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Annotated captions of The Century of the Self in English

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A hundred years ago a new theory about human nature was put forth by Sigmund Freud.

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He had discovered he said, primitive, sexual and aggressive forces

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hidden deep inside the minds of all human beings.

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Forces which if not controlled, led individuals and societies to chaos and destruction.

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This series is about how those in power have used Freud's theories

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to try and control the dangerous crowd in an age of mass democracy.

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But the heart of the story is not just Sigmund Freud but other members of the Freud family.

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This episode is about Freud's American nephew, Edward Bernays.

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Bernays is almost completely unknown today but his influence

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on the 20th century was nearly as great as his uncles.

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Because Bernays was the first person to take Freud's idea

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about human beings and use them to manipulate the masses.

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He showed American corporations for the first time how to they could make people want

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things they didn't need by linking mass produced goods to their unconscious desires.

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Out of this would come a new political ideal of how to control the masses.

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By satisfying people's inner selfish desires one made them happy and thus docile.

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It was the start of the all-consuming self which has come to dominate our world today.

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Part One - Happiness Machines

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Freud's ideas about how the human mind works have now become an accepted part of society.

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As have psychoanalysts.

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Every year the psychotherapists' ball is held in a grand palace in Vienna.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="16">Dr. Alfred Fritz, President World Council for Psychotherapy</font> This is the psychotherapy ball.

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Psychotherapists come, some advanced patients come, former patients come,

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and many other people - friends, but also people from the Viennese society

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who like to come to a nice, elegant, comfortable ball.

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But it was not always so.

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A hundred years ago Freud's ideas were hated by Viennese society.

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At that time Vienna was the center of a vast empire ruleing central Europe.

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And to the powerful nobility of the Habsburg accord, Freud's ideas were not only embarrassing,

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but the very idea of examining and analyzing ones inner feelings

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was a threat to their absolute control.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="16">Countess Erzie Karolyi - Budapest:</font> You see at that time these people had the power

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and of course you just weren't allowed to show your bloody feelings, I mean you just couldn't.

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You know if you were unhappy, can you imagine,

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for instance you sit somewhere in the country, in a castle, you are deeply unhappy, you are a woman;

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you couldn't go to your made and cry on her shoulders, you couldn't go into the village

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and complain about your feelings,

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it was like selling yourself to someone, you just couldn't. You know?

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Because they had to respect you. Now of course, Freud, he put that thought very much into question

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you see to examine yourself you would have to put other things into question - the society,

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everything that surrounds you and that was not a good thing at that time.

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- Why not? - Because your self-created empire to a certain extent would have fallen to bits

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much earlier already.

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But what frightened the rulers of the empire even more was Freud's idea

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that hidden inside all human beings

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were dangerous instinctual drives.

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Freud had devised a method he called psychoanalysis.

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By analyzing dreams and free association he had unearthed he said

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powerful sexual and aggressive forces which were the remnants of our animal past.

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Feelings we repressed because they were too dangerous.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Dr. Earnest Jones - Colleague of Freud:</i> </font> Freud devised a method

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for exploring the hidden part of the mind which we nowadays call the unconscious

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this the part is totally unknown to our consciousness.

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That there exists a barrier in all our minds which prevents these

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hidden and unwelcome impulses from the unconscious from emerging.

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In 1914 the Austria-Hungarian Empire led Europe into war.

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As the horror mounted Freud saw it as terrible evidence of the truth of his findings.

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The saddest thing he wrote, is that, this is exactly the way we should have expected

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people to behave, from our knowledge of psychoanalysis.

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Governments had unleashed the primitive forces in humans beings

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and no one seemed to know how to stop them.

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At that time, Freud's young nephew, Edward Bernays was working as a press agent in America.

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His main client was the world famous opera singer Caruso who was touring the United States.

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Bernays' parents had emigrated to America 20 years before,

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but he kept in touch with his Uncle who joined him for Holidays in the Alps.

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But Bernays was now about to return to Europe for a very different reason.

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On the night that Caruso opened in Toledo Ohio

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America announced that it was entering the war against Germany and Austria.

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As a part of the war effort, the US government set up a committee on public information

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and Bernays was employed to promote America's war aims in the press.

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The president Woodrow Wilson, had announced that the United States would fight

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not to restore the old empires

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but to bring democracy to all of Europe.

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Bernays proved extremely skillful at promoting this idea both at home and abroad

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and at the end of the war was asked to accompany the President to the Paris Peace Conference.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Edward Bernays - 1991:</i> </font> Then to my surprise they asked me to go

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with Woodrow Wilson to the peace conference.

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And at the age of 26 I was in Paris for the entire time of the peace conference

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that was held in the suburb of Paris and we worked to make the world safe for democracy.

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That was the big slogan.

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Wilson's reception in Paris astounded Bernays and the other American propagandists.

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Their propaganda has portrayed Wilson as a liberator deci a trebuit s[ caut alt cuv\nt ;i a;a am g[sitof the people.

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The man who would create a new world in which the individual would be free.

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They had made him a hero of the masses.

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And as he watched the crowd surge around Wilson,

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Bernays began to wonder whether it would be possible

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to do the same type of mass persuasion, but in peace time.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Edward Bernays - 1991:</i> </font> When I came back to the United States, I decided

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that if you could use propaganda for war you could certainly use it for peace.

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And propaganda got to be a bad word because of the Germans using it.

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So what I did was try to find some other words so we found the word "Council on Public Relations".

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Bernays returned to New York and set up as a Public Relations Councilman

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in small office off Broadway.

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It was the first time the term had even been used.

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Since the end of the 19th century, America had become a mass industrial society

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with millions clustered together in the cities.

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Bernays was determined to find a way to manage and alter the way

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these new crowds thought and felt.

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To do this he turned to the writings of his Uncle Sigmund.

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While in Paris Bernays had sent his Uncle a gift of some Havana cigars.

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In return Freud had sent him a copy of his "General Introduction to Psychoanalysis".

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Bernays read it, and the picture of hidden irrational forces inside human beings, fascinated him.

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He wondered whether he might make money by manipulation of the unconscious.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Pat Jackson - Public Relations Adviser and Colleague of Bernays:</i> </font> What Eddie got from Freud, was indeed this idea

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that there is a lot more going on in human decision making.

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Not only among individuals but even more importantly among groups

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that this idea that information drives behavior.

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So Eddie began to formulate this idea that you had to look at things that will play

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to people's irrational emotions.

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You see, that mooved Eddie immediately into a different category from other people in his field

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and most government officials and managers of the day

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who thought if you just hit people with all this factual information

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they would look at that say go "of course"

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and Eddie knew that was not the way the world worked.

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Bernays set out to experiment with the minds of the popular classes.

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His most dramatic experiment was to persuade women to smoke.

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At that time there was a taboo against women smoking and one of his early clients George Hill,

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the President of the American Tobacco corporation asked Bernays to find a way of breaking it.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Edward Bernays - 1991:</i> </font> He says we're losing half of our market.

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Because men have invoked a taboo against women smoking in public.

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Can you do anything about that? I said let me think about it.

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And then I said: If I may have permission to see a psychoanalyst

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to find out what cigarettes mean to women.

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He said: what'll cost? So I called up Dr. Brille,

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A.A. Brille, who was the leading psychoanalyst in New York at the time.

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- How come you didn't call your uncle? Why didn'y you call your uncle? - Cause he was in Vienna..

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A.A. Brille was one of the first psychoanalysts in America.

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And for a large fee, he told Bernays that cigarettes were a symbol of the penis

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and of male sexual power.

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He told Bernays that if he could find a way to connect cigarettes

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with the idea of challenging male power

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then women would smoke, because then they would have their own penises.

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Every year New York held an Easter day parade to which thousands came.

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And Bernays decided to stage an event there .

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He persuaded a group of rich debutants to hide cigarettes under their clothes.

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Then, they should join the parade and at a given signal from him

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they were to light up the cigarettes dramatically.

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Bernays then informed the press that he had heard that a group of suffragettes

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were preparing to protest by lighting up what they called torches of freedom.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Pat Jackson - Public Relations Adviser and Colleague of Bernays:</i> </font> He knew this would be an outcry,

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and he knew that all of the photographers would be there to capture this moment

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so he was ready with a phrase which was "torches of freedom".

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So here you have a symbol, women, young women, debutantes,

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smoking a cigarette in public with a phrase that means

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anybody who believes in this kind of equality

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pretty much has to support them in the ensuing debate about this,

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because... "torches of freedom".

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I mean, What's on all our American coins? it's liberty, she's holding up the torch, you see?

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and so all of this is there together, there's emotion, there's memory and there's a rational phrase,

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even knowing it's using a lot of emotionall, it's a phrase that works in a rational sense...

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And all of this is together...

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And So the next day this was not just in all the New York papers

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it was across the United States and around the world.

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And from that point forward the sale of cigarettes to woman began to rise.

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He had made them socially acceptable with a single symbolic act.

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What Bernays had created was the idea that if a women smoked

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it made her more powerful and independent.

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An idea that still persists today.

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It made him realize that it was possible to persuade people to behave irrationally

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if you link products to their emotional desires and feelings.

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The idea that smoking actually made women freer, was completely irrational.

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But it made them feel more independent.

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It meant that irrelevant objects could become powerful emotional symbols

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of how you wanted to be seen by others.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Peter Strauss - Employee of Bernays 1948-1952:</i> </font> Eddie Bernays saw the way

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to sell product was not to sell it to your intellect,

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that you ought to buy an automobile,

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but that you will feel better about it if you have this automobile.

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I think he originated that idea, that they weren't just purchasing something

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that they were engaging themselves emotionally or personally in that product or service.

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It's not that you think you need a new piece of clothing

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but you will feel better with the piece of clothing.

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That was his contribution in a very real sense.

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We see it all over the place today, but I think he originated the idea,

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the emotional connect to a product or service.

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What Bernays was doing fascinated America's corporations.

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They had come out of the war rich and powerful, but they had a growing worry.

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The system of mass production had flourished during the war

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and now millions of goods were pouring off production lines.

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that they were frightened of was the danger of overproduction,

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that there would come a point when people had enough goods and would simply stop buying.

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Up until that point, the majority of products were still sold to the masses on the basis of need.

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While the rich had long been used to luxury goods, for the millions of working class Americans

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most products were still advertised as necessities.

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Goods like shoes, stockings, even cars were promoted in functional terms, for their durability.

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The aim of the advertisements were simply to show people the products practical virtues, nothing more.

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What the corporations realized they had to do was transform the way the majority of Americans

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thought about products.

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One leading Wall Street banker, Paul Mazer of Leahman Brothers was clear about what was necessary.

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We must shift America, he wrote, from a needs, to a desires culture.

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People must be trained to desire, to want new things even before the old had been entirely consumed.

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We must shape a new mentality in America.

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Man's desires must overshadow his needs.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Peter Solomon - Investment Banker - Leahman Brothers:</i> </font> Prior to that time

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there was no American consumer, there was the American worker.

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And there was the American owner.

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And they manufactured, and they saved and they ate what they had to

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and the people shopped for what they needed.

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And while the very rich may have bought things they didn't need, most people did not.

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And Mazer envisioned a break with that, where you would have things that you didn't actually need,

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but you wanted, as opposed to needed.

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And the man who would be at the center of changing that mentality for the corporations,

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was Edward Bernays.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Stuart Ewen - Historian of Public Relations:</i> </font> Bernays really is the guy within the United States,

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more than anybody else,

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who sort of brings out to the table psychological theory as something that is an essential part of

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how, from the corporate side, of how we are going to appeal to the masses effectively

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and the whole sort of merchandising establishment and the sales establishment

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is ready for Sigmund Freud.

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I mean they are ready for understanding what motivates the human mind.

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And so there's this real openness to Bernays techniques being used to sell products to the masses.

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Beginning in the early 20's the New York banks funded the creation of chains of

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department stores across America.

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They were to be the outlets for the mass produced goods.

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And Bernays' job was to produce the new type of customer.

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Bernays began to create many of the techniques of mass consumer persuasion that we now live with.

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He was employed by William Randolph Hurst to promote his new women's magazines,

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and Bernays glamorized them by placing articles and advertisements

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that linked products made by others of his clients

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to famous film stars like Clara Bow, who was also his client.

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Bernays also began the practice of product placement in movies,

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and he dressed the stars at the films premieres

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with clothes and jewelry from other firms he represented.

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He was, he claimed, the first person to tell car companies

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they could sell cars as symbols of male sexuality.

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He employed psychologists to issue reports that said products were good for you

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and then pretended they were independent studies.

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He organized fashion shows in department stores

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and paid celebrities to repeat the new and essential message,

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you bought things not just for need but to express your inner sense of your self to others.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Mrs. Stillman, 1920s Celebrity Aviator:</i> </font> There's a psychology of dress,

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have you ever thought about it?

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How it can express your character?

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You all have interesting characters but some of them are all hidden.

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I wonder why you all want to dress always the same, with the same hats and the same coats.

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I'm sure all of you are interesting and have wonderful things about you,

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but looking at you in the street you all look so much the same.

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And that's why I'm talking to you about the psychology of dress.

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Try and express yourselves better in your dress.

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Bring out certain things that you think are hidden.

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I wonder if you've thought about this angle of your personality.

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- I'd like to ask you some questions... - Why do you like short skirts?

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- Oh, because there's more to see...

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- More to see, eh? - What good does that do you?

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- It makes you more attractive.

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- oh, it does?

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In 1927 an American journalist wrote: A change has come over our democracy,

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it is called consumptionism.

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The American citizens first importance to his country is now no longer that of citizen,

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but that of consumer.

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The growing wave of consumerism helped in turn to create a stock market boom.

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And yet again Edward Bernays became involved.

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Promoting the novel idea that ordinary people should buy shares,

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borrowing money from banks, that he also represented.

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And yet again, millions followed his advice.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Peter Strauss - Employee of Bernays 1948-1952:</i> </font> He was uniquely knowledgeable about

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how people in large numbers are going to react to products and ideas,

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but in political terms if he were to go out

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I can't imagine he could get three people to stand and listen.

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He wasn't particularly articulate, he was kind of funny looking, and didn't have

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any sense of reaching out for people one on one. None at all.

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He didn't talk about, didn't think about people in groups of one,

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he thought about people in groups of thousands.

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Bernays soon became famous as the man who understood the mind of the crowd,

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and in 1924 the President contacted him.

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President Coolidge was a quiet taciturn man and had become a national joke.

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The press portrayed him as a dull humorless figure.

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Bernays' solution was to do exactly the same as he had done with products.

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He persuaded 34 famous film stars to visit the White House,

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and for the first time politics became involved with public relations.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Bernays speaking in 1991:</i> </font> And I lined up these 34 people and I'd say what's your name,

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and he'd say Al Jolson, and I'd say Mr. President, Al Jolson.

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The next day every newspaper in the United States had a front page story:

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"President Coolidge Entertains Actors at White House".

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And the Times had a headline which said "President Nearly Laughed"

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and everybody was happy.

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But while Bernays became rich and powerful in America, in Vienna his uncle was facing disaster.

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Like much of Europe Vienna was suffering an economic crisis and massive inflation

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which wiped out all of Freud's' savings.

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Facing bankruptcy he wrote to his nephew for help.

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Bernays responded by arranging for Freud's works to be published for the first time in America,

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and began to send his uncle precious dollars which Freud kept secretly in a foreign bank account.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Pat Jackson - Public Relations Adviser and Colleague of Bernays:</i> </font> He was Freud's "agent"

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if you will, to get his books published.

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Well of course, once the books were being published, Eddie couldn't help himself but to

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promote these books; see that everybody read them, make them controversial;

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emphasize the fact that "do you know what Freud says about sex?"

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and what he thinks cigarettes are a symbol of and so on and so forth...

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How do you suppose all those stories got out?

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Certainly the academics weren't spreading these around the country, Eddie Bernays was...

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Then when Freud became accepted, well then of course to go to a client and go 'well Uncle Siggy'

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see then that had some cache.

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But notice there, first Eddie created Uncle Siggy in the US, made him acceptable secondly,

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and thirdly then, capitalized on Uncle Siggy. Typical Bernays performance.

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Bernays also suggested Freud promote himself in the United States.

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He proposed his uncle write an article for Cosmopolitan, the magazine that Bernays represented,

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entitled 'A Woman's Mental Place in the Home'.

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Freud was furious. Such an idea he said was unthinkable,

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it was vulgar and anyway, he hated America.

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Freud was becoming increasingly pessimistic about human beings.

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In the mid 20s he retreated in the summers to the Alps,

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sometimes staying in an old hotel, the Pension Moritz in Berchtesgaden.

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It is now a ruin.

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Freud began to write about group behavior;

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about how easily the unconscious aggressive forces of human beings

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could be triggered when they were in crowds.

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Freud believed he had underestimated the aggressive instincts within human beings;

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they were far more dangerous than he had originally thought.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Dr. Ernst Federn - Viennese Psychoanalyst:</i> </font> After World War-I, Freud was basically a pessimist.

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He felt that man is an impossible creature

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and a very sadistic and bad species

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and did not believe that man can be improved.

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Man is a ferocious animal,

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the most ferocious animal that exists.

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They enjoy torturing and killing

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and he didn't like man.

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The publication of Freud's works in America had an extraordinary effect

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on journalists and intellectuals in the 1920s.

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What fascinated and frightened them was the picture Freud painted of submerged dangerous forces

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lurking just under the surface of modern society.

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Forces that could erupt easily to produce the frenzied mob

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which had the power to destroy even governments.

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It was this they believed had happened in Russia.

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To many this meant that one of the guiding principles of mass democracy was wrong;

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the belief that human beings could be trusted to make decisions on a rational basis.

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The leading political writer, Walter Lippmann argued that

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if human beings were in reality driven by unconscious irrational forces

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then it was necessary to re-think democracy.

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What was needed was a new elite that could manage what he called the bewildered herd.

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This would be done through psychological techniques that would control

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the unconscious feelings of the masses.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Stewart Ewen - Historian of Public Relations:</i> </font> And so here you have Walter Lippmann, probably the most influential

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political thinker in the United States,

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who is essentially saying the basic mechanism of the mass mind is unreason,

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is irrationality, is animality.

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He believes that the mob in the street, which is how he sees ordinary people,

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are people who are driven not by their minds but by their spinal chords.

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The notion of animal drives, unconscious and instinctual drives,

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lurking beneath the surface of civilization;

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and so they started looking towards psychological science

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as a way of understanding the mechanisms by which the popular mind works

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specifically with the goal of figuring out how to understand and how to apply

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those mechanisms to strategies for social control.

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Edward Bernays was fascinated by Lippmann's arguments

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and also saw a way to promote himself by using them.

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In the 1920s he began to write a series of books which argued that he had developed

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the very techniques that Lippmann was calling for.

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By stimulating people's inner desires and then sating them with consumer products

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he was creating a new way to manage the irrational force of the masses.

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He called it "The engineering of consent".

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Ann Bernays, Daughter of Edward Bernays:</i> </font> Democracy to my father was a wonderful concept,

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but I don't think he felt that all those publics out there had reliable judgment,

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and that they very easily might vote for the wrong man or want the wrong thing;

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so that they had to be guided from above.

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It's enlightened despotism in a sense.

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You appeal to their desires and unrecognized longings, that sort of thing.

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That you can tap into their deepest desires or their deepest fears and use that to your own purposes.

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And then in 1928 a President came to power, who agreed with Bernays.

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President Hoover was the first politician to articulate the idea

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that consumerism would become the central motor of American life.

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After his election he told a group of advertisers and public relations men:

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"You Have taken over the job of creating desire

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and have transformed people into constantly moving happiness machines.

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Machines which have become the key to economic progress."

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What was beginning to emerge in the 1920s was a new idea of how to run mass democracy.

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At it's heart was the consuming self which not only made the economy work

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but was also happy and docile and so created a stable society.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Stewart Ewen - Historian of Public Relations:</i> </font> Both Bernays and Lippmann's concept of managing the masses

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takes the idea of democracy and turns it into a palliative,

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It turns it into giving people some kind of feel good medication

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that will respond to an immediate pain or immediate yearning

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but will not alter the objective circumstances one iota.

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The idea of democracy at it's heart was about changing the relations of power

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that had governed the world for so long;

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and Bernays' concept of democracy was one of maintaining the relations of power,

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even if it meant that one needed to stimulate the psychological lives of the public.

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And in fact in his mind that is what was necessary.

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That if you can keep stimulating the irrational self

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then leadership can go on doing what it wants to do.

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Bernays now became one of the central figures in a business elite

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that dominated American society and politics in the 1920s.

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He also became extremely rich and lived in a suite of rooms in one of New York's most expensive hotels

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where he gave frequent parties.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Peter Strauss - Employee of Bernays 1948-1952:</i> </font> Oh my goodness, he had a home in the corner suite

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of the Sherry Netherland hotel

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and here's this wonderful suite with all these windows

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looking out on central park and across at the plaza,

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and on the square,

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and he would use this place to hold a soiree.

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The mayor would come, all the media leaders would come,

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the political leaders, the business leaders, the people in the arts;

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it was a who's who. People wanted to know Eddie Bernays because he himself

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became a sort of a famous man, a sort of magician that could make things happen.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Ann Bernays, Daughter of Edward Bernays:</i> </font> He knows everybody he knows the mayor,

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and he knows the senator, and he calls politicians on the telephone as if he did get

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literally a high or bang out of doing what he did,

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and that's fine, but it can be a little hard on the people around you.

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Especially when you make other people feel stupid.

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The people who worked for him were stupid, the children were stupid,

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and if people did things in a way that he wouldn't have done them, they were stupid.

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It was a word that he used over and over: "don't be stupid".

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- And the masses? - They were stupid.

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But Bernays' power was about to be destroyed dramatically

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and by a type of human rationality that he could do nothing to control.

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At the end of October 1929 Bernays organized a huge national event to celebrate

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the 50th anniversary of the invention of the light bulb.

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President Hoover, the leaders of major corporations and bankers like John D Rockefeller

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were all summoned by Bernays to celebrate the power of American business.

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But even as they gathered news came through that shares on the New York stock exchange

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were beginning to fall catastrophically.

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Throughout the 1920s speculators had borrowed billions of dollars.

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The banks had promoted the idea that this was a new era where market crashes were a thing of the past.

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But they were wrong. What was about to happend was the biggest stock market crash in history.

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Investors had panicked and begun to sell in a blind relentless fury that no reassurance

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by bankers or politicians could halt.

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And on the 29th of October 1929, the market collapsed.

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The effect of the crash on the American economy was disastrous.

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Faced with recession and unemployment, millions of American workers

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stopped buying goods they didn't need.

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The consumer boom that Bernays had done so much to engineer, disappeared.

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And he and the profession of public relations fell from favor.

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Bernays' brief moment of power seemed to be over.

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The effect of the Wall Street crash on Europe was also catastrophic.

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It intensified the growing economic and political crisis in the new democracies.

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In both Germany and Austria, there were violent street battles

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between the armed wings of different political parties.

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Against this backdrop Freud who was suffering from cancer of the jaw retreated yet again to the alps.

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He wrote a book called "Civilization and it's Discontents".

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It was a powerful attack on the idea that civilization was an expression of human progress.

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Instead Freud argued, civilization had been constructed to control

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the dangerous animal forces inside human beings.

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What was implicit in Freud's argument was that the ideal of individual freedom

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which was at the heart of democracy was impossible.

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Human beings could never be allowed to truly express themselves because it was too dangerous.

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They must always be controlled and thus always be discontent.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Dr. Ernst Federn - Viennese Psychoanalyst:</i> </font> Man doesn't want to be civilized

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and civilization brings discontent but is necessarily to survival

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so he must be discontent because this would be the only way to keep you within your limits.

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- What did Freud think about the idea of the equality of man? - He didn't believe in it.

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We had 32 parties and Hitler said: "before those parties don't vanish there is no Germany".

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That's true, you can't have 32 parties so they said this one person will put an end to this comedy.

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Freud was not alone in his pessimism.

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Politicians like Adolf Hitler emerged from a growing despair in the 1920s about democracy.

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The Nazis were convinced that democracy was dangerous because it unleashed a selfish individualism

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but didn't have the means to control it.

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Hitler's party - "The National Socialists" stood in elections promising in their propaganda

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they would abandon democracy because of the chaos and unemployment it led to.

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"The democratic parties are promising a heaven on earth!"

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"38 parties - over 6 million unemployed"

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In March 1933, the National Socialists were elected to power in Germany

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and they set out to create a society that would control human beings in a different way.

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One of their first acts was to take control of business.

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The planning of production would in the future be done by the state.

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The free market was too unstable as the crash in America had proven.

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Workers leisure time was also planned by the state

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through a new organization called "strength through joy".

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One of it's mottos was: "Service, not self!".

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But the Nazi's did not see this as return to an old form autocratic control.

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It was a new alternative to democracy,

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in which the feelings and desires of the masses would still be central,

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but they would be channeled in such a way as to bind the nation together.

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The chief exponent of this was Joseph Goebbels, the Minister of Propaganda.

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It may be a good thing to hold power based on guns

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It is far better though if you win the heart of the nation

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and keep it's affection !

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Goebbels organized huge rallies whose function he said was to forge the mind of the nation

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into a unity of thinking, feeling and desire.

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One of his inspirations, he told an American journalist

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was the writings of Freud's nephew, Edward Bernays.

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In his work on crowd psychology, Freud had described how

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the frightening irrationality inside human beings could emerge in such groups.

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The deep what he called 'libidinal' forces of desire were given up to the leader

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while the aggressive instincts are unleashed on those outside the group.

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Freud wrote this as a warning, but the Nazis were deliberately encouraging these forces

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because they believed they could master and control them.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Dr Leoppold Lowenthal - Freudian Psychoanalyst at a rally in Vienna in 2000:</i> </font> Freud was saying that masses

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are bound by libidinal forces.

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40:01

They love each other and delegate their ideas and feelings through the "jack on top".

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What are libidinal forces?

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Well, forces of love.

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Not hate? No,.. hate?... Hate is delegated on the others, outside.

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The mob...

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I could see from afar, looking up between the trees

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how there were hundreds of thousands of people when they passed Hitler

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they were speaking completely delirious and they began to shout, this cries will never get out of my ears...

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"Heil! Sieg Heil!" (Hail! Hail Victory!)...and here I got confirmation how those irrational forces,

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uncontrollable forces in Germany, in the Germans, had erupted, were brought out

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were running wild where the party was marching, marching on."

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Crowds and their behavior

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And in America too democracy was under threat from the force of the angry mob.

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The effect of the stock market crash had been disastrous.

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There was growing violence as an angry population took out there frustration on the corporations

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who were seen to have caused this disaster.

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Then in 1932 a new President was elected who was also going to use the power of the state

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to control the free market.

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But his aim, was not to destroy democracy, but to strengthen it.

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And to do this he was going to develop a new way of dealing with the masses.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>President Roosevelt's in his inauguration speech:</i> </font> "I am prepared under my constitutional duty

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to recommend the measures that a stricken nation in the midst of stricken world, may require.

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But, in the event that the national emergency is still critical

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I shall not evade the clear course of duty that will then confront me.

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I shall ask the congress for the one remaining instrument

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to meet the crisis - broad executive power."

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It was the start of what would become known as "The New Deal".

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Roosevelt assembled a group of young technocrats and planners in Washington.

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He told them that their job was to plan and run giant new industrial projects for the good of the nation.

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Roosevelt was convinced the stock market crash had shown

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that "laissez faire"-capitalism could no longer run modern industrial economies.

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This has become the job of government.

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Big business was horrified but The New Deal had attracted the admiration of the Nazis,

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especially Joseph Goebbels.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Joseph Goebbels:</i> </font> "I am very interested in social developments in America.

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I believe that President Roosevelt has chosen the right path.

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We are dealing with the greatest social problems ever known.

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Millions of unemployed must get their jobs back and this cannot be left to private initiative.

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It's the government that must tackle the problem."

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But although Roosevelt like the Nazis was trying to organize society in a different way,

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unlike the Nazis he believed that human beings were rational

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and could be trusted to take an active part in government.

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Roosevelt believed it was possible to explain his policies to ordinary Americans

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and to take into account their opinions.

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To do this he was helped by the new ideas of an American social scientist called George Gallup.

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"Favorite reading of new deal Washington - the survey of US public opinion.

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44:52

From offices at Princeton New Jersey a famed statistician, dr. George Gallup tells Washington

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from week to week, what the nation is thinking.

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45:02

And in New York Fortune Magazines analyst Elmo Roper compiles for publication a continuous record

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of the nations approval or disapproval of how the country is being run."

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Gallup and Roper rejected Bernays' view that human beings were at the mercy of unconscious forces

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and so needed to be controlled.

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Their system of opinion polling was based on the idea that people

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could be trusted to know what they wanted.

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They argued that one could measure and predict the opinions and behavior of the public

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if one asked strictly factual questions and avoided manipulating their emotions.

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Well, how about this one? Do you think Franklin D. Roosevelt's new deal

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has been bad for the nation in general?

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No, that question is loaded.. It automaticly sugests an answer..

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Well, how 'bout this? Is your present feeling towards president Roosevelt, one of general aproval,

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or general disaproval?

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That's better!...

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>George Gallup Jr. - Son of George Gallup:</i> </font> Prior to scientific polling the view of many people

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was that you couldn't trust public opinion, that it was irrational;

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that it was ill-informed, that it was chaotic, unruly and so forth;

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and so that opinnnion should be dismissed.

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But with scientific polling I think it established very clearly that people are rational,

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that they do make good decisions,

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and this offers democracy a chance to be truly informed by the public

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giving everybody a voice in the way the country is run.

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I know my father wouldn't necessarily say that the voice of the public is the voice of God,

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but he did feel very much that the voice of the people is a rational voice and should be heard.

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What Roosevelt was doing was forging a new connection between the masses and politicians.

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No longer were they irrational consumers who were managed by sating their desires,

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instead, they were sensible citizens who could take part in the governing of the country.

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In 1936 Roosevelt stood for re-election. He promised further control over big business.

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To the corporations it was the beginning of a dictatorship.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Big business leader speaking in an interview:</i> </font> "Roosevelt interferes with private enterprise

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and he's running the country into debt for generations to come.

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The way to get recovery is to let business alone."

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But Roosevelt was triumphantly re-elected. 547 00:47:29,602 --> 00:47:34,223 "It looks , my friens, like a real land-slide, this time..

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So, please let me thank you again, and tell you that I hope to see you all very soon,

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and wish you an affectionate good night!

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Faced with this, business now decided to fight back, to regain power in America.

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At the heart of the battle would be Edward Bernays and the profession he had invented,

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public relations.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Stewart Ewen - Historian of Public Relations:</i> </font> Following that lecture,

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business people start to get together and start to carry on discussions,

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primarily in private and they start talking to each other about the need to sort of carry on

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ideological warfare against the New Deal.

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And to sort of reassert the sort of connectedness between the idea of democracy on the one hand

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and the idea of privately owned business on the other.

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And so, under the umbrella of an organization that still exists

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which is called The National Association of Manufacturers

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and whose membership included all of the major corporations of the United States

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a campaign is launched explicitly designed to create emotional attachments

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between the public and big business;

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it's Bernays' techniques being used on a grand scale. I mean totally.

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49:00

A film story of the "General Motors Parade of Progress"

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The campaign set out to show dramatically that it was business not politicians

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who have created modern America.

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Bernays was an advisor to General Motors but he was no longer alone.

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The industry he had founded now flourished

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as hundreds of public relations advisors organized a vast campaign.

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They not only used advertisements and billboards but managed to insinuate their message

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into the editorial pages of the newspapers.

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It became a bitter fight.

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In response to the campaign the government made films to warn about the unscrupulous manipulation

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of the press by big business

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and the central villain was the new figure of the public relations man.

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"They try to achieve their ends by working entirely behind the scenes

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corrupting and deceiving the public.

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The aims of such groups may be either good or bad so far as the public interest is concerned,

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but their methods are a grave danger to democratic institutions."

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The films also showed how the responsible citizens could monitor the press themselves.

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They could create a chart that analyzed the reporting for signs of hidden bias.

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But such earnest instruction was to be no match for the powerful imagination of Edward Bernays.

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He was about to help create a vision of the utopia that free market capitalism

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would build in America if it was unleashed.

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In 1939 New York hosted the World's Fair. Edward Bernays was a central adviser.

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He insisted that the theme be the link between democracy and American business.

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At the heart of the fair was a giant white dome that Bernays named "Democra-City"

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and the central exhibit was a vast working model of America's future

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constructed by the General Motors corporation.

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Ann Bernays - Daughter of Edward Bernays: To my father, the World's Fair,

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was an opportunity to keep the status quo.

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That is, capitalism in a democracy, democracy and capitalism and that marriage.

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He did that by manipulating people and getting them to think that

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you couldn't have real democracy in anything but a capitalist society

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which was capable of doing anything; of creating these wonderful highways,

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of making moving pictures inside everybody's house,

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of telephones that didn't need chords, of sleek roadsters.

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It was consumerist but at the same time you inferred that

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in a funny way that democracy and capitalism went together.

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The World's Fair was an extraordinary success and captured America's imagination.

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The vision it portrayed was of a new form of democracy

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in which business responded to people's innermost desires in a way politicians could never do.

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But it was a form of democracy that depended on treating people not as active citizens,

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like Roosevelt did, but as passive consumers. Because this Bernays believed,

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was the key to control in a mass democracy.

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<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Stewart Ewen - Historian of Public Relations:</i> </font> It's not that the people are in charge

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but that the people's desires are in charge.

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The people are not in charge, the people exercise no decision making power within this environment.

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So democracy is reduced from something which assumes an active citizenry

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to the idea of the public as passive consumers

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driven primarily by instinctual or unconscious desires

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and that if you can in fact trigger those needs and desires, you can get what you want from them.

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But this struggle between the two views of human beings as to whether they were rational or irrational

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was about to be dramatically affected by events in Europe.

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Events that would also change the fortunes of the Freud family.

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In March 1938 the Nazis annexed Austria. It was called the Anschluss.

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Hitler arrived in Vienna to an extraordinary outpouring of mass adulation

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but even as he drove through the city behind the scenes the Nazis were systematically whipping up

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and unleashing the hatred of the crowd against the enemies of the new greater Germany.

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54:32

<font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>Marcel Faust - Resident of Vienna 1930's:</i> </font> The Anschluss was a kind of an explosion

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of terrible hatred of aginst enemies, so called enemies

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or whatever they considered as enemies, against the Jews totally

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and also against a lot of Austrians who opposed the Nazis in Austria.

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They said it's legitimate now, you can do what you want, so they did it...

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Stealing and robbing and killing, I can't stay there a while;

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human depravity was always near to normal behavior, it can change very quickly...

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As the violence and assassinations raged in Vienna, Freud decided he had to leave.

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His aim was to go to Britain, but he knew Britain like many countries

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was refusing entrance to most Jewish refugees.

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But help came from the leading psychoanalyst in Britain, Ernest Jones.

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He was in the same ice skating club as the Home Secretary - Sir Samuel Hall,

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and Jones persuaded Hall to issue Freud a British work permit

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and in May 1938 Freud, his daughter Anna and other members of his family set off for London.

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Freud arrived in London as Britain was preparing for war and he settled with his daughter Anna

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in a house in Hampstead.

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But Freud's cancer was now far advanced and in September 1939,

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just 3 weeks after the outbreak of war, he died.

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The second world war would utterly transform the way government saw democracy

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and the people they governed.

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Next week's program will show how the American government, as a result of the war

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became convinced there were savage dangerous forces hidden inside all human beings.

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Forces that needed to be controlled.

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The terrible evidence from the death camps seemed to show what happened

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when these forces were unleashed.

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And politicians and planners in post war America

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would come to believe that hidden under the surface of their own population

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were the same dangerous forces.

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And they would turn to the Freud family to help control this enemy within.

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And ever adaptable Edward Bernays would work not just for the American government but the CIA

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and Sigmund Freud's daughter Anna, would also become powerful in the United States

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because she believed that people could be taught to control the irrational forces within them.

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Out of this, would come vast government programs to manage the inner psychological life of the masses.

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- english subtitle by <font color="#FFCC00" size="20" face="Monotype Corsiva"> <i>"Marius-The Romanian"</i> </font> - - credits go to Psych0fred -

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The End