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Containers101_high

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Hello and welcome. My name is Matt McSpirit, technical evangelist for our data center technologies here at Microsoft, and today we're going to be talking all about Containers. I'm joined my Taylor Brown from Microsoft and Chad Metcalf from Docker. - Welcome guys. - Thank you. And as I said, today, it's all about Containers. So guys, the first obvious question for people is what are Containers all about? What is this thing called Containers? Yeah, I mean this has been a question that we're getting a lot right now as people are starting to— especially the Microsoft faithful, you folks are starting to look at. What is this thing of a Container? They're hearing the buzz about it. I think it's really useful to actually think about it in two different ways. You've got to break it down into the operating system perimeters. There is a set of core things that are just built into the operating system that make Containers work. And if we look at Linux as kind of the proxy for this, they've had Container technology for 6-7 years, started with IBM, added to by Google. But they weren't really heavily utilized until tool sets like Docker came along. And that's kind of the second part of Containers is that tool set. And what my team is working on right now is building the core perimeters added to the Windows operating system such that we can create Containers and have containerization as well and then working with folks like Docker on that as well. OK, so Chad, bring us up to speed, what is Docker? What does Docker provide as Taylor was mentioning? Well, there's really two sides to Docker. Docker originated as an open source project. So Solomon Hykes is the founder of our project and basically realized that development was still too difficult and started a project and over the course of time just very quickly, that project to off. So then there's also Docker Inc., the company that now is leading that charge, and that's building an enterprise-grade tool set around the open source project. But if you look at, like, Docker, just the open source project, what it is is it's a set of tools and APIs to help our customers or users build, ship, and run their applications. So from a developers laptop, whatever application they're developing, put that into a Container. And in this case, a Container is really just a format to describe an application and all of its dependencies. And then ship that to, say, test, ship that to stage, and ship that to prod, but sort of the magic of Docker is the thing you're shipping isn't just the application code. It's the application and all of its dependencies down to the bottom. So as it runs on your laptop, this is the same way it will run in test, the same way it will run in stage and prod. So these sort of problems worked in dev, failed in prod, are oftentimes mitigated. - You've got that consistency across— - All the way across. —with the Container. So what are some of the— explain to us what makes up a Container. What is it? You touched on a few different terms there, so help us understand what makes up a Container. You've got the run time, dependencies, but what are they? Have you got a good example you could perhaps give us for people watching? Yeah, but I think there's a couple key components to kind of what makes a Container an ecosystem or what makes the entire Container system work? There's that of run time, the operating system perimeters, the things that allow us to easily separate out a set of processes and make them pretend like they're in their own operating system which is ultimately what Containers are about. It's actually virtualizing the operating system layer so that every Container thinks that it's running on its own copy of the operating system. It's got its own file system, its own registry, its own name spaces, its own network address. It thinks it's on its own copy of the operating system which is kind of a lie. It's actually being virtualized and there's potentially mini-Containers running next to it. And that's kind of the core run time. And then there's Container images. And as Chad of described, these images are what you actually move around. They're the transportable kind of view of the Container. There are all the files and registry keys and settings and descriptors of kind of what this Container looks like so that I can do something like Docker pull my SQL and have that run on my laptop just the same way it ran on Chad's laptop when he built it. It's that common format that we exchange. And what's really neat about the way that Docker has built that is that these images actually build on top of each other. So as Chad built MySQL, now I can build my database on top of Chad's MySQL layer. You can build your layer on top of that. And when we share those around, we only have to share what's changed. You only have to share that top layer. So it becomes a very, very efficient means to share these things. So efficient from capacity perspective exclusively because I think I relate some of this to virtual machines. In my mind, I create lots of VMs in each one, let's say a ten gigabyte footprint. Even though I want them to be more or less the same, you're saying that we can be a lot more efficient with that through Containers. Yeah, it could be more efficient on the transport. So if I have a base Container which is maybe the base operating system and on top of that I might have Redis; I might have MySQL; I might have an application stack like a JVM. When I ship those around, I will only ship the base once because I already have it. They all depend on the base. And then each of those applications which ship its own layer, as that keeps going, I only have to ship those if something is changed. So you get a very, very quick time to actually transport those. And also it does reduce storage on disk requirement. Right. So when you say you've already got the base, what do you mean? Is that on my laptop; is that your laptop; is it on a server? What is the base? So the base Container is the place where oftentimes it's a very minimal operating system image that you can start from. It doesn't have to be. It turns out the only thing that needs to be in a Docker image is everything that that application needs to run. So if you have a statically linked binary, you could just put that in there. But oftentimes, what we see is it's a very minimal distribution of an operating system. Once I have that, what happens is I just use any tool that I already use to build the next piece, right? So in Linux-land, I might install additional packages which represent some service that I would like that Container to become. So the resulting image or the result— yeah the resulting image now has two pieces. It has that common base, and it has a new thing on top which is the new application. So that image is defined by two layers. And when I shop those around, I only have to ship them once. And that's from your laptop to his laptop, you would basically copy two layers. Let's say you made a change to that top application, you updated the version. When you ship that to his laptop, you would only ship the top layer - because he's already got the base. - Right. That makes sense. And for Windows Containers, what we're doing is we're shipping that base layer as Server Core for the Technical Preview 3 which you all have. And then over time we'll get nano as well, so we'll actually have a nano base layer as well. And we'll update those and distribute those as necessary with updates and whatnot. So anybody can get those for free through our distribution of the images. So that's a layering approach that will provide that base. They could then introduce their own layers on top and as you say construct the applications that they're looking to. I think there's another part of the efficiency story that's really— that has kind of been touched on that's really powerful is that as things change, it's the person who's affecting that layer that makes that change. So if I'm the guy who's responsible for creating the SQL install— everybody's going to use the same SQL install on our team— when I make an update to that, that SQL layer, which is what I know how to do, then you all pull the latest version of that and you build on top of that each time. It's not me going around and saying, "Oh, I need to install an update on top of Matt's layer that has all of his databases and everything on it, and I don't know anything about it." So I'm coming in kind of black-boxed just hoping and praying that it's going to work. Well, we find that oftentimes doesn't work very well. And that's how we end up with these production outages, right? So how does containerization help with density? So we mentioned it's more efficient. If I'm used to, again, deploying lots of applications and workloads in VMs and maybe I want to deploy now with Containers, do I see greater levels of density for my applications and workloads? You can certainly. I mean as we've kind of got this image in the background, we've got the Windows Kernel down here, and this is really where the Container APIs, the meat of Container run time, works, and then Containers layer on top of that. Unlike a virtual machine where I have to have a new copy of the Kernel for each and every instance I'm running, with a Container, I've got the same Kernel and actually most of the same operating system. I'm just isolating the pieces of that application that I need in their own Container. - So that unique Container that you're making. - Right, right. So I do get a pretty significant benefit in terms of density. OK, just density, or can we boot them faster or get them going quicker, that kind of stuff beneficial as well— obviously beneficial. Very much so, Containers— because I don't have to boot a whole operating system, all I have to do is start the processes. So Containers start considerably faster on the order of seconds as opposed to virtual machines that are on the order of potentially minutes. Yeah, exactly. So Chad, explain some of your components on this graphics here because we've the Docker client; we've got the Docker engine. What are some of those building blocks that you've got there? So the Docker engine is really the core of Docker. So it's a service that runs on basically every host that you want to run Containers on. So in TB3, you'll be able to do that in Windows, on Linux, basically any modern Linux Kernel, so 310 or later you'll be able to run an engine. And then once you have an engine, you can run those Containers into that engine. And you do that by using an API that the Docker engine presents. So you can either use that restful API directly or you can use it through a client. And so the average— sort of the average developer will often interact with an engine through a client which is just a command line set of tools or maybe potentially integration into studio or another IDE to get that up and running. One of the cool things about Docker at least on the— actually on the Linux side and certainly on the Windows side— it doesn't matter on the Linux side what the underlying operating system is. Wherever I have a Docker engine, I can run a Container. So in Azure if I an Ubuntu engine up and running, I can run whatever Containers I want in there regardless of what's inside that Container because in the end, it's all Linux. And so the same thing will be— same thing for Windows is it doesn't matter what the underlying Windows operating system looks like so long as I have a Docker engine there, I'll be able to run Windows Containers in that. And so from the client, I'm executing commands to start Containers, stop Containers. What else can I do from the client? What else is typical? So you can attach to log output of that Container to see what logs it's casting off. You can look at stats to understand what its CPU and memory and other statistics are. One of the cool features is you can actually attach other Containers. So if you were to debug a Container so you have a network issue, you can run another Container that shares that Containers network. And you can debug it without ever touching the running Container. So there's lots of new ways when you have this technology that you get to start to think differently about how to interact with Containers. So speaking of thinking differently, how is Docker enabling developers to think differently generally speaking? Well, I think part of it is just the ability to rapidly self-serve. So I have—I can have a full stacked development environment on my laptop. I can pull down all the pieces and parts. Maybe I don't know how those pieces and part work, but I know that my application consists of these five Containers with these versions, and they're wired up this way. Docker takes care of that for me, so I can actually do what I want to do which is just work on the feature and the service. That feature—or that service oftentimes doesn't exist in a bubble, right? So I need other pieces to make that happen, and I can do that on a laptop very quickly. It's very trivial to spin up a new Docker environment. Play around with it. If you break it, throw it away and try again, right? So you get that sort of quit iterative development experience that everybody really wants. So when we think about— you mentioned using the client to deploy new Containers. Where are they coming from? So where are they originating? Are they originating in the cloud? If you're an enterprise, are they somewhere located on premises? - What's the flexibility you've got there? - Yeah, so I think the answer is all of the above. So they might generate from my own environment. I might build my own Container then run it, test it. But that's only interesting for my laptop, right? So then where else can I get Containers? First would be the hub which is our SAS offering, so hub.docker.com. Right now in the hub, there's about 80,000 different Containers that are just publicly facing. So you can also have private repositories as well, but everything you could ever want from databases through middleware, through messaging systems, - you can just search and find what you want— - But people have already built those— - Absolutely. - —loaded them. Yeah. And we have an interesting program. We have the Official Images program, and there's about eighty official images. And what these are, the upstream IP holder has built the Container, right? So Oracle has stepped up to do the MySQL Container, Mongo folks have done MongoDB, and they represent the best practice way of building this. So if it's my IP, generally speaking, I should probably know really well how to run it. So then you can just consume those as just Lego bricks that you want to snap together and I just need a Redis, I need a Python stack, I need a Go stack - and just consume them down. - And combine them together and filter out the application. Oftentimes though, enterprises want maybe a little more control than that. So from Docker, there's Docker Trusted Registry which is sort of the hub but in a network that I control. So whether that's in a cloud or in a data center, it doesn't really matter. It's a version of the registry that is behind something that I control, that I can decide what goes into it, what comes out of it, that integrates into the company's existing directories for access control and all those pieces. But these things aren't one or the other. You can use any combination. OK. So you mentioned before around having an application that's made up of lots of Containers. Is that the same as microservices? Tell us a little bit about that and microservices, how they relate to Containers. We've been having this conversation a lot with folks is that they come in and say, "OK, yeah, Containers, they look interesting, but I'm not really into microservice, so I guess I don't need them. And really microservice is a design pattern. It's a way to design an application. It existed before Containers were really a big thing. It doesn't have to— it's not one or the other. It's a design pattern, and then Containers happen to be a tool that can enable that design pattern. So we see people do microservices with platforms and service offerings. We've got Azure Service Fabric which is a microservice architecture. And ultimately that's going to use Containers as an efficient way to run the service, but they really are kind of a separate entity. And I think Chad was mentioning earlier that he's been talking to a lot of customers that are using Containers, and ultimately they end up getting to a microservice, right? So if you think about at least what Docker wants to present as two key values to our customers, it's choice and portability. So what do you want to do with the technology and where do you want to run it? So what we see oftentimes with our customers when they start, they just put their large applications into Containers because it makes it easy to move them between their environments, so between dev and test and stage and prod and potentially on-premise to a cloud. And it's still the old monolithic application or just maybe just a very large application that they would like to migrate to more of a services architecture. So what do you classify as a large application as an example? A full-on MySQL database or— Well, I think it's even bigger than that, right? It might be— it might be a number of components, so it might be, say, a very large Java application that has an authentication service built in, - it has a lobbying service— - You get a lot of business applications? Yeah, exactly, a lot of business service. So maybe I even have, like, seven or eight of those that all have their own services that are duplicated across. So we have one customer in mind that had seven of these big monoliths, and they each had duplicate services that they were maintaining. And they wanted to move to a different architecture but they needed to be able to move those pieces first. So if I can't ship to production, I can't even—I don't have time to do anything else. So once they had that working in Docker, they were able to go back and identify these five of the seven are using different authentication services, so let's rip that out into a new authentication service that they all can share. And now we only have to maintain one authentication service. - In its own Container. - In its own Container. So now I have eight Containers. So I have the original seven plus the new authentication service and we'll just migrate that through. And over time, rinse and repeat that same piece, and maybe those seven Containers end up being tens or hundreds of Containers at the end. OK. So does the Docker technology help me with the packaging of the application into a Container, or is just about the running and the deploying and the managing and starting and stopping? Yeah, so Docker gives you basically what we call a Docker file which is a manifest to describe how you want to build your application. And so that basically lives in parallel with the application itself, so it's probably in the same version control and you use that to say, OK, now build this application and it just describes through. So whatever—if you have a scripting service, if you're using existing PowerShell scripts or other tools, you can just use those and the Docker file will walk you through building the application. And something we showed at DockerCon that I think was pretty neat around the same thing is we showed actually building the application Visual Studio, right click Deploy into a Docker Container, but then we followed that up into Visual Studio Online where we can actually automatically have a Docker bill kick off every time a check-in is made. So that Docker image actually gets updated automatically every time someone does a check-in and then could get pulled back down into QA, into other developer scenarios or even all the way into production, right? So you've got some automation around your bill process there which sounds to me a bit like DevOps. And are these two technologies— so Containers and DevOps being a process as well as people and other technology— are they— do they have to exist together or are one reliant on the other? I think it's the same as kind of the microservices. DevOps is a great thing, and people are doing that without Containers. They have been doing it since before Containers were around. Containers are a really, really helpful tool in it. It's something we can all talk about in the same way, right? I can say, "Hey Matt, I'm giving you a Container," and you know what that means. - You'd hope so. - Well, yeah. Or I can at least explain it and say, "Here's a Container. You can start it; you can stop it; you can deploy it; you can move around," and you can understand, - "OK, I know how to do that now." - Yeah. And whereas before it's "OK, here's a script, and if the script doesn't work, I don't know, your environment's messed up because it worked on my machine." - Lots of finger pointing and all that. - Yeah. And the 2 am phone calls and the 3 am phone calls and the escalations the next day of why was this down? All those can go away when we actually have a common language to talk about, when we all understand each other and can work together. I think that's really what Containers have helped is providing some of that common language. But they are not mutually— they are mutually exclusive. Right. I think the— so the common language is a big piece to this. So if you have sort of a very forward DevOps team where you have Ops embedded in Dev, that's great and everyone can understand that. We also see that in, say, financial or government sector, customers that have a mandated bright line between the two teams, it still helps them because it gives them a common interface and a common language to do this piece. And if you think about, like an example, an additional tool from in the Docker ecosystem is called Docker Compose, and it's a— basically gives you a manifest to describe an entire application, where that application might be many different Containers. So I might have fifty different Containers at these various versions, and they might have these dependencies between them and they might have these links that use these ports. And if you can imagine when we talk to folks on the Dev side, they can just say "Docker Compose up" and it spins up their entire application, and they can test it and build it. Then hand that same manifest to the Ops side and ask them, "When was the last time you got a machine-readable specification of an application, all its dependencies, all of its networks, all of its ports?" Basically never. And you can use that same tooling to spin up the application, right? There's no more—it's in the code, it lives with the application itself, and I understand I can read it, I can reason about it. And I can take a laptop, run it the same way that I would in my data center which might be very different, but Docker helps abstract away that difference. OK, so it's a real enabler for IT and that relationship with Dev and speeding up the rate that they can deploy applications and provide in that standardized platform. Now when we think about Containers, we started talking briefly about Windows Server Containers initially, and it's a new technology. You'll be able to play with it in TP3. The graphic depicts architecturally some of those key components from a Windows Server perspective. But we announced a couple of months back a different type of Container within the Microsoft offering and that's a Hyper-V Container. Tell us a bit more about Hyper-V Containers, how they differ, what their intended purpose is. And then we can talk about how Docker provides value in that space as well. Yeah, and some of you might have already read a blog post that we did on kind of what is a Hyper-V Container, and I think that's a really helpful post to read and we'll have a link to it at the end if you haven't. But the easiest way for me to explain what a Hyper-V Container is is we basically took a virtual machine, we stripped it down to its very, very, very minimal surface, just enough for it to run a Container, and then we took Windows and we did the same thing. We made Windows just enough to run a Container, and then we run a Container inside that virtual machine. And so what that gives us is it gives us all of the same kind of isolation of benefits that a virtual machine would have. We can run it across different versions like Kernel; we can check all the security boxes for this needs to be HIPAA compliant and it has to run in this. Get all those of check boxes checked. But we still have the same process and the same tool and the same commands that we would have with a Windows Server Container. In fact, it's the same image format. So if you build a Container using a Hyper-V Container, it will run as Windows Server Container, or if you build it as Wow Server Container, it will run as a Hyper-V Container. So it's just a run-time option between the two. And we'll have a lot more to talk about with Hyper-V Containers as we get those into a preview later this year. But we really think they're a pretty neat technology. We built them largely because we saw a need for our own workloads. As we looked around Azure and how we were running things in Azure, we saw a need for it. And as soon as we identified that, started talking to customers, we identified that they also had a similar need. So we're really excited about them. One of the interesting pieces is that the customers that we see are very different, right? So in the retail space or even in sort of Silicon Valley, those customers and their requirements look very different than say the financial space or government sector. And one of the pieces I like the best is it's a run-time option, right? So if I have a business case that requires me to do that, I can flip a flag. But if I don't, I don't have to do it. I can still use just the standard Windows Container and I can still get that density, I can still have all those pieces which goes back to sort of one of Docker's core mission which was choice which is where do you want to run it and what are your requirements around running it? - And we should run it there. - And did you think that's the biggest, most significant Docker has had on both the Linux development community and going forward to Windows is just that flexibility? I think the first one was just reducing Dev friction. The second one is portability, so my data center Azure, and I think the third is choice. So if you look at large enterprises, it's not going to be one answer. They're going to have many different environments, and we don't think that they should have to re-tool just because they want to run it in a different place. So my on-prem story shouldn't have to be different than my Azure story. And I think one of the things when we started first talking to Docker one of the key kind of turning points and kind of visionary moments in that was when we talked about our vision, our Microsoft vision, of an application that spanned both Linux Containers and Windows Containers. And we demonstrated that kind of realization at DockerCon this year where we spun up the first application that used components in both Windows and Linux, right? And we think for our customers, that's really valuable because there's some great technology that's available in Linux today that enables them to build really, really great apps. Same thing for Windows. We've got great technology in Windows for building applications. And when we can marry those together and let customers use both of them together, they win, right? And Docker's been a great enabler for that vision to come to fruition. I think it's exactly because you can stop having conversations about Linux or Windows or on-prem or a cloud, and you can start having conversations about what's the best place to run my workload. Yeah, so thinking about the application, financial, where it's better in the cloud or on-prem, security, whatever it may be. And if your business requirements change tomorrow, Docker's going to help you move. Correct, and the flexibility of move the Container. And we were already talking to a lot of customers that are in this world today. They've got an investment in Docker and in Containers, and they're using that where they can, but they have a huge investment in software that they've written for Windows that their choices were either rewrite it so that we can continue to use Docker or forego Containers. And that was a really bad choice for them, so they're really excited about what we're doing because it moves that kind of painful choice and just says, "Well, I can continue to use the best tool I've got." So if people want to get started, how can they get started with the Windows Server Containers? - What advice would you give people? - Well, the first thing I would do is take a look at our documentation site. The short link is aka.ms/Windowscontainers. So we've actually spent a bunch of time making better documentation, I think better documentation than typically we've seen in Windows. And so we're trying really hard to make sure that that documentation is really good and that we can get feedback from you on it. So there's also links on there to the forums where we can ask questions and have Q&A. So that's definitely the first place to look. - People can make use of it in TP3. - Yeah, the Technical Preview 3, yep, absolutely. And for Docker, where can people get started there? Well, the easiest way to get started with Docker is just go to Docker.com/tryit and just get the technology. What we see is that usually you put Docker in the hands of Dev and then it just spreads like wildfire. OK. Great. That's a good thing. OK. Well, thank you guys. - Thank you. - Thanks for coming along. And hopefully that's been useful for you at home as well in this Containers 101, if you will. We've gone through a lot: What are Containers, how Hyper-V and Windows Server Containers differ, the impact that Docker has made in the Container ecosystem. And it's all great stuff, and there's lots more resources out there the guys have provided, so get your hands on TP3, read the Windows Server documentation written by Taylor himself, and his team obviously as well. - No, my team. - Get onto the Docker website as well, /tryit. Go to Docker.com/tryit and download their bits as well. And obviously use the image, the hub, to pull down some Containers that you can use for your apps and try it all out. And with that, that's Matt McSpirit signing off. Thanks for joining us again, and we'll see you again. - Thank you very much. - Thanks.

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Duration: 29 minutes and 30 seconds
Country: United States
Language: English
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Posted by: csintl on Dec 7, 2015

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