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Veins consist of three layers. Tunica Adventitia which is the strong outer covering of arteries and veins which consist of connective tissues, collagen and elastic fibres. Tunica Media which is the middle layer and consist of smooth muscle and elastic fibres. This layer is thinner in veins. Tunica Intima which is the inner layer which is in direct contact with the blood flowing through the vein. The hollow centre through which blood flows is called the lumen. Veins also contain valves which prevent the back flow of blood and aid venous return. The function of veins is to transport blood to the heart. The movement of muscles pushes the blood towards the heart. When the muscles contract, the blood within the veins is squeezed up and the valves open. When the muscles is at rest, the valves close, helping to prevent the backwards flow of blood. Valves prevent blood from flowing backwards. When valves fail to work properly, blood flows backwards into the veins. This results in blood pooling, putting pressure on lower leg veins which may cause even more valves to fail over time. So when the body is upright, the blood being transported back to the heart may stall in the legs. The pressure in the superficial veins directly under the skin rises and the veins become swollen. Varicose veins can be caused by obesity, occupations that include a lot of standing, for example like nurses, hair stylists and factory workers. This is because the pressure prevents the blood from flowing backwards to the heart. Some of the treatments for varicose veins are laser treatment, compression stockings and sclerotherapy. Laser treatment uses several types of lasers. A tiny fibre is inserted into a varicose vein through a catheter. The laser is used to destroy the varicose vein. Compression stockings squeeze the veins and prevent blood from pooling. Sclerotherapy uses a chemical solution to inject into the varicose veins. They no longer carry blood, and other veins take over. Fun Fact 1: Foods that cause expansion can make varicose veins worse. These include foods with a lot of sugar or Vitamin C. A diet high in fibre and low in salt is recommended. Fun Fact 2: Of all animals, giraffes have the greatest pressure in their legs, yet they don't get varicose veins. Because their veins and arteries are concentrated in the center of their legs, and they have really thick skin, varicose veins aren't a problem.

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Duration: 2 minutes and 41 seconds
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Language: English
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Posted by: whatever on Jun 21, 2016

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