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Regeneration of cells - CBS Cutting Edge

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Good afternoon, Hobby Town USA, Lee speaking. Three years ago Lee Spievak sliced off the tip of his finger in the propellor of a Hobby Shop airplane. I was behind the wing, and I went like this. What happened next propelled him into the future of medicine. Spievak's brother Alan, a research scientist sent him this special powder and told him to sprinkle it on the wound. And I powdered it on until it was covered To his astonishment every bit of his fingertip grew back. Your finger grew back—flesh, blood, vessels and nails. Four weeks. In four weeks. Right. Is this essentially what regrew Mr. Spievak's finger? Yes, it is. We took this, turned it into a powdered form Dr. Stephen Badylak of the University of Pittsburgh says that powder, a substance made from pig bladders, called extra cellulor matrix holds some of the secrets behind the emerging new science of regenerative medicine. It tells the body, "Start that process of tissue regrowth." Badylak, the lead researcher at Pittsburgh's McGowan Istitute for Regenerative Medicine, is one of the many scientists who now believe every tissue in the body has cells which are capable of regeneration. All scientists have to do is find enough of those cells and direct them to grow Somehow the matrix summons the cells and tells them what to do. It first gets them to the site where they need to be But then it helps instruct them in terms of where they need to go How they need to differentiate Should I become a blood vessel? Should I become a nerve, a muscle cell whatever… If this helps Mr. Spievak's finger regrow Could you grow a whole limb? In theory. Here you see an engineered blood vessel, But there are advances in the science of regeneration that already go beyond theory. You can actually see the vessel feeding In this lab at Wake Forest University, a lab he calls a medical factory Dr. Anthony Atala is growing body parts This is a heart valve, an engineered heart valve; Atala and his team have built from the cell level up eighteen different types of tissue so far including muscle tissue whole organs and the pusling heart valve of a sheep. And is it growing? Absolutely, these cells are continuing to form new heart valve tissue When people ask me, "What do you do?" We grow tissues and organs You really are making body parts We are making body parts that we can implant right back into patients Dr. Atala one of the pioneers in regenerative medicine also believe every type of tissue has cells ready to regenerate if only researchers can prod them into action. Sometimes that prodding looks like science-fiction. You are using heart cells in an ink-jet printer. Yes What's emerging from this printer is the heart of a mouse Mouse heart cells go into the ink cartridge and are then sprayed down in a mouse heart pattern layer by layer Dr. Atala believes it's a matter of time before someone grows a human heart. The cells have all the gentic information necessary to make new tissue. That's what you are programmed to do. So your heart cell is programmed to make more heart tissue. Your bladder cells are programmed to make more bladder cells. Atala's work with human bladder cells had pushed regenerative medicine to a transformational breakthrough. In this clinical trial at Thomas Jefferson Hospital in Philadelphia Dr. Patrick Shenot is performing a bladder transplant With an organ built from the patients own cells. In a process developed by Dr. Atala the cells were grown in a lab and then seeded on this bladder shaped scaffold. Eight weeks later the scaffold now infused with millions of bladder cells is transplanted into the patient When it dissolves, Dr Shenot says, what's left will be a functioning new organ. The cells will differentiate into the two major cells in the bladder wall: the muscle cells and the lining cells. They know to do that themselves? They do. Are you thinking this is the future? It's very much the future, but it's today. We're doing this today. Today one of the biggest believers in regeneration is the United States military. which is especially interested in the matrix that grew back Lee Spievak's finger. The army, working in conjunction with the Universoty of Pittsburgh is about to use that matrix on the amputated fingers of soldiers home from the war. Can we make skin? Can we make bone? Dr. Steven Wolf at the Army Institute of Surgical Research says the military has invested tens of millions of dollars in regeneration hoping to regrow limbs lost muscle, burnt skin You see these casualties coming back and it's hard to ignore that this guy's missing half his skin this guy's missing his leg. You start asking the question, "Is there somebody out there who may have some technology that can do this for us?" You mean "regrow the tissue"? The answer is "Maybe". At the Burn Unit here at the Brook Army Medical Center the very idea of regeneration brings a glimmer of hope. This arm burnt off all the skin and muscle. Army staff sargeant Robert Henline was the only survivor of an IED attack on his Humvee north of Baghdad. But what do you make of the fact that the army is so heavily invested in that technology? It's a great idea. If you can come up with something that is less painful and that heal it with natural growth without the scaring on it. That's definitely something I'd check into. The race to check into regeneration has gone global. This machine being tested in Germany sprays a patient's own cells onto a burn. signaling the skin not to form scar but to regrow. You could fashion this into tube like this. In a clinical trial in Argentina Dr. Badylak is about to implant matrix material shaped like an oesophagus into patients with throat cancer You expect the body to regrow a piece of its oesophagus We fullly expect this material will be degraded and cause the body to reform normal oesophagial tissue. And at this clinical trial at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center patient Mary Beth Babo is getting her own adult stem cells injected into her heart. The hope is to grow new arteries. Her surgeon is Dr. Jun Lee. It is actually, if you will, what we would consider the Holy Grael of our field for coronary artery disease The Holy Grael because a patient who can regrow a blocked artery May never need surgery People don't have to go through that That's the good way to go if it works. Corporate America already believes regeneration will work. Investment capital has been pouring in to commercialize and mass produce custom-made body parts. We are actually building a very real business around a very real and compelling patient need. Dr. Steven Nichtberger is the CEO of the Tengion Cooperation. which has bought the licence, built the factory and is already manufacturing the bladders developed at Wake Forest University we told you about earlier. Tangeon believes regeneration will soon revolutionize transplant medicine Transplant patients instead of waiting years for a donated organ will ship cells off to to a lab, wait a few weeks and grow their own. I look at the patients who are on wait the list for transplants I look at the opportunity we have to build bladders, to build vessels, to build kidneys In regenerative medicine I think it is similar to the semi-conductor industry of the 1980s. You don't know where it is going to go. But you know it's big. Subtitles by QualityTime-ESL Subtitles by QualityTime-ESL

Video Details

Duration: 8 minutes and 16 seconds
Country: United States
Language: English
Views: 1,442
Posted by: marianner on Jan 5, 2009

Scientists are engineering techniques, which can regenerate cells to make organic parts "grow back" to norm from the body's own cells. This method will make it possible to "manufacture" muscle tissue, bones and even whole organs that can replace deficient or amputated parts thus paving the way for new medical industry.

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