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[ROLLINS] [This material is the property of Rollins, Inc.] [The material, or any part of it, may not be modified or reproduced] [without the written consent of the Rollins, per the company policy.] [© 2019 Rollins, Inc.] Hello. Today, we're here to talk about mosquitoes. We kind of call this session, [Frank Meek] man's best, worst enemy. Because this is an insect that is truly a detriment to mankind, one that can really cause a lot of harm. With us today on this video is Dr. Ron Harrison, the other Global Technical Director for Rollins International. [Ron Harrison] And so Ron and I are going to talk about this mosquito and kind of go through the methods of control. And more importantly, the things that we can and can't or maybe should or should not be telling people about this insect. So we say man's worst enemy, this is an insect that is responsible for the deaths of more humans than every war ever fought combined. So it is really a major public health pest that we as pest controllers have to deal with all over the world. The way that we talk about it, and the way that we go about doing our service is very important, for this particular type of pest. It's not the same the cockroach, where one or two is still a problem, but not necessarily a danger to humans. Like this one is. Right? So, Frank, can I interject just with a question. So then do we give the same type of a guarantee when it comes to taking care of mosquitoes as we would with cockroaches? Or is it a kind of a different type of an approach? Because recently I was just hearing on the news that several people have died of dengue down in different countries. I mean, how do we approach it...? Can we protect people from these types of things? Yeah, that's a great point 'cause, you know, this insect is not one because of how it moves and where it lives. We really cannot control it. The word control means that we are removing from the area, and we cannot promise to do that with the mosquito. All we can realistically do is reduce population in a given area. So it's very important that we remember that, and we do not make promises that we are going to eliminate the mosquitoes from this area, control disease or control outbreaks of disease, and make any promises to do that because we just cannot accomplish that task with this insect. Now our service can be very successful at reducing population. And that's our main goal is simply to reduce the population, which by nature, reduces the risk of disease contraction. Yeah, it makes sense. So let's jump into this. [The Mosquito] So the mosquito... Now a lot of people don't realize the mosquito was actually a member of the fly family. So it's in the order of diptera, which means two wings, which means that they are the part of the actual fly family. So people don't really realize that. But it's important because that talks about its ability to move around because it only has those two wings, it's not the greatest flying insect in the world. It has to stop and start quite a bit because it just doesn't have the stamina for long flights. And can we also kind of trigger it on that they're relocated to spots. You know, you might say, "Well, my yard doesn't have attractive things in it." Right. But if the wind is blowing or conditions are set, they're going to be blowing in because they just come with the wind. Absolutely, they do. They come straight in with the wind, and move around. You know, they can travel some terrific distances. And we'll look at that in just a moment. Around the world there's around 3,000 different species of mosquitoes. So there's lot of different types out there. But we're really only focused on maybe 8, 10, 12 different species that are disease carries that we have to worry about. Now couple of little fun facts about these things. You know, we here that buzz in the wing it's because the wings are beating so fast, 300 to 600 times a second. This is how fast those wings can move sometimes. The males have this beautiful antenna that they detect sound, they listen for wing beats of the females to try to find them. They are very good. Actually, they are excellent at finding people, at finding sources of food because they find the carbon dioxide and the heat and follow those trails back to the source to get their food. They are capable of flying at different times. We have two words that are very common in the mosquito world, crepuscular, which means that these animals fly at dusk or dawn, sun up, sun down, early morning, late evening, or early evening. So as that temperature variation is starting with the sun rise and the sun set, we get mosquito movement of those that are in the crepuscular category. The other and some of the most dangerous ones are in this category called diurnal, which means they fly or can fly during the day time. They are also active in the crepuscular times, sun up, sun down. But some of these can actually be out and biting and feeding during the daylight hours, when we are out and about. Frank, let me jump in there because a lot of times we talk about feeding. Well, those are the females that are doing that. So the males, they're feeding on juices and other types of things nectarous as such. So it's really the females. And they will feed on nectar too but to get their eggs developed they have to have a blood meal. And so that's the one that is the most serious in the disease transmitter and the one that causes us concern. Absolutely, absolutely. [Life Cycle] So let's look at the life cycle of this insect. Like all the pests that we control or provide service for, we have to understand the life cycle of where the different stages are actually living at. What they're actually doing. And this is very important that we understand that with this particular insect. Complete metamorphosis, which means as you remember form your training, egg, larva, pupa, and adult. And all of those stages are different just like they are in the other animals with complete life cycle. Well, I think what we really want to worry about is those locations are different. So the eggs and the larva and pupa are in one spot, while the adults are somewhere else. And the reason I kind of harp on this a bit is that means you may have to control or look at those locations differently. If I say where you're going to control a cockroach or a bed bug, you are going to say the same location and they're eating about the same food. But mosquito larva, they eat something very different than the adults do. So where they live and what they are actually feeding on is different. So you have to think two different locations. Exactly. Now, you know, with most insects, with these metamorphosis, we say there is nothing we can do about the eggs. And that's kind of the same with mosquitoes, although there are some approaches that do work against the eggs, but understanding the egg stage is very critical because it tells us where to look for the place where the egg creation is happening 'cause we got to take that away as much as possible. [Egg] Mosquitoes lay eggs in singles, once or some of the species that we are concerned about lay them in these rafts. Like you see on the screen. Rafts could be hundreds of eggs put together in a bundle that really just kind of floats on the surface of the water, until the temperature gets to the point where it's ready to hatch and become literally hundreds of little larvae that are wriggling around in the water. Frank, can I highlight a point that you made? Because Frank was talking about where they are actually laid in the water. And if the mosquito gets the opportunity to lay those eggs, even if the water goes away, we see sometimes they'll be on the edges or they'll survive. So making sure there is no water is the key there because many times if they've laid their eggs and the water evaporates or you pour out the bucket or something like that, those eggs have stuck to the surface as soon as the water comes back again, they're going to hatch out. So I love your idea of being concentrating about no water, then they're not going to be laid. Exactly. You know, and there are some mosquito species out there that know where the water is going to come, and they will lay their eggs in those areas before water is there in dry ground, and then when the rain water happens, those eggs will activate, for lack of a better word, and hatch out into larvae in very short time. I think about conditions in the desert, in the Middle East, in these regions of the world, in the wadis which are dry river beds. We know that mosquitoes will lay their eggs in those areas waiting for the seasonal rains, and they can sit there for months, and survive the extreme temperatures in these areas. So water is critical but the recreation, the procreation of these animals can happen without the water as long as they have that blood meal that Ron was talking about. Now so the egg is very important. [Larva] The larvae that comes out of the egg, this the first stage of life that we realistically can have some success in reducing easily. Using larvicides, materials that take the larvae out of the water. Now there's a couple of different words or terms for the larvae. Larvae as one, commonly you'll hear them referred to as wigglers because the way they swim, they attach the siphon to the surface to take oxygen, they break that contact with the surface and wiggle down to the bottom of the water, eat the organic materials that are in the bottom of the water, and then simply float back up to the top to reattach and get oxygen again. So they are called these little things because of the way they move, wrigglers describe their swimming action as they're dropping down and getting their food sources, which are the organic materials that are commonly found in the bottoms of the water that the eggs were laid in. So mother knows that the larvae need that. So that's where she puts her eggs in those places where she knows they're going to survive. Now it's important at this point that we also remember with the larvae, when we do some of our service efforts that we are going to talk about in a few minutes. Using the larvicides, those are not quick reduction products. Meaning that they're going to take in the larvicides, and it's going to kill them, but it's going to take several days, maybe. So the client may still see those wrigglers in the water. So it's very important that we communicate that to our customers when we're doing this type of service. "I did my work today, you may still see activity today, tomorrow... I can't stop that. It's going to happen. Those insects are going to die, but it may take a little bit of time." Okay? So after the larvae, [Pupa] of course, then comes the pupa. So again, this is a stage that is kind of protected from our chemistries. So chemicals will not affect the pupa very much at all. If any, they sit there with their siphon attached to the surface of the water, take in oxygen and just mature from that youth stage into adulthood. So this is an immobile, a nonmoving stage of life that is there, and it's one of the things that we look for in our inspections are the presence of these pupae. That's an indicator that the population is either going to become large very quickly because when those adults emerge out of the pupa case, like you see here. [Adult] They are hungry. Her first instinct, his first instinct is find food. And if it's a female, that means blood from some animal, us or some other type of animal. Frank, how long does it take to go from that egg to this adult stage? You know, that's a great question. And it's all based on temperature, humidity levels, there's a lot of variables in there. It can be as short as just a couple of days or it can be as long as a week or two. - So let me just... - It all depends on circumstances. I want to jump on that. So I think what you're saying is, they need to do those cultural things about reducing water sources as you said the eggs have to be laid on water. So if they don't, if someone says "Oh, I only check it every month." They're going to have a population. First, as if you're regularly getting rid of the water. I think you said five to seven days or then you're probably going to help reduce your population, is that correct? Absolutely, absolutely. Yes. So yeah, you know, servicing mosquitoes is a cultural and chemical combination. It is really true definition if you will of IPM, Integrated Pest Management. Mixing cultural controls, chemical controls, and then some nonchemical chemicals, and we'll get into that explanation a little bit later as we are talking about the products that we want to look at using on these things. Okay? [ADULT MOSQUITO] Now the adult mosquito, it's an insect, it has all the same parts, the head, thorax, and abdomen. Antennae are ones that we really want to focus on little bit here. You know, sometimes we've been asked how do I know if it's a female or a male mosquito. You know, I guess the easy answer is that if you hold on to it and it hurts, it's a female because she bit you. The female is the one that takes blood meal, the male does not. But we look the antennae and as you see on the screen here, the male has these big, bushy, hairy sort of looking antennae, whereas the female the antennae is not as hairy, it's not bushy, it's very small and straight. And that's the major way to tell the difference between the two different sexes on the mosquitoes. Okay? [Flight Range] Now another question that we get quite often and Ron alluded to this earlier is how far can these things travel? Well, we know that some of them are very short travelling insects. The Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, typically doesn't more than 200 yards, 200 meters. It stays relatively close to where the water sources are. Because she's going to create a lot eggs, and she wants some place to put those. Others, like some of the Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, they may travel a couple of miles, three or four kilometers based on wind movement, food sources. So as they branch out from this area where the eggs were created and laid. If they find food sources, they'll stop. But they'll keep making these hop flights until they find that food source and settle into an area that has food and a place to lay eggs, the recourses for the larvae. So some of these things can travel great distances, we have to remember that. The mosquitoes on our clients property, may not actually be from our client, they may be from someplace else. So, Frank, what you're telling me is I better identify my mosquito species because if I'm dealing with an Aedes species which is dengue and chikungunya, Zika, they're transmitters of those diseases treating around a close area may help. Yes. On the other hand, if I'm dealing with a Culex or something else, it's going to be a much wider distance, maybe a community wide work rather than maybe just a house or a... - Exactly. - Residential. Exactly. And it's also important from the standpoint of understanding the flight times. So a lot of the Aedes species are diurnal mosquitoes, they like to fly during the day time. So if we were fogging at night, may not be as effective as fogging in the day time if that's the service approach that is required based on the conditions that we see. Same with Culex, majority of the Culex species and Anopheles specie are crepuscular. So if we are doing a ULV application at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, probably not going to kill a lot of mosquitoes out flying around because they're not just there. So that identification not necessarily of the species, but the grouping is it in the Aedes family, is it in the Culex family, or the Anopheles family will help us determine when our best treatment strategy can occur. Now, Frank, let me just... I hate to blabber this. So is it that hard? I mean, you're saying clearly we need to identify, we need to identify the genus but can I kind of look and say, "Uh, this is an Aedes, this is a Culex," how tough is it for me to kind of as a technician to pretty quickly understand what it is? Yeah. Excuse me. It's really not that difficult. We really kind of look at their posture. And if you go back into the training slides that we used in our class, you'll see there's several slides in there about the posture of the mosquitoes. We know that how they stand up when they're feeding. So for example, an Anopheles mosquito, when it's feeding, it's going to stand at an angle like this. Head down, feeding, and they're pointed up at an angle. The Aedes mosquitoes are going to sit kind of low and flat, almost like a spider would look as it's crawling underneath the door. The Culex is going to stand up tall and proud. So, you know, look at those sort of postures and that tells us which grouping of mosquitoes is going to be found in. And again, go back to your mosquito biology slides that you can find on scout in the training material for some great pictorials of that posture that we talk about. And I think if you just Google you area of mosquitoes of Kenya or mosquitoes of Guatemala, three or four of the major ones are going to come up, then you specifically say, "Okay, which way is it sitting?" The larvae also, the way that they feed on the surface or get oxygen from the surface. So I guess or even the eggs you are talking about... - Yes. - Is there a whole raft of eggs or the individual? Yeah. Great, great. Now what attracts a mosquito? So they're out there flying around and they are hungry, they got to have food. So what would attract the female mosquitoes? Because they are the ones looking for blood. So these animals queue in on two things primarily, [What Attracts Mosquitoes?] carbon dioxide and heat. So those are things that they are looking for. What they are trying to find out there in nature. Where is the carbon dioxide source? Because they understand that the source of carbon dioxide is a living animal. That's what we give off when we exhale. That's what all animals give off when they exhale. The mosquito understands that. So finding that source of carbon dioxide, tells them where a meal can come from. And then once they get close, they can start finding the source of heat that will zero into their exact target. So CO2 and heat are the two major attractants for mosquitoes. That's what draws them to us. You and I, we both have CO2, we both have heat. But I don't get bit very often. They don't come at me very much. So what else can you add besides those two factors that some people get bit or more attractive than others? Yeah. You know, there's other than carbon dioxide and heat that draws them close but then color does have some impact, dark colors. The mosquitoes, their vision allow them to find and perceive darker colors more than the bright colors, the females, maybe not the males because they like flowers and things, but we don't care about the males. They have no potential to harm us or to bite us even. Fragrances, we know that certain fragrances, colognes, perfumes, the fragrance of shampoos, fabric softeners, and detergents all of these things can be attractive to mosquitoes as well. There're other things, movement. Movement draws attention. Sweat, so when our body sweats, we're creating heat, we're creating moisture, and they really can be attracted to that very, very well. You know, there are several things that draw them. Carbon dioxide and heat get them close... Color, movement, smells, odors from different things may get them even closer to us. So, you know, all of these things are items that potentially can draw the mosquitoes really close to us. You talked about sweating. So I guess working out kind of the lactic acid that's developed, won't that have some impact as well? Yeah. So, you know, lactic acid is something occurs from exercise, running, working outside on whatever projects. For us, as pest controllers, even working around, doing our service, building up heat and sweat that produces as our muscles working our body, it creates lactic acid and that is very attractive to the mosquitoes. Lactic acid, acid, pardon me. Lactic acid is also created by things like drinking alcohol, beer creates lactic acid in our respirations is given off of our body. So people that can consume these types of products can also become more attractive to some of these animals just by creating this attractant. It's a great way that they find us. [Control?] Now we said before, control really is not possible. We reduce numbers. In our service, we really don't even want to try to use the word control. We really want to say mosquito service, mosquito programs. Because if we say mosquito control, we're making a statement that we're going to control the population in this area and prevent our client from getting bitten. And so we want to be very careful with that. Control is just not possible. We can reduce populations, we cannot remove them completely, or stop them from flying in. And as we said before IPM really is the only way that we go about trying to control these animals. Right? [Natural Habitats] So, you know, let's look at, you know... Ron, take us through kind of some of the things that we got to do. What are the... You know, where are we looking for? What are we going to do for these guys? Sure. So a pure IPM program is when we talk about four specific things a biological method, a cultural method, a physical or mechanical method, and a chemical method. So I want you to think about we have two separate pests. The larvae and the adults, and let's work our way through these four techniques in each of those approaches. So when we talk about larvae. So let's look here, we're talking about water. What can we therefore do in reference to the water? Well, there are two things. We have mosquito's larvae breeding... Excuse me. Adults laying their eggs in the standing water. So first of all, and as Frank mentioned on the slide, habitat modification. If we do not have any water there at all, we're not going to have any mosquitoes breeding in that area. Now that typically is considered cultural method of trying to reduce the standing water, trying to move it away, drain it any of those type of things are going to be very, very helpful. IPM means combining different methods to solve your problem. Now classically, we say, we'll look at biological methods. Well, biological means that you are using something living to care of something else's living. So therefore, what can we use inside a pond or standing water that could help reduce mosquito larvae? If you notice that slide there, [Treatment Techniques] that the pervious one of the pond, could you put fish? Would that help reduce? Would frogs help reduce? And there was a study done at Europe, not long ago, that ducks as well. So these are biological means that if you cannot change the habitat, then you could have success by using biological methods. And in my home I have little ponds around, and I put gold fish in them every summer. I have no mosquito larvae whatsoever or pupae that survived. So biological, what means can be used, cultural is looking for, therefore, getting rid of the water, keeping the water moving sometimes. If you can have some type of a fountain, that's going to be helpful as well. [Habitat Modification] Now the next component goes into physical, and you can see here on this slide. So what can we do physically, partly to get rid of the water? But there's another method that we have if you put a physical covering on top of the water. Some type of an oil that isn't harmful to the environment, as Frank alluded too, the pupae and the larvae have to come up to the surface and get oxygen. If you put a physical barrier on the top, and a lot of them are available in the market place, you can therefore actually stop them from actually being able to survive. Now remember, I'm talking about larvae. This is all larva side, larval approaches. [Mosquitoes: Control Products / Procedures] So there are a variety of products that we can use that fit this chemical little bit, biological little bit, and I want to chat about them. One of them is an insect growth regulator. Those type of products, when you put in the water will actually be swallowed by the insect, by the mosquito larvae, get into its stomach, and therefore cut its stomach open so it cannot digest food any further. We also have products that are insect growth regulators. And what they do is they stop the development of the insect. Both of these are very friendly to non-targeted animals, mammals, ourselves. And so they fit kind of the chemical end of things. But they're certainly not toxic to animals or other non-targets. We do have some products that are labeled, that are chemical based, they're labeled for the larvae, and they can be applied to the water, the larvae therefore come in contact with it, and end up dying. So remember, when you look at an IPM program for larvae, you are not looking at biological means, which would be the fish, you're taking a physical means or cultural means which is getting rid of the water, you're talking about a physical which can be a surface oil or product that goes on the surface or a chemical. And I like Frank's comments about friendly chemicals and ones they're not so friendly. All of them together` stops the development of the adults. The larvae don't hurt us. So when you're thinking about mosquito control, you got to think about larva control and adult control. Now, Ron, let's come back to that one of the things you said about the films. So this is something we are seeing all over the world that is becoming more popular to use because of its environmental footprint. - Exactly. - It doesn't have one. It doesn't kill the off targets that are very beneficial. - Can you talk about that a little bit more? - Sure. And so some of these physical means are actually they're using some silica, they using some oils. I'm a little hesitant to talk about a lot of specifics because your location may have things labeled or utilized in that area. But I want you to approach your product manufactures and say I want something that goes on the surface that physically prevents them from breathing. There are some very nice oils that we use, there are some other products like silica that sits on the surface that prevents that. So look into that. Frank and I can talk offline and tell you exactly what you have in your markets. But that concept of IPM using a physical barrier can be very, very beneficial and low toxicity to the environment. Now, you know, sometimes we have to do something little bit more [Liquid Residual] like fog or sprays, liquids out there. Yes, Frank. And so this is very important and thanks for bringing up this topic because we always look at risk. What is the risk? So if I'm out in my yard and I'm pregnant women and there's a potential of Zika virus, biting me and transmitting that disease, the risk is amorous. So therefore, we want to make sure that sometimes we have in our tool case something that can kill, reduce the amount of adults that are going to be transmitting diseases. Now I just say we're going to give a guarantee on that regard. So therefore, there are a couple of approaches when it comes to liquids that we would be using. One of them, we know that many of the mosquitoes land on vegetation to give food. So if we treat that vegetation with a misting program where our product is not a sprayer like a B&G, it's actually a mister. [Chemical Application] And we're therefore going to be putting product underneath the leaves, a residual product that should last for close to a month so that therefore when the mosquito lands, it will not survive. Great method. Utilize it. Sometimes in dark areas and shady areas, we put it on the sides of walls. Frank, we've even done it in people's houses, in their back closets, in areas where we don't have screens. We put those type of residual misted products so if the mosquito is landing there. So misting programs with these liquids that Frank's kept on the screen. But what if you have to have an immediate reduction in those mosquitoes? And that's a fogging program. And so therefore, we use foggers as well. We go in and pay attention to the species, as Frank mentioned, when do we want to do our application, should it be done late at nights, early in the mornings, or is it in the middle of the day. Where we put a product out that has no residual but will knock down potentially high risky mosquitoes. That's the liquid fogging product, it's usually pretty noisy, it's got the smoke that comes out because it's got some gasses and diesel and things associated with it. But in an emergency and to reduce adult populations it's quite a common method that we use. So, Ron, let's talk a little bit about those chemicals that we use on the plants because it's very important that we pay attention to the products that we are using there. Okay? Because without it, [Liquid Residual] without paying attention to them, we could actually do some harm. So we focus on where they're labeled and in most of the world good liquid residuals that are in the synthetic pyrethroid grouping are available that are plant safe, and that's very important for our clients. Many of these chemical will burn plants. If they're oil-based, and its covering the pores on plant surface, on the leaf surface will get browning and in extreme cases even kill some of them. So we want to make sure that our product is vey plant safe, environmentally safe, recognize that we're going to potentially harm something that people like, butterflies, unfortunately, sometimes bees, and we have to be very, very careful with that because that's a very critical insect that we have to protect and make sure that we're not accidently harming them. And so, Frank, I think you made a very good comment. If they're not flying during the day, the mosquito that you're talking about, and only at night, then you're going to avoid those butterflies and bees if you do your applications particularly to vegetation in the evenings or in the mornings. Another point, I think which really I'd like to jump in on that what is labeled for vegetation and you got to look at your labels because if it's not labeled you are not to be applying that to them. And then here in United States, and I know locations are different, but sometimes you have to have a license to apply to vegetation. So you got to look at all of those things, and here in this country if you're treating a health-risky animal, like mosquitoes, then have to have a special license of a health-related license, as well as general pest control and vegetation. So the labels, the licenses, all of those need to be considered when you're treating mosquitoes. Absolutely. So in your materials that you have available to you, the Orkin mosquito manual is on scout for you to be able to download, it's in the material that was sent to you when your operations first started up, goes into much more detail about the steps involved in the actual application, the actual servicing of these animals. So please, refer back to your mosquito manual, to the mosquito training materials that we covered on you initial training here in Atlanta. And then also Ron and I are both available anytime to answer questions and provide recommendations and suggestions on the best approach to use in your area. We're always here for you. If you have any questions, please reach out to any of us at anytime. Thank you for paying attention today. And, Ron, thank you for the information that we've got. And good luck to you all. See you. [Rollins LEARNING Produced by Media Services] [© 2019 Rollins, Inc.]

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Duration: 36 minutes and 24 seconds
Language: English
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Posted by: rbanderas on Jul 30, 2019


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