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TEDxDaedeokValley- KwangHaw Chung - Why Analytical Science?

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Kwang Hwa Chung, Dean of Graduate School of Analytical Science & Technology of Chungnam National University. Can you hear me well? Today, I am going to make a presentation with the title, "Why analytical science and technology?", which will tell you about what is analytical science and technology, and why it is important. In 1978, I joined Korea Standards Research Institute(Current Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) as the 1st woman invited scientist. I worked at KRISS for over 30 years, and I moved to GRAST at CNU as my retirement became close. Therefore, I had researched about analytical science and technology for 33 years. Human brain lets us to cope with the environment by processing the informations collected by our sensory organs, skin, and all our body. Human cognitive function has been evolved over millions of years and enabled the human to detect the dangers of the attack by beasts, find foods, or live in a community, so that the human could survive in the struggle for existence. Human beings are sensitive to relative differences, and changes. Also, human beings became outraged if they are treated unfairly. Thus, as all of you feel in the same way, a person is unhappy if his promotion is later than his colleagues. Turning green with envy These are not related with ideologies or constitutions. (laughter) On the other hand, they are insensitive to outstanding happen, world wide, large scaled changes like global warming. Also, they cannot perceive the events happening at the atomic scale or far out at the universe. Our cognitive functions are evolved to be maximally useful from minimal information which is essential for survival, they are not very accurate, though. Let me show you some examples how they are not accurate. You can see these two lines. As you see them, this line and that line lower line looks longer than upper line right? But actually, if you remove these arrowheads, they are of the same length. Let me show you another example. Between these two lines, which one seems to be in a straight line with the line at the right side? As usual, upper lines seems to be in a straight line. But, if we draw a straight line, lower one is in a straight line. I will show you the other example. Now, there are two lines, and this (right) one looks shorter. But, if you remove surrounding building-like images, two lines are of the same length. Human cognition is too inaccurate as above. We need to measure in order to know nature phenomenon. As human cognition is inaccurate, even the great scholar Aristotle had mistaught that heavy things fall faster, and the teaching had been succeeded for over 2000 years. In the 1600's, Galileo made an famous experiment at the Leaning Tower of Pisa which proved that heavy things and light things fall in the same speed. Also, people had misunderstood that the earth was flat, and the sun circled around the earth. Nowadays, you know the truth. the earth is round, and the earth circles around the sun. Like this, to know exactly nature phenomenon, we should not depend on our senses but depend on the measurements. So what science is that science is to measure and do experiment, to understand exactly natural phenomenon. Therefore, science is a knowledge system that analyze the data obtained, and generate appropriate models to produce knowledge. Some people say that, 'The most important invention of human beings is nothing else, but the scientific methodology.' Even though its history is only about 400 years, the scientific methodology changed the human's everyday life completely. Therefore, human beings sent people to the moon, launched a probe to mars, and figured out what happened at the edge of the universe. Science has changed human's life completely, yet it is limited to very narrow range of thing hat can be measured and analyzed. We cannot easily imagine how our scientific technology, and our life will be changed, if we can measure more things, and if the new methodology for larger scope comes out in the future. These measurement and analysis has been evolved. In the beginning, measurements were mostly point measurements for mechanical and traditional industries, like mass, height, or power several hundreds years ago. After that, material and chemical industries had been developed. After the developments, people started to measure the composition of the metals such as stainless steel, or brass, what pollutants exist in the air, and measure sugars in the blood. These kind of spectrum analysis of the compositions became important. And nowadays, mapping or imaging techniques which can process large amount of information are growing. We can gather much information through measuring surface of metals, taking images of brains or other body parts, or measuring protein structures. This is my grandson's sonogram. It had been 11 weeks, and had 6 centimeter height. They showed me just the sonogram, so I said that couldn't see how the baby looked like. And they said "Oh, I am sorry", and drew rough shapes like this. Then, I could see this. In the past, there was no way to check the state of fetus in the womb, but in nowadays, doctors can check the health or growth state using this measurement to help people giving a birth well. There is a difference between the analytical science and technology and the usual science and technology. The purpose of the usual science and technology is in the accumulation of knowledges and their applications, but the analytical science and technology focuses on the methodology itself of observation, measurement, and analysis of the experimental objects. Therefore, the analytical science and technology develops analytical theories, equipments, techniques, and there applications. Let me show you some examples of the analytical science and technology. In 2008, there was a mad cow riot. Many Korean worried that some people might sell American beef or mad cow as Australian beef to cheat consumers. The origin of the beefs can be distinguished by analyzing contents of carbon isotope in beef using high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer. The composition makes difference like this between American beef and Australian beef, so there could not be any cheats. In another case, This is a blood testing from human body. Many scientists all over the world investigate the project of building up fingerprints of 2000-3000 proteins from different organs under various diseases In the future, with just a drop of blood, one can detect and diagnose early stage of disease, know the progress of disease find out the curing effect of drugs. Also, you can know whether the medicine is good or not Maybe someday you may know whether the man loves you or not when the measurement and analysis of blood composition are more developed. This is showing the brain image of an epileptic. This (left) is MRI image, and the (right) one is SPECT, Single-photon emission computed tomography image. This (MRI) one has very high resolution, so that it gives the exact position of the disease. On the other hand, this (SPECT) one enables the doctor to understand the physiological function by watching blood flow rate under a fit, so that helps the doctor to find better treatment. Like this, many of you watch the American drama(soap opera), NCSI in these days. In the drama, they analyze something in the laboratory everyday. Besides, you have a health examination at least once a year. What is a health examination? From beginning to end, they measure and analyze something. Therefore, if the analytical science and technology continues to develop it will make our life comfortable, and protect our health. In the past, people were ostracized because they are mistaken as mad, or people were treated harshly because they are mistaken as possessed. we can cure such people by finding out brain disease in somewhere and finally let them live an ordinary life I think it will make violent psychopath people to maintain healthy lives under appropriate treatments. New analytical technology opens up a new field of science. You can see STM(Scanning Tunneling Microscope) in the picture. STM is capable of looking and manipulating at atomic scale. This shows the atomic array at the surface of gold. STM is invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zürich, who won the Nobel prize in Physics in 1986 due to the invention. This invention opened up nano science, a new scientific field. Here, you can see pretty woman, who is a British chemist, Rosalind Franklin. She could obtain a very pretty image using a X-ray diffraction. This image led Crick and Watson to figure out DNA double helix structure And this DNA double helix marked the beginning of life science. After this, genetic engineering developed, and there had a big boom, which was bioengineering. Due to the finding the double helix, Crick, Watson, and Wilkinson were awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962. But Rosalind Franklin couldn't be awarded because it was after her death. What a pity. Like you can see here, these 2 people developed Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I showed you brain image a while ago. It not only made it possible to diagnose and treat brain hemorrhage, or brain tumor, but also has been used to diagnose and treat spondylopathy in these days, which was not easy by using X-rays. These 2 people won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003. From 1901 to 2009, analytical science and technology produced 20% cases and 17 % awardees of Nobel Prize. Since 1914, 85 % of Nobel Prize were awarded to the development of analytical equipments and technology or their related works. This shows that the importance of analytical technology is increasing. This shows that over 4.5 trillion won is invested to the large-size research facilities in Korea. Research and development cost of Korea has been increased by double digits every year. Most of them are used for research equipment cost. Most research equipments are considered to be analytical equipments. In Korea, the export to import ratio of analytical equipments is 15% to 85%, while USA exports 61 %. Japan exports 72%, Germany exports 63%, and England exports 60%. 191 It is making a huge current account deficit. In 1998, research equipments import was 250 million dollars, and in 2008, it was 830 million dollars, which is 1 trillion in Korean won. As time goes by, the amount of research equipments import of Korea is considered to be increasing, and in 2010, the export reached 16% and the import reached 84%. As research and development cost of Korea increases, we need more import of analytical equipments from foreign countries, which means 1 trillion won is used for jobs of foreign people. I think some part of it is used for jobs of Korean young people, it will be a great support to Korean economy. Therefore, in conclusion, advanced analytical science and technology leads the development of new science and technology and will be the source for Nobel Prize. In addition to, as I told you a while ago, improving the excessive deficit in current account balance will support the national economy. Meanwhile, Korea can join the ranks of advanced nations because per capita income has topped 20 thousand dollars. We are still in the same stages for 10 years. In order to achieve 40,000 US$ GNP per capita, we need to develop new technologies, and developing new technologies requires the development of analytical science and technology. Therefore, analytical science and technology is very important. As Korean government realized the importance, in 2009, the government established the GRAST which is co-operated by Chungnam National University, and Korea Basic Science Institute. GRAST will cultivate the manpower of analytical science and technology, so that it will make an effort on winning Novel Prize. Thank you for your attention.

Video Details

Duration: 18 minutes and 36 seconds
Country: South Korea
Language: English
Genre: None
Views: 85
Posted by: yoonabak on May 29, 2011

Dr. KwangHaw Chung in Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University talks about how the human cognitive function works and inaccurate and she explains the importance of the analytical science and technology. She says that the more the science is developing, the more it is getting important. This means the ability of analytical science is the standard of high science and technology. more links : http://tedxdaedeokvalley.com/25

정광화 충남대 분석과학기술대학원장은 인간의 인지능력이 실제와 얼마나 차이가 있고 부정확한가를 설명하며 분석과학의 중요성에 대해 얘기한다.
과학이 발전할수록 분석과학의 중요성도 증대되고 있으며, 이는 분석과학의 능력이 곧 첨단 과학기술의 척도가 됨을 나타내는 것이다. 연사정보 더보기 : http://tedxdaedeokvalley.com/25

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