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Crane and Rigging - Safety for the Maritime Industry

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[♪ music ♪] [Maritime Training Services Inc.] [In case of any conflict between the requirements shown] [in the movie and the company's safety management system (SMS),] [please follow the company's SMS requirements.] The transfer of equipment and stores from shore to ship or lifting equipment and tools on board, require the use of specialized lifting equipment. The crane is the most common piece of lifting equipment we'll find on any vessel. Properly used, they can save hours of back-breaking labor, in addition to ensuring personal safety. [Crane & Rigging Safety] In this program, we'll learn about the types of cranes we're most likely to encounter on a daily basis. We'll also learn the importance in knowing a crane's Safe Working Load, also known as Working Load Limit. And how to calculate the weight of a load if that number is unknown. We'll see how to maintain safety during lifting operations, including pre-lift inspections, and the proper use of operator hand signals. We'll learn about the different kinds of slings, and when it's appropriate to use them. And we'll show you the importance of regular testing, inspection, and maintenance of equipment. [Basic Crane Types & Their Use] The great mathematician and inventor Archimedes, once said "Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand, and I could move the Earth." The crane is the modern descendant of Archimedes lever, and has become a fixture on the decks of vessels of all sizes. They are also relatively simple to use. They can be either hydraulically or electrically powered, and often use a hydraulic boom and an electrical drum cable, for raising and lowering loads. There are several types of cranes. The most common is the Boom Crane and its variants. There are Single Piece Booms, Telescoping Booms, and Segmented or Knuckle Boom Cranes, and some that include all three features. There are also Jib Cranes which use a Stationary Boom and a Block & Tackle or Electric Hoist to lift loads. All these cranes are used for a variety of operations. Commonly to lift provisions, supplies, and equipment on and off a vessel. They are also used to lift bunkering gear and hoses for refueling operations. A crane typically consists of several parts. The pedestal forms the foundation. The boom, which performs the actual lifting, is hinged to the pedestal. The load is lifted by way of a runner cable which runs from a wench through a set of pulleys or sheaves, and connects to the load by way of block and tackle to a hook. In the case of a Knuckle Boom Crane, the lifting angle of the boom is controlled by way of a hydraulic ram or auxiliary hoist. Some cranes are equipped with a telescoping boom that can be extended to increase the reach of the crane. Cranes specifically designed to hoist bunkering hoses or cargo hoses are common to some ships. These are used to place bunkering hoses in place to help ensure a spill-free fuel transfer. Derrick cranes are commonly used on cargo ships, salvage, and heavy lift vessels, and include the Hallen, Velle, and Steulchen Derricks. They consist of a mast or tower, and one or more booms hinged at the base. These are used when a port lacks the necessary cranes or lifts to load or unload the vessel's cargo. [Safe Working Limit] While cranes provide a strong measure of safety, ensuring your lifting operation remains safe depends on knowing how much your lifting appliance can carry. This is known as the Safe Working Load or Working Load Limit. The Safe Working Load for each crane will be clearly displayed on either the pedestal or boom. A load greater than the Safe Working Load should never be attempted. Remember, the maximum Safe Working Load is only as much as the weakest component of the lifting apparatus. Information on the actual weight of pallets, parcels, and break bulk cargo, can be found on the invoices, shipping records or equipment manuals. Some cranes are also equipped with a scale or a load sensor built into the main hoist. An experienced crane operator can estimate the weight of a load, if no information is available, based on volume, density, and composition. Dynamic factors need to be taken into consideration. If a load is being raised at an angle, instead of perpendicular to the deck or ground, it will increase drag, adding to the force required to lift, which is similar to increased weight. The load should be adjusted so it is pulled up vertically, rather than at an angle. All loads, the center of gravity should be under the boom tip. So, you don't want that hoist line to be anything other than vertical. Ship-to-ship transfers also run the risk of lifting the load at an angle due to rolling seas or strong winds. In cases like these, a strong tag line should be used to steady the load to as close as vertical as possible. Always be aware of any sounds or sights that would indicate the crane is working past its safe limit. Does the winch motor sound different, as if it's straining? Does the boom appear to be at an angle that doesn't look familiar? If so, stand down work and re-evaluate the operation before resuming lifting operations. [Safe Lifting Operations & Hand Signals] Every lifting operation, whether big or small, requires proper planning. A Job Safety Analysis involving all crew members assigned to the lift will need to be performed. All crew assigned to the lift should have received proper training before the JSA. Proper PPE should always be worn. Your company or ship's Safety Management System will detail the appropriate PPE to be worn during lifting operations. A responsible crew member, usually the crane operator, needs to perform a thorough inspection of the crane. All moving parts of the crane, including runners, rigging, hooks, and pulleys, along with safety equipment such as limit switches and sensors, need to be inspected to ensure proper working condition. We will talk more about sling and rigging inspection later in the program. Once the crane and slings have passed inspection, the lifting operation can begin. Crew should be assigned stations to minimize the risk of being caught underneath the load during the lift. Never walk underneath a load during a lift. Be sure to avoid walking underneath the boom and hook. Other important safety considerations include avoid touching a load that is above waist high. If it is necessary to make contact with a load, Avoid potential pinch points by keeping hands, arms, or legs from in between the load and any structures. It's also important to note that a hoist wire can part without a load attached. The crane operator should have an unobstructed view of the lifting and loading areas. When that is not possible, a signaler should be positioned in clear view of the operator. A signaler uses hand signals to direct the crane operator on how to pick and place the load. Main Hoist Use Auxiliary Hoist Hoist Load Hoist Load Slowly Lower Load Lower Load Slowly Raise Boom Raise Boom while Lowering Load Lower Boom Lower Boom while Raising Load Stop Operations Emergency Stop Swing Boom Swing Boom Slowly Travel Retract Boom Extend Boom Dog Everything If it starts raining, if someone is in the path of travel, or more space is required to land the load, use this signal. The crew member acting as the signaler must be properly trained in the use of these hand signals, and have the confidence that comes from working under all lifting conditions. Pay particular attention to weather and sea conditions. Strong winds and high seas can cause loads to swing unpredictably, even with a tag line. Lifting operations must be suspended until conditions change to resume safe lifting. Once the operation is complete, return the crane to its rest position. Place all controls to rest or neutral, and secure hooks, booms, and other equipment as necessary. [Slings, Lifting Gear & Proper Rigging] Slings are a necessary component to ensure a safe lift with minimal risk to property. The most commonly used type of sling is the synthetic web sling and round sling. Round slings may be equipped with a cover to reduce abrasion. Slings can also be made from chain, synthetic ropes, as well as wire rope. Specialized slings, such as hose straps, are used to lift bunker or cargo hoses. Netting is also a good choice for lifting, especially when the cargo includes odd sized parcels, pallets, or barrels. The main advantage of cargo nets is everything is kept inside the net. So, there's very little chance that something's going to come out or the load is going to flip. When lifting pallets with a net, make sure the pallet sides are completely flush. A winged pallet with a lip or uneven edges can cause the net to catch when first lifted, potentially dislodging the load once in the air. Always be aware of the load's center of gravity. A load's center of gravity may shift during the lift, making it unstable and potentially hazardous. If the hook is not over the center of gravity, then when you lift the load, it's going to come up a little bit uneven. Specially designed barrel slings can be used, but a net is usually safer. Limit the load to two full barrels. Selecting the right rigging technique is just as important as choosing the correct lifting appliance. Different rigging techniques include Basket Hitches, Vertical Hitches, Choker Hitches, and Multi-Leg Slings. As with all loads, the sling used and angle of lift has the ability to change the working load limit. Many slings have pictures of sample hitches. Slings and lifting gear should also be inspected prior to commencing a lifting operation. If the sling is covered by chaffing gear, that should be pulled aside to allow a complete visual inspection. Items to look for include knots, heat exposure, and missing identification tags. Synthetic slings should be taken out of service, and marked as not acceptable, and destroyed if any of the following conditions are present: acid or caustic burns, discolored, brittle or stiff areas, melting or charring on any part of the surface, snags, tears, cuts, or punctures, excessive abrasive wear, knots in any part of the sling, broken or worn stitches, fittings that are corroded, pitted, cracked, broken or deformed, in any way, and missing or illegible sling identification. Wire rope slings should be removed from service if any of the following is visible: broken wires, severe localized abrasion and scraping, kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or other damage to the rope structure, evidence of heat damage. end attachments that are cracked, deformed, or substantially worn, severe corrosion of the rope or fittings, and missing or illegible workload limit tag. Each sling is also marked with it's Safe Working Load. Care should be taken to check this prior to the lift against the freight manifest or product information. [Inspection & Maintenance] Ships are required to maintain a register of all permanently attached lifting and cargo handling equipment. This is known as the Register of Lifting Appliances, Chain Register or Cargo Gear Register, and will include a record of all class society examinations and inspections. Vessels that regularly load and unload cargo, as well as make several port stops, usually carry multiple Chain Registers in order to satisfy both Port and Flag State regulations. Port State regulations also govern inspection intervals for cranes and other lifting equipment. In addition to regular pre-lift inspections, each lifting appliance must be inspected for both load capacity and operational soundness, at least every five years. Checks should include looking for cracks, distortion, corrosion, and general wear and tear that could affect operations and safe work load. Pedestal slew bearings, in addition to the pedestal bolts that fasten it to the deck, must also be checked for wear and damage. Wire rope runners should be inspected for proper lubrication, as well as any frayed or corroded wires. Inspect all shackles to ensure that screw pins, bolts, nuts, and cotter pins, are not broken, bent, or corroded. Also check to make sure the shackle is not bent or deformed. Check to ensure the wire rope has been secured to the drum, as well as being neatly wound onto the drum. If the crane uses hydraulic components, reservoirs should be checked for proper levels, as well as inspecting hoses for any cracks, abrasions, or leaks. All pulleys, sheaves, drums, and block and tackle, should be properly lubricated as per the manufacturer's instructions or your company's SMS. If any issues are discovered with regard to the crane or its rigging, or there might be damage previous loads that have exceeded the Safe Working Load, work should not commence until a thorough inspection has been completed, and all issues have been resolved. [What We've Learned] In this program, we've learned how to safely operate cranes both dockside and on board vessels. We saw the most common types of cranes used in the maritime industry, such as the Boom Crane, and how they operate. We learned about the Safe Working Loads of cranes, and why knowing the weight of the load to be lifted is critical for personal and equipment safety. We saw the steps involved in organizing a successful lift, including equipment inspection, safe lifting procedures, and operator hand signals. We also learned about the different types of lifting equipment, such as slings and netting, and how to use them correctly. And we learned about the importance of inspections and maintenance to ensure that cranes are safe to use and will work reliably throughout operation. Electric and hydraulic cranes, when properly used, provide a safe, fast, and reliable way to provision, fuel, and repair vessels across the industry.

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Duration: 16 minutes and 39 seconds
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Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
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Views: 6
Posted by: maritimetraining on Nov 18, 2019

Crane and Rigging - Safety for the Maritime Industry

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