationary. Once you can have the distraction dog right next to the pen, go further away again and start moving the distraction dog back and forth. Again, you'll have to move as far away as you need to so the puppies can remain calm while the distraction dog is moving. Gradually work your way closer. New puppy owners need to follow through with this training and explain the rules to everyone. When your puppy's in his pen, tell your guests to wait until he's sitting before they pat him. When you're out and about and someone asks you may, I pat your puppy, your answer is, yes, you may, but help us out with our training and wait until he sits before you pat him. You can't expect other people to know what to do, and it's up to you to get everyone on board with your training. Here's a recap of how to teach a puppy under 12 weeks to walk on leash. Begin walking in a counterclockwise circle, about 10 to 20 feet across. Your puppy will naturally start following you. When he's within five feet of your left side, click and treat. Gradually wait until he's closer and closer to your left side before you click and treat. Once he's clearly running to your left side as you walk, take two steps with him in position before you click and treat, then wait for three steps, then gradually work your way up to about three to five steps. Now you can put a collar on your puppy and click him for walking next to you just as you did before. Once the puppy is used to his collar, you can attach a leash. If the puppy pulls or fights against the leash, let the leash slide through your fingers. Drop it if necessary and keep moving forward. Click and treat when the puppy starts following you. Remember, keep sessions to no more than one to two minutes at a time. In no time at all, the puppy will ignore the leash. Your goal for a puppy under 12 weeks old is that he should be able to walk about 10 to 15 steps on leash before you give them a cookie. To continue with your training, see my book, When Pigs Fly, Training Success with Impossible Dogs, for complete instructions for older puppies and adults. Here's a summary of good procedures for introducing your puppy's to outside dogs. When you set up your sessions, you should make sure that you have a large open space either indoors or outdoors. Set up low tables or chairs, or provide a fence that the puppies can squeeze through to escape from big dogs if the puppies feel pressured. All socialization should be done off leash. You need a trusted dog that you're sure will not snark at the puppies, and it's very helpful to have an experienced donor with you to help supervise the session. Never force or lure a puppy to come out. Let each puppy take it at his own pace. Puppies should never be terrified of the big dog. If they are, remove them from the situation or help them find a place to hide. If a puppy is showing hesitancy about approaching an adult dog, don't pay attention to the reluctant puppy. Instead, interact with the adult dog. This can be very reassuring to an unsure puppy. When socializing puppies to humans, remember, dogs don't generalize. So you have to try and introduce your puppy to as many different types of people as possible. Examples are men and women, people with deep voices and people with shrill voices, tall and short people, thin and fat people, different races and ethnicities, babies, teens, seniors, and every age in between, odd clothing, hats, boots, high heels, glasses. You should also introduce your puppy to people using medical appliances like canes, walkers, and crutches. All of the above notwithstanding, always err on the side of quality versus quantity and make sure that all of your puppy's interactions are positive ones. If you're ever, ever in doubt about whether a situation, dog, or person is going to be a positive experience for your puppy, pass on that interaction. Here's a review of the considerations in the vaccination versus socialization debate. Maternal antibodies will protect the puppies for a while, but those antibodies will also prevent a vaccine from taking effect. So the trick is to find the earliest possible window when the maternal antibodies have worn off. New vaccines may penetrate maternal antibodies. However, very young puppies, that is under six to eight weeks old, will not mount an immune response, even if vaccinated because their immune system isn't mature enough. There may be exceptions to this rule, but it's probably not a good idea to rely on a vaccination that's given before eight weeks old. We administer three vaccines, not because it takes three vaccines to inoculate the puppy, but because we don't know for sure when the maternal antibodies have worn off, and in fact, the puppy can be vaccinated. Core vaccines that every puppy should have prior to outside socialization are distemper, and parvovirus. Vaccines should be given seven days prior to outside socialization. There are many different protocols, and you need to discuss your vaccination protocol with your vet and your breeder. Vaccine technology and knowledge of immunology is constantly evolving, but we currently follow the 2013 Jean Dodds protocol, which calls for distemper/parvo at nine weeks, distemper/parvo at 12 weeks, and distemper/parvo at 16 to 20 weeks. Rabies vaccine at 24 weeks or older as required by law. Any other vaccines will depend on where you live and what your puppy will be exposed to. And again, you should discuss those vaccines with your vet and your breeder. Health safety guidelines for socialization. Home socialization should start from day one, but socialization outside your home should not start until seven days after your puppy receives his first vaccine. To be safe, your puppy should be at least eight weeks old at the time of his first vaccination. You can vaccinate earlier, but it's unclear whether the puppy will have a mature enough immune system for the vaccine to actually take effect. Once your puppy's had the first vaccine on board for seven days, it's safe to attend puppy class and socialize with known dogs who have been vaccinated and are healthy. You should still avoid dog parks, pet stores, and roadside rest areas, or anywhere else where you're not sure about the health status of the dogs who are visiting. Finally, although the risk of prudent early socialization is minuscule, as documented in scientific studies, there are no guarantees, and ultimately you have to weigh the risks and the benefits and make your own decisions. Here's some guidelines to help you find a good puppy K for your puppy. First, before you even get a puppy, you should go observe the class and look for the following-- there should be no aversives used. Aversives or things like penny cans, scruffing, clapping or yelling at the puppies, hitting puppies, or using a spray bottle. There should be no special training equipment like prong, choke, or shock collars. The instructor should not be talking about stopping behaviors, they should be showing their pupils how to build behaviors. So for instance, if a puppy jumps on someone, the instructor shouldn't be showing them how to check or correct the puppy, the instructor should be showing them how to train the puppy to automatically sit in front of them. There should be no verbal or physical corrections, no kneeing of the puppy, no grabbing the snout or pressing on the puppies tongue, no clapping or nagging verbal corrections like eh-eh. Again, the instructors should be showing the students how to build good behaviors, not punishing the puppies for bad behavior. An ideal puppy class will break up the training with at least two separate play sessions. This allows the puppies to take advantage of distributed learning, and also gives them the chance to practice the transition from focus to play, from play to settling. These are very important transitions that can get the puppies into a lot of trouble if they don't understand them later in life. The instructors should always be monitoring the playgroups and dividing the puppies by size and play style. You should never see a pig pile where a puppy's on the bottom getting the stuffing knocked out of him. The instructors should be monitoring the situation and moving the puppies along with gentle handling and cookies. Finally, the puppies should always have a way to escape if they need to take a break from the action, and no one should be forcing them to come out until they're ready. A good adult dog in class is a plus, but the dog should be very subtle and should not be using rough corrections on the puppies. The puppies shouldn't be afraid of the adult. Ideally, you'll have one instructor for every two to three puppies. And those instructors will be experienced enough to give you help praising your puppy. If they're senior staff that can give you behavioral help, that's a big plus too. Particularly if you live outside of an urban area, you may have trouble finding a good puppy K, so here are some tips for setting up your own sessions-- look for puppies who have similar play styles to your puppy, and that when your puppy meets them, you see reciprocal play where the puppies take turns chasing each other and take turns pinning each other to the ground. Pick up puppies if they get too rough, and gently break up puppy tangles and move them out of corners using food. Provide a low table or chair for smaller puppies to get away from larger puppies. Take turns holding and training each other's puppies. Don't forget to break up your training sessions with at least two separate play sessions in between. Thirty to 45 minutes is more than enough time. Again, the dog park is not a good option for socializing your puppy. It's unpredictable, potentially dangerous, there are dogs of uncertain health status, and it exposes your puppy to potential fear-provoking situations.

Video Details

Duration: 28 minutes and 58 seconds
Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 6
Posted by: norabean on Apr 2, 2018


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