Watch videos with subtitles in your language, upload your videos, create your own subtitles! Click here to learn more on "how to Dotsub"

Annotated captions of Psywar in English

Last Modified By Time Content
tzmofficial 00:06
00:11

This film is not for sale or distribution.

tzmofficial 00:14
00:19

Psywars contains controversial subject matter. Creators of source material

tzmofficial 00:19
00:23

may or may not agree with certain views presented.

tzmofficial 00:43
00:47

Psyops: 'Psychological Operations' Any form of communication in support of

tzmofficial 00:47
00:52

objectives designed to influence the opinions, emotions, attitiudes or behavior

tzmofficial 00:52
00:57

of any group in order to benefit the sponsor, either directly or indirectly.

tzmofficial 00:57
00:59

Department of Defense, US Army Field Manual 33-I

tzmofficial 00:59
01:03

There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind.

tzmofficial 01:03
01:07

In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind - Napoleon Bonaparte

tzmofficial 01:08
01:10

-Here in the United States, we're often brought up

tzmofficial 01:10
01:12

and told we don't have propaganda

tzmofficial 01:12
01:14

that we have a hard charging investigative press.

tzmofficial 01:15
01:19

We have this educated, skeptical, even cynical citizenry

tzmofficial 01:19
01:23

and that if there were powerful interests trying to manage or manipulate

tzmofficial 01:23
01:27

public opinion, they would be exposed.

tzmofficial 01:27
01:30

The reality actually is just the opposite.

tzmofficial 01:30
01:32

Academics like Alex Carey and others

tzmofficial 01:33
01:37

who've spent their lifetimes looking at how propaganda works

tzmofficial 01:38
01:41

finds that it's actually in western democracies and open societies

tzmofficial 01:41
01:45

where you need the most sophisticated sorts of propaganda.

tzmofficial 01:46
01:51

And since World War I, thanks to people like Ivy Lee and Eddie Bernays

tzmofficial 01:51
01:56

propaganda has become a business, this business of public relations.

tzmofficial 01:56
02:01

Or as one of the firms that has often represented dictators

tzmofficial 02:01
02:04

the Burson-Marsteller firm, puts it:

tzmofficial 02:05
02:07

Their business is perception management

tzmofficial 02:08
02:13

to manage public perception, public policy

tzmofficial 02:13
02:16

on behalf of their clients, whoever they might be.

tzmofficial 02:16
02:21

Metanoia Pictures Presents

tzmofficial 02:50
02:54

In association with "I Am The Mob"

tzmofficial 03:02
03:07

A Film by Scott Noble

tzmofficial 03:07
03:10

-April 9th, 2003

tzmofficial 03:10
03:14

Throngs of Iraqis spontaneously attack a statue of Saddam Hussein

tzmofficial 03:14
03:17

the face obscured with Old Glory.

tzmofficial 03:17
03:22

Later, the Stars & Stripes are replaced with red, white and black

tzmofficial 03:22
03:27

symbolizing the transference of power from the liberators to the liberated.

tzmofficial 03:27
03:32

Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld describes the scenes as "breathtaking".

tzmofficial 03:33
03:36

To the British Army, they're "historic".

tzmofficial 03:37
03:40

BBC Radio calls them "amazing".

tzmofficial 03:40
03:44

And they were. Because the entire event was staged.

tzmofficial 03:44
03:48

Years after the operation, a U.S. Army report

tzmofficial 03:48
03:50

admitted that the toppling of the Saddam statue

tzmofficial 03:50
03:55

had been engineered by a psychological operations group.

tzmofficial 03:55
04:00

The document states: "Our TPT-- or Tactical Psyop Team--

tzmofficial 04:00
04:04

saw the statue as a target of opportunity."

tzmofficial 04:06
04:09

A week earlier, another psychological operation

tzmofficial 04:09
04:11

laid the groundwork for what followed.

tzmofficial 04:11
04:15

The script was for a female Rambo turned damsel-in-distress

tzmofficial 04:15
04:19

to be rescued by U.S. Armed Forces.

tzmofficial 04:19
04:22

-In the situation that we're talking about here, with Private Lynch

tzmofficial 04:22
04:25

as you know, on about the 23rd of March

tzmofficial 04:25
04:28

her 507th Maintenance Company was ambushed.

tzmofficial 04:28
04:31

A number of the members of that maintenance company

tzmofficial 04:31
04:34

were killed, a number were captured, and a number

tzmofficial 04:34
04:36

were unaccounted for, she being one of them.

tzmofficial 04:37
04:40

-They waited 24 hours to get the cameras there, to set up the whole thing

tzmofficial 04:40
04:43

to make this big rescue, and the SWAT team goes in to save her

tzmofficial 04:43
04:46

and then she becomes an instant celebrity overnight.

tzmofficial 04:46
04:48

That story happened on the same day

tzmofficial 04:48
04:50

that the tanks were rolling into Baghdad.

tzmofficial 04:50
04:52

That's the same day that we shelled

tzmofficial 04:52
04:54

the Palestine hotel where the independent journalists were.

tzmofficial 04:54
04:58

The same day we blew up Al Jazeera's television station

tzmofficial 05:02
05:03

and killed one of their journalists.

tzmofficial 05:04
05:06

All we're getting on the front pages of the papers

tzmofficial 05:06
05:08

and in the news is the rescue of Jessica Lynch.

tzmofficial 05:08
05:10

So, that was a PR substitute story.

tzmofficial 05:10
05:15

Toppling the Saddam statue, they got Chalabi's group.

tzmofficial 05:15
05:17

The Rendon Group had actually formed them.

tzmofficial 05:17
05:19

The CIA paid the Rendon Group to form the Iraqi Congress

tzmofficial 05:19
05:23

as a counter-group to Saddam Hussein, and they were based here in the U.S.

tzmofficial 05:23
05:25

Then they flew them over there and they shipped them into Iraq.

tzmofficial 05:26
05:28

They were the ones that were standing around the statue

tzmofficial 05:28
05:30

as a tank was used to pull it over.

tzmofficial 05:31
05:33

The Rendon Group had been around--he worked for George W.'s father

tzmofficial 05:34
05:36

and he worked for Clinton too.

tzmofficial 05:36
05:41

His firm ... He used to be a public relations press guy for Carter

tzmofficial 05:41
05:45

and he created a PR firm that specialized in war.

tzmofficial 05:46
05:49

-The head of the Rendon Group, John Rendon

tzmofficial 05:49
05:54

denies that he is a "national security strategist" or a "military tactician".

tzmofficial 05:54
05:56

Rather, he states: "I am a politician

tzmofficial 05:57
06:00

and a person who uses communication to meet public policy

tzmofficial 06:00
06:02

or corporate policy objectives.

tzmofficial 06:02
06:07

In fact, I am an information warrior and a perception manager."

tzmofficial 06:09
06:14

Following the First Gulf War, Rendon was paid $23 million by the CIA

tzmofficial 06:14
06:17

to create anti-Saddam propaganda.

tzmofficial 06:17
06:21

Following 9/11, he was charged with public relations

tzmofficial 06:21
06:26

for the U.S. bombing of Afghanistan. Rendon is far from alone.

tzmofficial 06:26
06:30

Public relations has mushroomed into a $200 billion a year industry

tzmofficial 06:30
06:35

with PR "flacks" in the United States now outnumbering journalists.

tzmofficial 06:35
06:38

Propaganda has become the primary means by which

tzmofficial 06:38
06:42

the wealthy communicate with the rest of society.

tzmofficial 06:42
06:47

Whether selling a product, a political candidate, a law, or a war

tzmofficial 06:47
06:49

seldom do the powerful deliver messages to the public

tzmofficial 06:49
06:54

before consulting their colleagues in the public relations industry.

tzmofficial 06:56
06:59

Colin Powell presents a now typical case. He didn't choose

tzmofficial 06:59
07:03

a seasoned diplomat for the position of Under Secretary of State.

tzmofficial 07:03
07:05

Instead, he chose Charlotte Beers

tzmofficial 07:05
07:09

known in PR circles as "The Queen of Madison Avenue."

tzmofficial 07:10
07:13

Her resumé includes successful advertising campaigns

tzmofficial 07:13
07:16

for Head & Shoulders dandruff shampoo

tzmofficial 07:16
07:18

Uncle Ben's rice

tzmofficial 07:18
07:20

and now, Uncle Sam.

tzmofficial 07:21
07:24

-You see a news show. You watch 60 Minutes

tzmofficial 07:24
07:27

or a Fox program, or whatever it is.

tzmofficial 07:27
07:31

You tend to give more credibility

tzmofficial 07:31
07:33

to what you're told is journalism.

tzmofficial 07:33
07:36

If an advertisement comes on

tzmofficial 07:37
07:39

hopefully you tend to be more skeptical of that

tzmofficial 07:39
07:42

because obviously, somebody put an awful lot of money

tzmofficial 07:42
07:47

into crafting this slick TV ad and airing it.

tzmofficial 07:48
07:50

But what you probably never suspect

tzmofficial 07:51
07:55

is that that news story you just watched was also crafted

tzmofficial 07:55
08:00

by a company, given to the TV station or network

tzmofficial 08:01
08:05

with the understanding that they would put their own logos on it

tzmofficial 08:05
08:08

identify it as real journalism, and air it.

tzmofficial 08:08
08:12

-Colonel Sam Gardiner would eventually chart 50 false news stories

tzmofficial 08:12
08:16

created and leaked by the Bush White House propaganda apparatus

tzmofficial 08:16
08:19

prior to and during the assault on Iraq.

tzmofficial 08:19
08:24

Foremost amongst these were the lies that led to the war in the first place.

tzmofficial 08:25
08:29

"It was not bad intelligence that led to the invasion", concludes Gardiner

tzmofficial 08:29
08:32

"It was an orchestrated effort that began before the war"

tzmofficial 08:32
08:35

and was "meticulously planned" to manipulate the public.

tzmofficial 08:36
08:41

-In 2002, when the Bush administration was conducting

tzmofficial 08:41
08:46

its massive public relations campaign to sell the war

tzmofficial 08:46
08:49

out of Donald Rumsfeld's office in the Pentagon

tzmofficial 08:50
08:53

there was something now referred to as the Pentagon pundits program

tzmofficial 08:53
08:57

where literally scores of former high-ranking military

tzmofficial 08:57
09:00

generals and admirals and colonels

tzmofficial 09:00
09:04

were getting their talking points for their appearances on TV news shows

tzmofficial 09:05
09:09

directly from the Pentagon. They would literally go to the Pentagon

tzmofficial 09:09
09:13

be on phone conferences with the Pentagon, travel with the Pentagon

tzmofficial 09:13
09:18

and then go on TV as supposedly independent sources.

tzmofficial 09:18
09:22

Although most of them were actually being paid in the private sector

tzmofficial 09:23
09:26

because these were retired military officials by defense contractors

tzmofficial 09:26
09:30

and many of them were actually registered lobbyists for military contractors.

tzmofficial 09:30
09:33

So there's a bit of a conflict of interest right away

tzmofficial 09:33
09:36

when your bread and butter is based on

tzmofficial 09:36
09:39

being able to sell armaments and bombs and missiles

tzmofficial 09:39
09:42

and you're supposed to be just a patriotic ex-general

tzmofficial 09:42
09:45

giving an honest opinion to what's going on.

tzmofficial 09:45
09:50

And even though that's illegal, there's no way to really stop it.

tzmofficial 09:50
09:54

And the most powerful medium through which it occurred

tzmofficial 09:54
09:56

refuses to even report on the scandal.

tzmofficial 09:56
10:01

You've got just a massive problem, and that's where we're at.

tzmofficial 10:04
10:08

-There were clear warning signs long before the age of the "imbed."

tzmofficial 10:08
10:11

During the assault on Serbia, under President Clinton

tzmofficial 10:12
10:15

a report emerged about the Dutch journalist Abe De Vries

tzmofficial 10:15
10:19

revealing the presence of "psywarriors" working at CNN.

tzmofficial 10:19
10:22

They derived from the Third Psychological Operations Battalion

tzmofficial 10:22
10:25

at Fort Bragg, in North Carolina.

tzmofficial 10:26
10:30

De Vries quoted Major Thomas Collins of the U.S. Army Information Service:

tzmofficial 10:30
10:33

"Psyops personnel, soldiers and officers

tzmofficial 10:33
10:36

have been working in CNN's headquarters in Atlanta

tzmofficial 10:36
10:39

through our program, training with industry.

tzmofficial 10:40
10:44

They helped in the production of news."

tzmofficial 10:48
10:51

What made the Iraq War different were not so much the tactics

tzmofficial 10:51
10:54

or even the scale, but the high-tech synergy.

tzmofficial 10:55
10:57

It was almost impossible to tell where the state ended

tzmofficial 10:58
11:00

and the "Fourth Estate" began.

tzmofficial 11:00
11:03

-One of the things that we don't want to do is to destroy the infrastructure of Iraq

tzmofficial 11:03
11:06

because in a few days we're going to own that country.

tzmofficial 11:06
11:08

-Should they have used more? Should they

tzmofficial 11:08
11:11

use a 'MOAB,' the mother of all bombs?

tzmofficial 11:11
11:13

A few daisy cutters?

tzmofficial 11:14
11:18

And let's not just stop at a couple of cruise missiles.

tzmofficial 11:18
11:21

-The invasion of Iraq represents a pinnacle

tzmofficial 11:21
11:23

of domestic psywar in the United States.

tzmofficial 11:24
11:28

An unparalleled integration between public relations firms

tzmofficial 11:28
11:31

corporate media and military psyops.

tzmofficial 11:31
11:34

At the time of the assault, large segments of the American public

tzmofficial 11:34
11:38

were convinced that a nuclear attack by Saddam Hussein on their nation

tzmofficial 11:38
11:40

was not only possible, but imminent.

tzmofficial 11:40
11:44

Soldiers who comprised the invading force were similarly confused

tzmofficial 11:45
11:48

with a remarkable 77% believing that Hussein

tzmofficial 11:48
11:51

was responsible for the attacks of 9/11.

tzmofficial 11:52
11:56

Many earnestly believed that the mission was to destroy a mysterious group

tzmofficial 11:56
12:01

known as Al Qaeda, while bringing freedom to the Iraqi people.

tzmofficial 12:01
12:05

-"Go home Yankee!" -"We're here for your f***ing freedom

tzmofficial 12:05
12:07

so back up right now!"

tzmofficial 12:08
12:11

-Yet, what was actually happening was what the Nuremberg Charter describes

tzmofficial 12:11
12:15

as the single greatest crime under international law:

tzmofficial 12:15
12:22

The "Planning, preparation, initiation, or waging of a war of aggression."

tzmofficial 12:26
12:29

Seven years later, the results of the invasion are clear.

tzmofficial 12:30
12:34

According to "The Lancet," one of Britain's most respected medical journals,

tzmofficial 12:34
12:40

approximately 600,000 Iraqis have been killed from the invasion as of 2006.

tzmofficial 12:40
12:45

By 2009, a polling agency put the number at over 1 million.

tzmofficial 12:45
12:50

Four million Iraqis have been made refugees in their own country.

tzmofficial 12:50
12:53

Their entire society is shattered.

tzmofficial 12:56
12:59

How did the land of the free and the home of the brave

tzmofficial 12:59
13:02

arrive at a place where citizens could be manipulated

tzmofficial 13:02
13:06

with such efficiency and on such a massive scale?

tzmofficial 13:07
13:12

Our story begins in an unlikely place: a coal mine.

tzmofficial 13:14
13:25

Psywar

tzmofficial 13:26
13:35

I. Perception Management

tzmofficial 13:38
13:43

When we think of public relations, this is not an image that springs to mind.

tzmofficial 13:43
13:45

Yet it was here, at the turn of the century

tzmofficial 13:45
13:48

in the town of Ludlow, Colorado

tzmofficial 13:48
13:51

that PR as we know it began to take shape.

tzmofficial 13:51
13:55

From the beginning, it was steeped in class warfare.

tzmofficial 13:55
13:59

-The conditions that men, women and children

tzmofficial 13:59
14:02

worked under in 19th century America

tzmofficial 14:02
14:05

were very much like what we think of now as

tzmofficial 14:05
14:07

the conditions in the 'global South'

tzmofficial 14:08
14:12

in which 13-14 hour days were not uncommon.

tzmofficial 14:12
14:17

Living conditions were often in barrack-like housing.

tzmofficial 14:17
14:20

Children worked right alongside their parents.

tzmofficial 14:21
14:23

Those were the kind of conditions and certainly, if you picture

tzmofficial 14:23
14:28

what we see in the global South today, almost slave-like conditions.

tzmofficial 14:28
14:31

You can make the comparison pretty easily.

tzmofficial 14:39
14:41

-Like workers in most other industries at the time

tzmofficial 14:42
14:46

the coal miners in the town of Ludlow were organizing to win basic rights.

tzmofficial 14:46
14:50

In 1914, the United Mine Workers Union called for coal companies to grant

tzmofficial 14:51
14:54

safe working conditions, tolerable wages

tzmofficial 14:54
14:57

and compliance with state mining laws.

tzmofficial 14:58
15:01

In response, a labor organizer at Ludlow was shot to death

tzmofficial 15:01
15:05

by gunmen working for the Colorado Fuel & Iron Corporation

tzmofficial 15:05
15:08

owned by the Rockefeller family.

tzmofficial 15:15
15:19

Then, as now, the Rockefellers were synonymous with wealth and power.

tzmofficial 15:19
15:23

William Avery Rockefeller had made a living as a literal snake oil salesman

tzmofficial 15:24
15:29

but his son, John Davidson had achieved the American Dream.

tzmofficial 15:29
15:34

His fortune was built by exploiting oil reserves in Mexico and the United States.

tzmofficial 15:35
15:38

John Davidson Rockefeller was America's first billionaire

tzmofficial 15:38
15:41

but it was his son, John D. Jr.

tzmofficial 15:41
15:45

who would define the Rockefeller legacy in the 20th century.

tzmofficial 15:45
15:49

Twenty-four hours after striking workers and their families celebrated Easter

tzmofficial 15:49
15:54

the end came. It became known as the Ludlow Massacre.

tzmofficial 15:54
15:58

-The strike went on from the fall of 1913, to the spring of 1914

tzmofficial 15:58
16:02

and they still couldn't break the strike. The strikers were living in tent colonies

tzmofficial 16:02
16:07

set up by their union, the United Mine Workers, and in April of 1914

tzmofficial 16:07
16:11

the National Guard, which was at this time being paid by the Rockefellers

tzmofficial 16:11
16:16

the National Guard attacked the tent colony of men, women, children

tzmofficial 16:16
16:20

killed many people, set the tents afire.

tzmofficial 16:20
16:24

They found the next day the bodies of 11 children and two women

tzmofficial 16:24
16:28

who were burned, suffocated to death in that fire.

tzmofficial 16:28
16:32

That was called the Ludlow Massacre.

tzmofficial 16:32
16:34

-A brief glance at events prior to Ludlow

tzmofficial 16:34
16:37

reveals that the brutalization of workers in the United States

tzmofficial 16:37
16:40

was not an unusual occurrence.

tzmofficial 16:40
16:44

Sixty years earlier, in 1847, a nation-wide general strike

tzmofficial 16:44
16:47

was met with violent oppression by federal troops.

tzmofficial 16:47
16:50

Over 30 workers were killed, and 100 wounded

tzmofficial 16:50
16:54

at "The Battle of the Viaduct" in Chicago.

tzmofficial 16:54
16:59

In 1894, Federal troops killed 34 American railway union members

tzmofficial 16:59
17:03

also in the Chicago area. The troops were attempting to break a strike

tzmofficial 17:03
17:07

led by Eugene Debs against the Pullman Company.

tzmofficial 17:09
17:14

In 1897, 19 unarmed coal miners were killed and 36 wounded

tzmofficial 17:15
17:19

by a posse organized by a sheriff near Lattimer, Pennsylvania.

tzmofficial 17:19
17:23

Most of the workers were shot in the back while attempting to flee.

tzmofficial 17:23
17:26

The worldview of the great capitalists at the turn of the century

tzmofficial 17:26
17:29

can be summed up in the words of William Vanderbilt.

tzmofficial 17:29
17:32

In response to a suggestion that the New York Central Railroad

tzmofficial 17:32
17:36

should adjust its train schedules to accommodate the public

tzmofficial 17:36
17:39

he replied: "The public be damned!"

tzmofficial 17:41
17:46

But the relationship between the public and corporations was changing.

tzmofficial 18:12
18:15

Decades of organizing and rebellion had given rise

tzmofficial 18:15
18:19

to a vast network of labor groups with increasing political power.

tzmofficial 18:19
18:24

Over time, these included the Grange movement, the Socialist Party

tzmofficial 18:24
18:27

the Greenbackers, the Populists and Progressives.

tzmofficial 18:27
18:30

And perhaps most significantly, the anarchist union

tzmofficial 18:31
18:35

known as the Industrial Workers of the World, or the "Wobblies."

tzmofficial 18:35
18:39

Following the massacre at Ludlow, soldiers in Denver refused to participate

tzmofficial 18:39
18:42

in further attacks against the miners, declaring that

tzmofficial 18:43
18:45

they would not engage in the shooting of women and children.

tzmofficial 18:46
18:49

Demonstrations erupted across the country.

tzmofficial 18:50
18:54

A march occurred in front of the Rockefeller offices in New York City.

tzmofficial 18:54
18:57

A clergyman protested outside a church where Rockefeller

tzmofficial 18:57
19:01

liked to give sermons, only to be beaten by police.

tzmofficial 19:02
19:07

In modern parlance, it was a PR nightmare.

tzmofficial 19:10
19:14

-Ivy Lee went to work for, among other clients, the Rockefellers.

tzmofficial 19:15
19:20

The Rockefeller family, after the Ludlow massacre

tzmofficial 19:20
19:22

hired, used Ivy Lee

tzmofficial 19:22
19:27

to manage the public perception around that event and other events.

tzmofficial 19:27
19:31

Ivy Lee's specialty was crisis management.

tzmofficial 19:31
19:35

Among other things, he is credited with inventing the press release

tzmofficial 19:35
19:39

which all of us just sort of think of as something helpful.

tzmofficial 19:39
19:43

You want to publicize an event? A church picnic? Call a news conference?

tzmofficial 19:43
19:45

You put out a press release.

tzmofficial 19:46
19:48

But at the time, the idea was very radical

tzmofficial 19:48
19:50

because what Ivy Lee was saying is:

tzmofficial 19:50
19:54

"Well, we're going to manage this crisis by calling attention to it.

tzmofficial 19:54
19:56

We're going to actually assist and help

tzmofficial 19:56
20:00

the news media and journalists in covering it."

tzmofficial 20:00
20:04

What he knew was that the degree to which journalists became

tzmofficial 20:04
20:07

used to and dependent on his services was the degree

tzmofficial 20:07
20:12

to which he could actually cultivate and manage coverage.

tzmofficial 20:15
20:17

-Lee began by waging a disinformation campaign.

tzmofficial 20:18
20:22

He put out news bulletins claiming that the 2 women and 11 children at Ludlow

tzmofficial 20:22
20:26

had not been killed by militia, but by an overturned stove.

tzmofficial 20:26
20:29

He circulated stories suggesting that Mother Jones

tzmofficial 20:29
20:33

in addition to being a labor organizer, was a madame who ran a bordello.

tzmofficial 20:34
20:37

He ghostwrote letters to the Governor, and even to President Wilson.

tzmofficial 20:38
20:40

Lee's techniques achieved little success

tzmofficial 20:40
20:45

in part because he himself had become a highly visible figure.

tzmofficial 20:45
20:48

In the future, PR experts would learn that their techniques

tzmofficial 20:49
20:52

are rarely effective unless practiced in the dark.

tzmofficial 20:52
20:55

Yet, one of Lee's innovations was epoch-making.

tzmofficial 20:55
20:57

Upon learning that the Rockefeller Foundation

tzmofficial 20:57
21:01

had $100 million set aside for promotional purposes

tzmofficial 21:01
21:04

he convinced Rockefeller to donate large sums to colleges

tzmofficial 21:05
21:08

hospitals, churches and charitable organizations

tzmofficial 21:08
21:11

in order to generate positive publicity.

tzmofficial 21:11
21:15

He also suggested that Rockefeller Sr. begin handing out money in public

tzmofficial 21:15
21:20

and that Jr. appear in staged photo ops at work sites.

tzmofficial 21:21
21:25

What Ivy Lee understood was that the corporation needed a makeover.

tzmofficial 21:25
21:28

Widely perceived as greedy, tyrannical institutions

tzmofficial 21:28
21:33

corporations needed to manufacture an image of warmth and caring.

tzmofficial 21:34
21:39

-This was the beginning of the public relations industry.

tzmofficial 21:39
21:43

Rockefeller didn't set up the Rockefeller Foundation

tzmofficial 21:44
21:49

until Rockefeller became very unpopular because of his labor policies.

tzmofficial 21:49
21:54

And suddenly, Rockefeller needed to create a good impression.

tzmofficial 21:55
21:57

-Well, it's an interesting phenomenon that the poor actually give

tzmofficial 21:57
22:00

a larger percentage of their income

tzmofficial 22:00
22:02

than the rich.

tzmofficial 22:02
22:06

I think the rich feel they're doing more because

tzmofficial 22:06
22:11

giving a $100,000 seems like a substantial kind of donation

tzmofficial 22:12
22:16

and it doesn't matter that they have a $100 million.

tzmofficial 22:16
22:19

They still think, well, they've done quite a lot.

tzmofficial 22:19
22:22

So, it's partly a result of this distortion of economic values

tzmofficial 22:23
22:26

and it's partly the result of being cheap.

tzmofficial 22:26
22:28

People don't want to give away their wealth

tzmofficial 22:28
22:30

Ted Turner said, because they're afraid their status

tzmofficial 22:31
22:33

in the Forbes 400 is going to go down that little bit.

tzmofficial 22:34
22:37

So they give it away when it's prudent or when it's beneficial

tzmofficial 22:37
22:40

when they can get some displayed benefit out of it

tzmofficial 22:40
22:44

or when it can give them access to a different sort of social class

tzmofficial 22:44
22:47

or a different group that they want to be a part of.

tzmofficial 22:47
22:50

But, they have a more functional view of their wealth

tzmofficial 22:51
22:54

rather than a strictly charitable view.

tzmofficial 22:54
22:57

-Charity, and private charity, and you might say government charity

tzmofficial 22:57
23:01

any kind of action

tzmofficial 23:01
23:04

that relieves people's distress a little bit

tzmofficial 23:05
23:08

without changing the system, maintains the system.

tzmofficial 23:08
23:10

In fact that is the way that the American system

tzmofficial 23:10
23:13

which is very exploitative and very unfair

tzmofficial 23:13
23:16

that's the way the American system is being maintained

tzmofficial 23:16
23:18

for all these centuries, really.

tzmofficial 23:18
23:22

By giving people a little bit

tzmofficial 23:22
23:25

and giving enough people just enough

tzmofficial 23:25
23:29

to prevent them from breaking out in open rebellion.

tzmofficial 23:32
23:34

-Today, one of the largest PR firms in the world

tzmofficial 23:35
23:38

specializes in the art of crisis management.

tzmofficial 23:40
23:42

Burson-Marsteller holds offices in 35 countries

tzmofficial 23:43
23:46

and has served clients as varied as cigarette make Phillip Morris

tzmofficial 23:46
23:50

chemical giant Union Carbide and the Monsanto Corporation

tzmofficial 23:50
23:54

a company specializing in genetic engineering and other life sciences.

tzmofficial 23:54
23:59

Like the Rendon Group, Burson-Marsteller is bipartisan to the core.

tzmofficial 23:59
24:02

Its worldwide president and chief executive, Mark Penn

tzmofficial 24:02
24:07

served as Hillary Clinton's key political adviser during the 2008 election.

tzmofficial 24:13
24:15

The most disturbing facet of Burson-Marsteller

tzmofficial 24:16
24:20

is its willingness to work with the world's worst human rights violators.

tzmofficial 24:20
24:22

They ran PR for the Indonesian government

tzmofficial 24:22
24:25

as it committed genocide in East Timor.

tzmofficial 24:27
24:31

They worked closely with the Nigerian government and Royal Dutch Shell

tzmofficial 24:31
24:34

during and after the Biafran War in Nigeria.

tzmofficial 24:34
24:37

And they helped to improve the image of a U.S. backed

tzmofficial 24:37
24:41

Argentine military junta, led by General Jorge Videla.

tzmofficial 24:44
24:48

-One of their clients in the 1970's was the

tzmofficial 24:48
24:52

brutal Argentine junta which had taken control of the government there

tzmofficial 24:52
24:58

and was rounding up dissidents, systematically torturing, beating, killing

tzmofficial 24:58
25:04

people and flying out over the ocean and dumping bodies.

tzmofficial 25:07
25:09

Not a really good public image.

tzmofficial 25:09
25:13

So, the Burson-Marsteller firm was used by Argentina

tzmofficial 25:13
25:17

hired by Argentina and went to work for them quite happily

tzmofficial 25:17
25:22

under a fat contract to improve the image of Argentina

tzmofficial 25:23
25:28

in the international financial community and in the Western press.

tzmofficial 25:29
25:32

-In some ways, it should not be surprising that public relations

tzmofficial 25:32
25:36

has evolved into companies like Burson-Marsteller and the Rendon Group.

tzmofficial 25:36
25:38

Looking back at the career of its first guru

tzmofficial 25:38
25:42

we find a remarkably similar pattern.

tzmofficial 25:43
25:47

-Ivy Lee went to work for the IG Farben company

tzmofficial 25:48
25:52

a big German industrial company, and we know now that IG Farben

tzmofficial 25:53
25:57

was actually part of the Nazi propaganda inner circle.

tzmofficial 25:57
26:00

One of the most effective and, of course, horrifying

tzmofficial 26:01
26:04

government propaganda campaigns ever organized

tzmofficial 26:05
26:08

was the Nazi campaign that continued for years and years

tzmofficial 26:08
26:13

under the direction of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels.

tzmofficial 26:14
26:20

And IG Farben paid Ivy Lee and also paid Ivy Lee's son to represent

tzmofficial 26:20
26:26

not just their interests, but the interests of Nazi Germany in an effort to

tzmofficial 26:26
26:30

paint the Nazi regime as

tzmofficial 26:30
26:34

being a friendly regime.

tzmofficial 26:34
26:37

-But before lending his expertise to the Third Reich

tzmofficial 26:37
26:40

Mr. Lee would do so for the American government.

tzmofficial 26:40
26:43

Along with other experts in the burgeoning field of mind science and

tzmofficial 26:43
26:47

public relations, he would engineer propaganda for World War I

tzmofficial 26:48
26:50

not just against the enemy, the Germans

tzmofficial 26:51
26:54

but against the American people themselves.

tzmofficial 26:58
27:03

II. Propagating the Faith

tzmofficial 27:05
27:08

-We often talk about the propaganda being relatively recent

tzmofficial 27:08
27:10

but of course, it isn't.

tzmofficial 27:10
27:14

Even in ancient societies that weren't democratic

tzmofficial 27:14
27:18

especially large states, it was understood by elites that

tzmofficial 27:18
27:22

if you don't have the support of the people, you could be in trouble.

tzmofficial 27:22
27:25

And so, a fair bit of attention was actually given to

tzmofficial 27:25
27:29

legitimizing military adventures.

tzmofficial 27:29
27:32

I'm remembering here a passage from an old Chinese text

tzmofficial 27:32
27:36

I think it's Han Fei Tzu, so it would be about 2300 years ago

tzmofficial 27:36
27:40

where the author of the book says: "In general,"- and I'm quoting now-

tzmofficial 27:40
27:44

'In general, war is a thing that the people despise.

tzmofficial 27:44
27:48

Therefore, when a young man is to be sent off to war, his wife

tzmofficial 27:48
27:51

his parents, his family, should gather around him and say to him

tzmofficial 27:51
27:55

'Conquer, or let me never see you again'."

tzmofficial 27:55
27:58

And this is a very powerful sense of--

tzmofficial 27:58
28:01

Well, first of all, the violence done to that young man.

tzmofficial 28:01
28:04

But also of the sense that

tzmofficial 28:04
28:07

war is disgusting to most people

tzmofficial 28:07
28:10

and it is often not in their best interest

tzmofficial 28:10
28:14

and therefore, one needs all kinds of songs and dances

tzmofficial 28:14
28:16

and in this case

tzmofficial 28:16
28:19

threatening the young man, essentially, with dispossession.

tzmofficial 28:19
28:22

You can't return to your family. You can't return home.

tzmofficial 28:22
28:25

You'll be disgraced. Honor, security

tzmofficial 28:25
28:29

everything has been played upon here. And it continues.

tzmofficial 28:32
28:36

So yeah, national security is one of the most powerful notions

tzmofficial 28:36
28:40

in modern times, to swindle, I think, people

tzmofficial 28:40
28:43

to do things that are not in their best interest

tzmofficial 28:43
28:47

and to support massive military complexes

tzmofficial 28:47
28:49

that are not in anybody's interest

tzmofficial 28:49
28:54

but that are like cancers feeding on society for a career.

tzmofficial 28:55
28:59

-Propaganda and persuasion have been around for centuries.

tzmofficial 28:59
29:02

But propaganda in its modern sense

brunodc 29:02
29:05

can be traced to the 15th and 16th century

tzmofficial 29:06
29:10

when the Catholic Church was in a tough competition with the Protestants

tzmofficial 29:10
29:16

over how to articulate a religious vision for the world.

tzmofficial 29:16
29:19

And the reason that I mention this is that it shows

tzmofficial 29:20
29:23

that propaganda is about mindset.

tzmofficial 29:23
29:28

It's about ideology. It's about worldview: how people see things

tzmofficial 29:28
29:30

as distinct from an individual policy

tzmofficial 29:30
29:34

or whether you happen to like this candidate or that candidate.

tzmofficial 29:34
29:37

So, that's where the word came from:

tzmofficial 29:38
29:41

for "propagating the faith".

tzmofficial 29:42
29:45

And that's the way the word was used up until the early 20th century.

tzmofficial 29:45
29:49

And then, what emerged, particularly with World War I

tzmofficial 29:50
29:54

was the application of this 'propagating the faith'

tzmofficial 29:55
29:58

to refer to international affairs

tzmofficial 29:58
30:01

to refer to what a national government would do

tzmofficial 30:01
30:04

a national security policy.

tzmofficial 30:29
30:32

In the run-up to World War I, and during World War I

tzmofficial 30:33
30:38

what one saw in the geopolitical stage was a crisis of empires.

tzmofficial 30:38
30:41

Empires were disintegrating; they were falling apart.

tzmofficial 30:41
30:45

The British Empire seemed extremely strong at that time

tzmofficial 30:45
30:49

and yet nevertheless was in a downward phase.

tzmofficial 30:49
30:52

It couldn't afford to support its own army, for example.

tzmofficial 30:52
30:56

Same with the French. Same with the Austro-Hungarians.

tzmofficial 30:57
31:00

Same with the Russians, the Tsarist Empire.

tzmofficial 31:00
31:04

Same with Ottoman Turkish Empire, and so on around the world.

tzmofficial 31:04
31:09

When that war was underway

tzmofficial 31:09
31:12

most particularly the United Kingdom

tzmofficial 31:12
31:16

came up with an office whose specific purpose

tzmofficial 31:16
31:21

was promoting the war aims of the United Kingdom, the English

tzmofficial 31:21
31:24

through publicity, through covert operations

tzmofficial 31:24
31:29

through what would today be called dirty tricks, through telling the truth

tzmofficial 31:29
31:34

through a whole number of different applications of information

tzmofficial 31:34
31:38

using information as an instrument of war.

tzmofficial 31:40
31:42

And from the get-go, from the very beginning

tzmofficial 31:42
31:46

it was both aimed at the enemy

tzmofficial 31:47
31:49

and aimed at the home population.

tzmofficial 31:49
31:52

-The Creel Commission was the American variant of it.

tzmofficial 31:52
31:55

Woodrow Wilson came into office in 1916

tzmofficial 31:55
31:58

with the slogan 'Peace Without Victory'.

tzmofficial 31:58
32:02

He said that what we want is an end to World War I.

tzmofficial 32:02
32:04

Neither side deserves our support.

brunodc 32:04
32:06

And the population didn't want to enter the war.

tzmofficial 32:07
32:10

-In America, 1916 was an election year.

tzmofficial 32:13
32:16

The war was the dominant issue.

tzmofficial 32:16
32:20

The election campaigns of the parties crystallized the sway of opinion.

tzmofficial 32:20
32:24

Neutralism, the profound wish to stay out of the war

tzmofficial 32:24
32:28

still possessed a doughty champion in the President.

tzmofficial 32:28
32:30

Support for Wilson's policy was strong

tzmofficial 32:30
32:32

in the Middle-West and Pacific states.

tzmofficial 32:33
32:38

Europe's war seemed more remote there than on the Atlantic seaboard.

tzmofficial 32:39
32:41

At the Democratic Convention, Wilson was renominated

tzmofficial 32:41
32:43

presidential candidate.

tzmofficial 32:44
32:46

The chairman opened his speech with a text

brunodc 32:46
32:48

from the Sermon on the Mount:

tzmofficial 32:48
32:50

-"Blessed are the peace-makers:

tzmofficial 32:50
32:54

for they shall be called the children of God."

tzmofficial 32:54
32:58

-Within a couple of months, Wilson was talking about

tzmofficial 32:58
33:00

'Victory Without Peace'

tzmofficial 33:00
33:04

and he had to somehow drive the population into accepting

tzmofficial 33:05
33:08

this sharp change in policy; the opposite of what they voted for

brunodc 33:09
33:11

and that's where the Creel Commission came in.

tzmofficial 33:11
33:16

-George Creel described his work with unabashed enthusiasm.

tzmofficial 33:16
33:21

It was a plain publicity proposition. A vast enterprise in salesmanship.

tzmofficial 33:21
33:24

The world's greatest adventure in advertising.

tzmofficial 33:25
33:29

75,000 civil leaders, known as "Four Minute Men"

tzmofficial 33:29
33:32

were assembled to deliver pro-war messages to people in churches

tzmofficial 33:33
33:36

theaters and civic groups.

tzmofficial 33:39
33:42

Periodicals were sent to 600,000 teachers.

tzmofficial 33:43
33:46

Boy Scouts delivered copies of President Wilson's addresses

tzmofficial 33:46
33:48

to households across America.

tzmofficial 33:48
33:51

In was, in short, the largest wartime propaganda campaign

tzmofficial 33:52
33:53

in the history of the United States.

tzmofficial 33:55
33:59

Central to the committee's propaganda were two basic ideas:

tzmofficial 33:59
34:02

1: the American homeland was in imminent danger

tzmofficial 34:02
34:06

from a savage, bloodthirsty foe.

tzmofficial 34:07
34:10

And 2: it was the fate of the American nation

tzmofficial 34:10
34:12

in President Wilson's words

tzmofficial 34:12
34:16

to "make the world safe for democracy".

tzmofficial 34:17
34:21

The first thing was a time-honored tactic, long used in the United States

tzmofficial 34:21
34:23

and other countries, to vilify foreign enemies

tzmofficial 34:24
34:26

indigenous peoples, and slaves.

tzmofficial 34:27
34:31

During the Great War, the savage Indian and the sub-human Negro

tzmofficial 34:31
34:35

were transformed into the barbaric Hun.

tzmofficial 35:06
35:09

The caricature of the bloodthirsty Hun was bolstered

tzmofficial 35:09
35:13

by a series of fake news reports leaked by the new propaganda industry

tzmofficial 35:13
35:15

and disseminated to the public.

tzmofficial 35:15
35:19

Among them, that babies in Belgium had had their hands cut off

tzmofficial 35:19
35:23

were being impaled on bayonets and, in one case, nailed to a door.

tzmofficial 35:26
35:30

That a Canadian had been crucified by German soldiers

tzmofficial 35:31
35:33

and that dead bodies were being boiled down in so-called

tzmofficial 35:33
35:38

"corpse factories", to be used for ammunitions and pig food.

tzmofficial 35:39
35:42

In a foreshadowing of the "Freedom Fries" incident

tzmofficial 35:42
35:46

sauerkraut was renamed "Liberty cabbage".

tzmofficial 35:47
35:50

False atrocity stories would become a staple for nations

tzmofficial 35:50
35:52

in wartime throughout the 20th century.

tzmofficial 35:52
35:56

A recent example occurred prior to the First Gulf War.

tzmofficial 35:56
36:01

-While I was there I saw Iraqi soldiers come into the hospital with guns.

tzmofficial 36:01
36:05

They took the babies out of the incubators...

tzmofficial 36:06
36:11

...took the incubators and left the children to die on the cold floor.

tzmofficial 36:11
36:14

-As it turns out, the massacre of babes never occurred.

tzmofficial 36:15
36:18

The young girl was actually a member of the Kuwaiti royal family

tzmofficial 36:18
36:21

and had been coached by the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton

tzmofficial 36:21
36:23

to give persuasive false testimony.

tzmofficial 36:24
36:27

-Kids in incubators, and they were thrown out of the incubators

tzmofficial 36:27
36:31

so that Kuwait could be systematically dismantled.

tzmofficial 36:38
36:41

-The attempt to engender hatred against Germans in support of the war effort

tzmofficial 36:41
36:44

was highly successful. But there was another

tzmofficial 36:44
36:48

equally important aspect to the domestic propaganda campaign.

tzmofficial 36:48
36:53

If every adventure story needs a villain, it also needs a hero.

tzmofficial 36:57
37:01

"You should use your influence to keep your peaceful people from

tzmofficial 37:01
37:06

fighting the battles of a distant France or Belgium."

tzmofficial 37:11
37:14

"It is God who calls my sons, to save humanity."

tzmofficial 37:14
37:18

-Now this is a song I made about when they were drafting the men.

tzmofficial 37:18
37:21

Uncle Sam says he travel East and he travel the West.

tzmofficial 37:21
37:24

Uncle Sam says he believe he know the best.

tzmofficial 37:24
37:30

♪ Uncle Sam says, uncle Sam says

tzmofficial 37:31
37:37

Uncle Sam says you gotta bottle up and go.

tzmofficial 37:37
37:38

I travel East and I travel the West...♪

tzmofficial 37:38
37:42

-Creel estimated that 72 million copies of 30 different booklets

tzmofficial 37:42
37:45

about American ideals were sent across the United States

tzmofficial 37:46
37:48

with millions more sent abroad.

tzmofficial 37:48
37:51

In addition to influencing the minds of Europeans

tzmofficial 37:51
37:53

the goal was to redefine for the home population

tzmofficial 37:53
37:57

the very concept of what it meant to be American.

tzmofficial 37:57
38:00

The new American would not interpret events, from what Creel called

tzmofficial 38:00
38:05

a class or sectional standpoint, but rather as a unified collective.

tzmofficial 38:05
38:11

In this manner, the people could be herded into "One white hot mass instinct."

tzmofficial 38:14
38:17

Previously, military action by the United States

tzmofficial 38:17
38:21

had been justified under the pretense of maintaining order

tzmofficial 38:21
38:25

protecting American interests, and bringing civilization to the savages.

tzmofficial 38:26
38:30

Now, the word "civilization" would transmute into "democracy".

tzmofficial 38:30
38:31

♪ Uncle Sam say you don't have to hesitate.

tzmofficial 38:31
38:37

Uncle Sam says you gotta bottle up and go.

tzmofficial 38:37
38:39

?? numbers call 192

tzmofficial 38:41
38:44

-Marshall McLuhan, the Canadian communications theorist once said that:

tzmofficial 38:44
38:48

'If a fish could talk, and you could ask a fish

tzmofficial 38:48
38:50

"What's the most obvious element of your environment?"

tzmofficial 38:51
38:55

the last thing that the fish would say would be "water".

tzmofficial 38:55
38:58

That's the last thing the fish would notice and it's true about any culture.

tzmofficial 38:58
39:03

Those things that are most powerful and most obvious to an outsider

tzmofficial 39:03
39:05

don't get seen by the people swimming in that water.

brunodc 39:05
39:08

"America is God's chosen people."

tzmofficial 39:08
39:12

This goes back to as far as 1630 where John Winthrop on the Arabella,

brunodc 39:12
39:16

coming from England to the United States, said "We're a city on a hill."

tzmofficial 39:17
39:20

It's not an accident that in the campaign debates

tzmofficial 39:21
39:24

and stumps of the recent candidates

tzmofficial 39:24
39:28

you had Barack Obama actually saying that:

tzmofficial 39:28
39:31

"we are a city on a hill", as well as Sarah Palin.

tzmofficial 39:31
39:35

Ronald Reagan said it in his inaugural address.

tzmofficial 39:35
39:38

I've spoken of a shining city all my political life

tzmofficial 39:38
39:41

but I don't know if I ever quite communicated

tzmofficial 39:41
39:43

what I saw when I said it.

tzmofficial 39:43
39:46

But in my mind, it was a tall, proud city

tzmofficial 39:46
39:49

built on rocks stronger than oceans

tzmofficial 39:49
39:51

wind-swept, God-blessed

tzmofficial 39:51
39:55

and teeming with people of all kinds, living in harmony and peace."

tzmofficial 39:55
39:58

-We're a city on a hill, and so our mission is to democratize

tzmofficial 39:59
40:01

the rest of the world. We've got the best system possible

tzmofficial 40:01
40:05

and basically people ought to pay attention to us, 'cause we know.

tzmofficial 40:10
40:14

-The idea of a particular state cast as savior of the world

tzmofficial 40:14
40:17

would be taken to new heights in the United States

tzmofficial 40:17
40:20

but it wasn't an American invention.

tzmofficial 40:20
40:22

The "savior" motif was used as a justification

tzmofficial 40:22
40:26

for virtually every imperial intervention during the Colonial Era.

tzmofficial 40:30
40:34

French leaders spoke of a "civilizing mission" in their new colonies.

tzmofficial 40:36
40:41

British leaders spoke of bringing progress and civilized government to India.

tzmofficial 40:41
40:46

Imperial Japan spoke of unleashing an earthly paradise in Asia.

tzmofficial 40:46
40:50

While the Third Reich dreamt of a worldwide utopia.

tzmofficial 40:54
40:57

A decade before World War I, Mark Twain stated that:

tzmofficial 40:57
41:00

"My kind of loyalty was loyalty to one's country

tzmofficial 41:01
41:04

not to its institutions or its office-holders."

tzmofficial 41:04
41:08

Decades later, George Orwell came to a similar conclusion, that:

tzmofficial 41:08
41:11

"Patriotism is a devotion to a certain place and people

tzmofficial 41:11
41:16

contrary to nationalism, which is inseparable from lust for power."

tzmofficial 41:16
41:19

This concept of patriotism remains elusive.

tzmofficial 41:20
41:24

-Once the war against Saddam begins, we expect every American

tzmofficial 41:24
41:27

to support our military, and if they can't do that, to shut up.

tzmofficial 41:28
41:30

-Equating super-patriotism with militarism:

tzmofficial 41:30
41:34

military endeavor, military achievements

tzmofficial 41:34
41:37

military struggles and victories; that's all supposedly

tzmofficial 41:37
41:40

a special manifestation of super-patriotism.

tzmofficial 41:41
41:45

And I argue that a real patriot wants something different for his country.

tzmofficial 41:45
41:49

He wants social justice. He wants peace and stability.

tzmofficial 41:49
41:54

He wants fairness. He wants an end to racism and sexism.

tzmofficial 41:54
41:59

He takes pride in his country's ability at social betterment

tzmofficial 41:59
42:01

rather than his country's ability

tzmofficial 42:02
42:05

to invade and knock around other countries.

tzmofficial 42:05
42:08

A real patriot feels an attachment to his country

tzmofficial 42:08
42:11

but not at the expense of other countries.

tzmofficial 42:11
42:15

He or she may feel a special attachment

tzmofficial 42:15
42:17

to the history of his own country.

tzmofficial 42:17
42:19

He values the accomplishments of his country

tzmofficial 42:20
42:23

like the abolition of slavery, the emergence of collective bargaining

tzmofficial 42:23
42:26

and the rights of working people for a better life

tzmofficial 42:26
42:30

the gains made by women

tzmofficial 42:30
42:33

in terms of being able to get into public life.

brunodc 42:33
42:37

These are the kind of things that the real patriot would value.

tzmofficial 42:38
42:42

In October 2001, George W. Bush signed into law

tzmofficial 42:42
42:44

what civil libertarians characterize

tzmofficial 42:44
42:47

as an all-out assault against the Bill of Rights.

tzmofficial 42:47
42:50

It was called the Patriot Act.

tzmofficial 42:50
42:53

During the Great War, similar bills were passed.

tzmofficial 42:53
42:58

The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act, passed a year later

tzmofficial 42:58
43:01

authorized huge fines and lengthy prison terms for anyone

tzmofficial 43:01
43:04

who obstructed the military draft, or encouraged what was termed

tzmofficial 43:04
43:06

"disloyalty to the state".

tzmofficial 43:06
43:10

The sweeping legislation was quickly put into effect.

tzmofficial 43:10
43:13

And first on the list, were the "Wobblies".

brunodc 43:13
43:16

Shall we have this-

tzmofficial 43:16
43:21

Prosperity

brunodc 43:21
43:25

-Or shall it be this-

tzmofficial 43:34
43:39

Anarchy, Sedition, Lawlessness.

tzmofficial 43:45
43:50

-In many ways, the Wobblies were the most impressive example

tzmofficial 43:50
43:54

of a union movement in the history of the U.S. working class.

tzmofficial 43:54
43:57

'Wobblies' was the nickname for an organization called

tzmofficial 43:57
44:01

the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW),

tzmofficial 44:01
44:07

which flourished in the first decade and a half of the 20th century.

tzmofficial 44:07
44:12

The American Federation of Labor, which was the main craft union at the time

tzmofficial 44:12
44:16

refused to organize African-Americans, immigrants

tzmofficial 44:16
44:18

and women workers.

tzmofficial 44:18
44:21

So, that meant excluding the vast majority

tzmofficial 44:21
44:23

of the working class from the union movement.

tzmofficial 44:24
44:28

Along come the Wobblies, and they set out from the beginning

tzmofficial 44:28
44:32

specifically to organize immigrants

tzmofficial 44:32
44:35

women, African-Americans, alongside white workers

tzmofficial 44:36
44:38

in what they called 'one big union'.

tzmofficial 44:38
44:41

They led some of the most successful strikes.

tzmofficial 44:41
44:45

One of their strikes was the first sit-down strike at the time.

tzmofficial 44:45
44:48

Women workers played leadership roles

tzmofficial 44:48
44:51

something that was absolutely unheard of at the time.

tzmofficial 44:51
44:55

Their philosophy was a revolutionary philosophy.

tzmofficial 44:55
44:58

It's known as anarcho-syndicalism.

tzmofficial 44:58
45:02

-A federated, decentralized

tzmofficial 45:04
45:07

system of free associations

tzmofficial 45:07
45:10

incorporating economic as well as social institutions

tzmofficial 45:10
45:14

would be what I refer to as anarcho-syndicalism

tzmofficial 45:14
45:19

and it seems to me that it is the appropriate form of social organization

tzmofficial 45:19
45:23

for an advanced technological society in which human beings

tzmofficial 45:23
45:27

do not have to be forced into positions of tools; of cogs in a machine.

tzmofficial 45:36
45:39

-On September 5th, 1917, Federal agents

tzmofficial 45:39
45:42

raided offices of the Wobblies across the nation

tzmofficial 45:42
45:45

leading to arrests for the offense of causing insubordination

tzmofficial 45:45
45:50

disloyalty, and refusal of duty in the military and naval forces.

tzmofficial 45:50
45:53

101 of the defendants were found guilty

tzmofficial 45:53
45:56

and received prison sentences up to 20 years.

tzmofficial 45:57
46:03

-Wilson carried out a brutal internal repression called the Red Scare

tzmofficial 46:03
46:07

which was the worst in American history; far worse than McCarthy

tzmofficial 46:07
46:10

and far worse than anything that's going on now.

tzmofficial 46:10
46:14

They arrested thousands of people and smashed the labor movement.

tzmofficial 46:14
46:18

Heavy constraints on free expression, threw lots of people in jail

tzmofficial 46:18
46:21

expelled all sorts of people from the country.

tzmofficial 46:26
46:28

-Yet, what had started as a hunt against radicals

tzmofficial 46:28
46:32

soon spread to every corner of American society.

tzmofficial 46:32
46:35

Patriots were encouraged to inform on friends and neighbors

tzmofficial 46:35
46:37

who spoke out against the war

tzmofficial 46:37
46:41

while surveillance increased dramatically, not only by the military

tzmofficial 46:41
46:44

but by seemingly benign institutions, like the Postal system.

tzmofficial 46:44
46:47

-The state flourishes in time of war.

tzmofficial 46:47
46:49

The state grows stronger in time of war.

tzmofficial 46:49
46:53

The state accumulates power. The military is enhanced.

tzmofficial 46:53
46:57

The forces of repression are enhanced.

brunodc 46:57
47:02

War is an opportunity for the government to grow in power.

tzmofficial 47:03
47:06

-By the time the war ended, the total number of deaths

tzmofficial 47:06
47:10

had reached approximately 9.7 million soldiers

tzmofficial 47:10
47:12

with millions more suffering life-changing injuries

tzmofficial 47:12
47:15

and severe post-traumatic stress.

tzmofficial 47:16
47:20

To what end was not clear. The massive bloodshed

tzmofficial 47:20
47:23

had not made the world safe for freedom and democracy.

tzmofficial 47:23
47:25

What it had done, was produce enormous fortunes

tzmofficial 47:26
47:28

for a handful of corporations and banks

tzmofficial 47:28
47:31

while leaving the worldwide labor movement in disarray.

tzmofficial 47:31
47:34

If the Great War had been a test of the Constitution

tzmofficial 47:35
47:39

and the concept of balancing the powers by each other, it failed.

tzmofficial 47:39
47:43

The United States Supreme Court established in Schenck vs. United States

tzmofficial 47:43
47:47

and Abrams vs. United States, that the Federal Government

tzmofficial 47:47
47:50

could suspend constitutional rights when the nation faced:

tzmofficial 47:50
47:53

"a clear and present danger".

tzmofficial 47:53
47:57

Randolph Bourne, speaking of the Great War as a whole

tzmofficial 47:57
48:00

responded preemptively with a now-famous dictum.

tzmofficial 48:00
48:05

"War", he said, "is the health of the state."

tzmofficial 48:13
48:17

III. We The People

tzmofficial 48:18
48:23

-The definition of polyarchy that we have in the social sciences

tzmofficial 48:23
48:26

is a system where the participation of masses of people is limited to

tzmofficial 48:27
48:29

voting among one or another representatives

tzmofficial 48:29
48:32

of the elite in periodic elections.

tzmofficial 48:32
48:35

And in between elections, the masses are now expected to keep quiet

tzmofficial 48:35
48:39

to go back to life as usual while the elite make the decisions and run the world

tzmofficial 48:39
48:44

until they can choose between one or another elite another four years later.

tzmofficial 48:44
48:49

So really, polyarchy is a system of elite rule

tzmofficial 48:50
48:52

and a system of elite rule which is a little more soft-core

tzmofficial 48:52
48:54

than the type of elite rule that we would see under

tzmofficial 48:54
48:57

a military dictatorship, for instance.

tzmofficial 48:57
48:59

But, what we see is that under a polyarchy

tzmofficial 48:59
49:02

the basic socioeconomic system does not change;

tzmofficial 49:02
49:06

it does not become democratized. Wealth is not redistributed downward.

tzmofficial 49:06
49:09

You don't see a more equitable redistribution of wealth and resources.

tzmofficial 49:09
49:12

So that's the key: socioeconomic dictatorship

tzmofficial 49:12
49:16

and free elections; that's the prescription for polyarchy.

tzmofficial 49:17
49:21

Participatory democracy would see not only more participation

tzmofficial 49:21
49:24

of people in the running of their daily affairs, but it would see

tzmofficial 49:24
49:28

a democratization of the economy; democratization of social relations.

tzmofficial 49:28
49:30

-In the 20th century

tzmofficial 49:30
49:33

you can't really talk openly about rule by the rich.

tzmofficial 49:34
49:37

That doesn't sound nice. The devices that have been developed

tzmofficial 49:37
49:42

propaganda devices, are ruled by the more competent:

tzmofficial 49:42
49:48

the technocratic elite, the responsible people, the educated sectors.

tzmofficial 49:48
49:52

There's a huge literature on this, but maybe the primary source

tzmofficial 49:52
49:55

for the 20th century is the leading public intellectual

tzmofficial 49:55
49:59

of the 20th century, in the United States, Walter Lippmann.

tzmofficial 49:59
50:01

Highly respected commentator on public affairs

tzmofficial 50:01
50:03

also a theorist of democracy.

tzmofficial 50:03
50:08

-During World War I, people who later emerged

brunodc 50:08
50:12

as sort of the "Founding Fathers" of modern communication research

tzmofficial 50:12
50:16

modern communication applications, mass media applications-

tzmofficial 50:16
50:20

quite a number of them had worked as propagandists during World War I

tzmofficial 50:20
50:23

often as relatively young people

tzmofficial 50:23
50:26

who were shaping their own ideas at the time.

tzmofficial 50:26
50:31

And one of them was Walter Lippmann. And Lippmann has emerged

tzmofficial 50:32
50:37

really to this day, as a leading intellectual light

tzmofficial 50:37
50:40

of a particular way of looking at society.

tzmofficial 50:40
50:44

-Today, Walter Lippmann is known as the "Dean of American journalism."

tzmofficial 50:45
50:48

Yet during the Great War, he had been chief leaflet writer

tzmofficial 50:48
50:50

and editor of a U.S. propaganda unit.

tzmofficial 50:51
50:53

He also served as Secretary of "The Inquiry"

tzmofficial 50:53
50:56

a quasi-intelligence agency.

tzmofficial 50:57
51:00

Before dealing with Lippmann's contributions to political theory

tzmofficial 51:00
51:03

we first have to understand the forms of democracy

tzmofficial 51:03
51:06

that have characterized the United States and other Western nations

tzmofficial 51:06
51:09

since the age of the great Revolutions.

tzmofficial 51:09
51:11

A leap forward from the age of monarchy

tzmofficial 51:11
51:15

the new nation-states would nevertheless preserve the concept

tzmofficial 51:15
51:18

that wealthy elites had the right to rule over the mass of the population.

tzmofficial 51:19
51:22

-Well, it's done me a sight of good, coming forward in time like this

tzmofficial 51:22
51:26

to see how wonderful things have turned out.

tzmofficial 51:26
51:28

But, I wish I could take you back with me

tzmofficial 51:29
51:32

back in time, back those 200 years

tzmofficial 51:32
51:35

when we were starting as a nation.

tzmofficial 51:35
51:38

I wish you could have seen this country then.

tzmofficial 52:02
52:04

-George Washington was a slave owner.

tzmofficial 52:04
52:07

James Madison was a slave owner.

tzmofficial 52:07
52:10

Thomas Jefferson was a slave owner.

tzmofficial 52:10
52:13

Importantly, Jefferson, who was the most democratic of the lot

tzmofficial 52:13
52:16

wasn't at the Philadelphia Convention.

tzmofficial 52:16
52:18

He was Ambassador to France, and he picked up

tzmofficial 52:18
52:21

a lot of radical ideas from the French Revolution

tzmofficial 52:21
52:25

which didn't exactly endear him to people like Alexander Hamilton.

tzmofficial 52:25
52:29

The initial divide in American politics then

tzmofficial 52:29
52:31

goes back to those roots.

tzmofficial 52:31
52:36

It's Jeffersonian Democrats against Federalists

tzmofficial 52:36
52:39

the leader of whom, until he was killed by Burr

tzmofficial 52:39
52:41

was Alexander Hamilton.

tzmofficial 52:41
52:43

Essentially a class struggle, a class conflict.

tzmofficial 52:43
52:46

Thomas Jefferson was, in fact

tzmofficial 52:46
52:50

a fairly radical Democratic thinker in his time.

tzmofficial 52:50
52:53

And clearly, the Declaration's statement

tzmofficial 52:53
52:55

that 'We hold these truths to be self-evident

tzmofficial 52:55
52:58

that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator

tzmofficial 52:58
53:04

with certain inalienable rights', was a powerful Democratic statement.

tzmofficial 53:05
53:09

And, although Jefferson would not have applied it to women

tzmofficial 53:09
53:14

or the Indians or to Blacks, nonetheless, in all of those cases

tzmofficial 53:14
53:18

those words would come back to be very serviceable for those groups

tzmofficial 53:18
53:21

in pushing civil rights and civil liberties forward

tzmofficial 53:22
53:26

in the United States from where Jefferson's statement left them.

tzmofficial 53:27
53:29

The problem with the Declaration of Independence

tzmofficial 53:29
53:33

was that once independence was gotten from Britain

tzmofficial 53:33
53:35

then the question became one of governance:

tzmofficial 53:35
53:39

how would these former colonies of Britain be governed?

tzmofficial 53:39
53:44

Well, it led immediately to the Constitutional Convention in 1787

tzmofficial 53:44
53:49

where a series of uprisings by debtors, essentially

tzmofficial 53:49
53:52

not just in Massachusetts the most famous is, of course

tzmofficial 53:52
53:54

the Shays' Rebellion in 1786.

tzmofficial 53:54
53:58

-The American state was founded, largely to get the Ohio Valley

tzmofficial 53:58
54:01

largely to cross the Appalachians

tzmofficial 54:01
54:03

the American, that is the Constitution

tzmofficial 54:03
54:06

to organize an army and money

tzmofficial 54:06
54:09

in order to conquer further lands more to the West.

tzmofficial 54:09
54:11

That's the origin of the U.S.A.

tzmofficial 54:11
54:14

But to do that, the slave-masters are not going to do the fighting

tzmofficial 54:15
54:18

what they will do is hire poor people to do it.

tzmofficial 54:18
54:21

But when they don't pay the poor people, as they didn't pay Daniel Shays

tzmofficial 54:21
54:25

Daniel Shays takes matters into his own hands in 1787

tzmofficial 54:25
54:28

and goes to the courts and shuts down the courts

tzmofficial 54:28
54:31

because the courts were beginning to foreclose

tzmofficial 54:31
54:34

on the grounds that Daniel Shays and the other veterans

tzmofficial 54:34
54:38

from the American War of Independence did not have the money to pay back.

tzmofficial 54:38
54:41

-Debtor riots were happening throughout the 1780's

tzmofficial 54:41
54:44

and they were sufficiently scary from the point of view

tzmofficial 54:44
54:48

of people with property, that they had to do something about it.

tzmofficial 54:48
54:51

And what they did about it was, essentially

tzmofficial 54:51
54:53

overthrow the Articles of Confederation

tzmofficial 54:54
54:57

and instill a much stronger

tzmofficial 54:57
55:02

much more able government to protect the property interests

tzmofficial 55:02
55:07

that were in dire threat from the 'people'.

tzmofficial 55:07
55:10

This was an elitist you could almost say coup d'état

tzmofficial 55:10
55:13

except there wasn't any strong central government

tzmofficial 55:13
55:15

to launch a coup against.

tzmofficial 55:15
55:17

They were really trying to set one up

tzmofficial 55:18
55:21

and protect it against a majoritarian interest

tzmofficial 55:21
55:24

especially economic interest, especially property interest

tzmofficial 55:25
55:29

especially threats from people who didn't have much.

tzmofficial 55:29
55:31

First thing they did when they got to Philadelphia

tzmofficial 55:31
55:34

in 1787 was they locked the doors.

tzmofficial 55:34
55:38

And the only reason we know what happened behind those closed doors

tzmofficial 55:38
55:42

were that people like James Madison kept extensive notes.

tzmofficial 55:42
55:46

-The American Constitution was formulated primarily by James Madison.

tzmofficial 55:46
55:51

He's the major framer of the Constitution and he wanted to overcome

tzmofficial 55:51
55:53

what he called the tyranny of the majority.

tzmofficial 55:54
55:56

He said the primary goal of government

tzmofficial 55:57
55:59

is to ensure that the opulent

tzmofficial 55:59
56:02

are protected from the majority.

tzmofficial 56:02
56:06

So therefore, he designed the Constitution in such a way that

tzmofficial 56:06
56:12

as he put it, the 'wealth of the nation' will be in charge.

tzmofficial 56:13
56:16

The more responsible set of men; those who sympathize

tzmofficial 56:16
56:19

with property owners and their rights.

tzmofficial 56:19
56:22

And the system was designed that way. That power was in the Senate

tzmofficial 56:22
56:26

which was the least representative body

tzmofficial 56:26
56:29

and it was the 'wealth of the nation' and in fact, it still is.

tzmofficial 56:29
56:33

The House of Representatives, which is more democratic in theory

tzmofficial 56:33
56:36

was given much less power.

tzmofficial 56:36
56:38

And the powerful executive is also supposed

tzmofficial 56:38
56:40

to represent the 'wealth of the nation'.

tzmofficial 56:41
56:44

In Madison's defense, one should say

tzmofficial 56:44
56:48

that he was really pre-capitalist in his mentality.

tzmofficial 56:49
56:52

He assumed that the wealthy would be

tzmofficial 56:53
56:55

what he called benevolent gentlemen

tzmofficial 56:56
56:58

who would not be concerned with their own interests

tzmofficial 56:58
57:01

but with the benefit of the people.

tzmofficial 57:02
57:06

Adam Smith, who preceded him, was much more realistic.

tzmofficial 57:07
57:11

He pointed out that the principal architects of policy

tzmofficial 57:11
57:14

namely the merchants and manufacturers in his day

tzmofficial 57:14
57:17

they ensure that policies are designed

tzmofficial 57:17
57:19

so that their own interests are protected

tzmofficial 57:19
57:22

no matter how grievous

tzmofficial 57:22
57:25

the effect on others, including the people of England.

tzmofficial 57:25
57:29

It's rather interesting to compare

tzmofficial 57:29
57:32

Madison's thinking which founded this country

tzmofficial 57:32
57:35

with the first major book on politics

tzmofficial 57:35
57:37

namely Aristotle's Politics.

tzmofficial 57:37
57:41

Aristotle surveyed many kinds of systems

tzmofficial 57:41
57:44

and decided that, of all of them, he didn't like any of them

tzmofficial 57:44
57:47

but he said of all of them, democracy is probably the best.

tzmofficial 57:47
57:50

But he said that democracy has a problem

tzmofficial 57:50
57:54

and it was the same problem that Madison noticed centuries later.

tzmofficial 57:54
57:57

He said, if in Athens everyone had a right to vote

tzmofficial 57:58
58:01

the poor majority would attack the property of the rich

tzmofficial 58:01
58:05

insist that it would be divided, and he also felt that was unfair.

tzmofficial 58:05
58:09

But Madison and Aristotle had opposite solutions.

tzmofficial 58:09
58:13

Madison's solution was to restrict democracy.

tzmofficial 58:13
58:17

Aristotle's solution was to restrict inequality.

tzmofficial 58:17
58:20

-Opponents of the new government were called Anti-Federalists

tzmofficial 58:20
58:22

though the term is inaccurate.

tzmofficial 58:22
58:25

The majority favored some form of federation

tzmofficial 58:25
58:27

but insisted on more localized control

tzmofficial 58:27
58:30

with a more participatory democratic system.

tzmofficial 58:31
58:34

-The Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution

tzmofficial 58:34
58:38

they were the price the Federalists had to pay

tzmofficial 58:38
58:42

in the ratifying conventions to pass the document.

tzmofficial 58:43
58:47

So, the democratic element of the Constitution

tzmofficial 58:48
58:51

which, of course, is the Bill of Rights, was forced down their throats.

tzmofficial 58:52
58:54

It didn't come out of Philadelphia at all.

tzmofficial 58:54
58:57

It was appended in 1791

tzmofficial 58:58
59:01

and forced down the Constitution

tzmofficial 59:01
59:05

by the more democratic elements in the society.

tzmofficial 59:05
59:09

Even with the Bill of Rights, we have a system

tzmofficial 59:09
59:13

which is hardly perfect from the point of view of civil rights

tzmofficial 59:13
59:16

and civil liberties, let's put it mildly.

tzmofficial 59:16
59:18

It trampled all over with the rights of citizens.

tzmofficial 59:18
59:22

So the Bill of Rights is hardly an ironclad set of guarantees

tzmofficial 59:22
59:25

for civil rights and civil liberties in the United States.

tzmofficial 59:25
59:29

I hate to think of the United States without it. The Anti-Federalists

tzmofficial 59:29
59:32

were significantly more partial

tzmofficial 59:32
59:37

to democratic elements in the society

tzmofficial 59:37
59:40

and to the rights of ordinary people

tzmofficial 59:40
59:44

than were the significantly more elitist Federalists.

tzmofficial 59:44
59:48

-If the greatest legacy of the Anti-Federalists was the Bill of Rights

tzmofficial 59:48
59:51

their dream of direct democracy was not to be.

tzmofficial 59:51
59:54

At the time, many dissidents made predictions for what they believed

tzmofficial 59:54
59:59

would come to pass as the new nation grew and flourished.

tzmofficial 59:59
1:00:02

"The natural course of power is to make the many slaves to the few"

tzmofficial 1:00:03
1:00:05

one Anti-Federalist wrote.

tzmofficial 1:00:05
1:00:07

Another objected to the new government because

tzmofficial 1:00:08
1:00:10

"The bulk of the people can have nothing to say to it;

tzmofficial 1:00:10
1:00:13

the government is not a government of the people.

tzmofficial 1:00:14
1:00:18

The men of fortune would not feel for the common people.

tzmofficial 1:00:19
1:00:21

An aristocratical tyranny would arise

tzmofficial 1:00:22
1:00:25

in which the great will struggle for power, honor and wealth.

tzmofficial 1:00:25
1:00:29

The poor become a prey to avarice, insolence and oppression.

tzmofficial 1:00:33
1:00:36

In short, my fellow citizens, it can be said to be nothing less

tzmofficial 1:00:36
1:00:39

than a nasty stride to universal empire."

tzmofficial 1:00:43
1:00:47

A significant model for both the Federalists and Anti-Federalists

tzmofficial 1:00:47
1:00:50

were the Iroquois, who had created a highly sophisticated

tzmofficial 1:00:50
1:00:54

and democratic federation of self-governing units.

tzmofficial 1:00:54
1:00:57

In stark contrast to European forms of government

tzmofficial 1:00:58
1:01:02

the Iroquois people had the ability to immediately remove corrupt leaders

tzmofficial 1:01:02
1:01:05

women played a significant role in decision-making

tzmofficial 1:01:05
1:01:10

everyone was permitted to participate in debate and policy formulation.

tzmofficial 1:01:12
1:01:17

-Native Americans were exceedingly democratic in the way they operated.

tzmofficial 1:01:17
1:01:20

No society is perfect but when you make comparisons

tzmofficial 1:01:20
1:01:22

you see that they were sometimes small

tzmofficial 1:01:22
1:01:25

but sometimes 30-40 thousand people and more

tzmofficial 1:01:26
1:01:28

in a large confederacy

tzmofficial 1:01:28
1:01:32

that operated on a basis of mutual respect.

tzmofficial 1:01:33
1:01:35

Mutual respect that developed out of experience

tzmofficial 1:01:36
1:01:39

because if you didn't treat people equally

tzmofficial 1:01:39
1:01:41

then they were going to give you trouble.

tzmofficial 1:01:41
1:01:44

Societies were exceedingly collaborative

tzmofficial 1:01:44
1:01:47

but they were also exceedingly individualist.

tzmofficial 1:01:47
1:01:51

The individual was honored, but the values

tzmofficial 1:01:51
1:01:54

were collaborative because you had to get along.

tzmofficial 1:01:54
1:01:58

Everybody was included in every decision that affected them.

tzmofficial 1:01:58
1:02:01

Elders, obviously, were honored. They knew more.

tzmofficial 1:02:01
1:02:04

You listen to your elders. But, everybody had a say.

tzmofficial 1:02:04
1:02:07

You had an extremely participatory society

tzmofficial 1:02:07
1:02:10

and as it moved up to larger, there was a great deal of decentralization.

tzmofficial 1:02:11
1:02:14

So if you had a large number of people

tzmofficial 1:02:14
1:02:18

and they would be in a federation, the village would decide for itself

tzmofficial 1:02:18
1:02:21

the tribe would then decide.

tzmofficial 1:02:21
1:02:24

But the individual villages would have to decide

tzmofficial 1:02:24
1:02:28

then the tribes in the federation, their representatives would meet.

tzmofficial 1:02:28
1:02:30

But they wouldn't decide for everyone

tzmofficial 1:02:30
1:02:33

they'd have to have the consensus of all the people.

tzmofficial 1:02:33
1:02:35

So if there wasn't consensus already

tzmofficial 1:02:35
1:02:38

they would have to go back and discuss it.

tzmofficial 1:02:38
1:02:41

So that, to the extent that there was representation

tzmofficial 1:02:41
1:02:45

these were representatives who were truly representative.

tzmofficial 1:02:45
1:02:47

They would have to go back

tzmofficial 1:02:47
1:02:50

they wouldn't keep their positions unless they consulted people.

tzmofficial 1:02:51
1:02:54

And they knew that. Even if they had the authority to make a decision

tzmofficial 1:02:55
1:02:57

people would go elsewhere and not keep them as leaders

tzmofficial 1:02:57
1:03:01

if they didn't listen to them and they didn't treat them well.

tzmofficial 1:03:01
1:03:05

By and large you had a much more participatory society

tzmofficial 1:03:05
1:03:09

and even on the larger more representative level

tzmofficial 1:03:09
1:03:13

the representatives really had to listen to their constituents.

tzmofficial 1:03:14
1:03:17

-Ironically referred to as primitive and savage, Native Americans

tzmofficial 1:03:18
1:03:21

had actually created a far more democratic system of self-governance

tzmofficial 1:03:21
1:03:24

than any civilized nation in history.

tzmofficial 1:03:25
1:03:29

But their anarchic models, as well as the more limited democratic systems

tzmofficial 1:03:29
1:03:31

proposed by the Anti-Federalists

tzmofficial 1:03:31
1:03:35

were incompatible with Madison's elitist vision.

tzmofficial 1:03:36
1:03:39

In republic and parliamentary democracy alike

tzmofficial 1:03:39
1:03:42

citizens would be reduced to passive observers.

tzmofficial 1:03:42
1:03:44

They would be allowed to pick and choose which individual

tzmofficial 1:03:44
1:03:47

made decisions on their behalf

tzmofficial 1:03:48
1:03:51

but they would not be able to make those decisions themselves.

tzmofficial 1:03:52
1:03:54

Returning to the period after the first World War

tzmofficial 1:03:54
1:03:57

we find widespread support amongst intellectuals

tzmofficial 1:03:57
1:04:00

for Madison's elitist interpretation of democracy.

tzmofficial 1:04:01
1:04:04

According to Walter Lippmann, the public's function in politics

tzmofficial 1:04:04
1:04:09

was to be interested spectators of action, but not participants.

tzmofficial 1:04:11
1:04:13

Yet Lippmann perceived a problem.

tzmofficial 1:04:13
1:04:16

New technologies in communication and transportation

tzmofficial 1:04:16
1:04:18

had awakened millions of disenfranchised people

tzmofficial 1:04:19
1:04:21

to a new world outside their towns and cities

tzmofficial 1:04:22
1:04:24

while traditional economic, political

tzmofficial 1:04:24
1:04:26

and social structures remained in place.

tzmofficial 1:04:27
1:04:29

Something had to change.

tzmofficial 1:04:29
1:04:33

But rather than advocate structural changes in society's institutions

tzmofficial 1:04:33
1:04:37

Lippmann suggested that propaganda re-adjust the public mind.

tzmofficial 1:04:37
1:04:41

-In his essays on democracy in the 1920s

tzmofficial 1:04:41
1:04:44

which are incidentally called 'progressive' essays on democracy

tzmofficial 1:04:44
1:04:50

he was a Wilson-Roosevelt-Kennedy liberal in the American sense.

tzmofficial 1:04:50
1:04:55

He says that the majority are simply incompetent

tzmofficial 1:04:55
1:04:59

they are ignorant and meddlesome outsiders in his view

tzmofficial 1:04:59
1:05:03

that's the majority of the population, and to allow them to participate

tzmofficial 1:05:03
1:05:06

in the decision making would be a complete disaster.

tzmofficial 1:05:06
1:05:09

So therefore we have to design means

tzmofficial 1:05:09
1:05:13

to insure that what he called the responsible men

tzmofficial 1:05:14
1:05:16

of whom he was of course one, are protected

tzmofficial 1:05:16
1:05:21

from the roar and the trampling of the beasts

tzmofficial 1:05:22
1:05:24

the ignorant majority.

tzmofficial 1:05:30
1:05:32

(Scream)

tzmofficial 1:05:32
1:05:35

And he devised a number of methods;

tzmofficial 1:05:35
1:05:37

Lippmann called it the 'manufacture of consent'.

tzmofficial 1:05:38
1:05:41

We have to manufacture the consent of the ignorant

tzmofficial 1:05:41
1:05:44

and meddlesome outsiders, the mass of the population.

tzmofficial 1:05:44
1:05:48

And the huge public relations industry was developed at the same time.

tzmofficial 1:05:48
1:05:51

They're the people who manage

tzmofficial 1:05:51
1:05:54

and control the marketing exercises

tzmofficial 1:05:54
1:05:56

that are called elections in the United States.

tzmofficial 1:05:57
1:06:00

They are marketing exercises, and they're well aware of it.

tzmofficial 1:06:00
1:06:02

-Apparently we have all been wrong

tzmofficial 1:06:02
1:06:05

it is pronounced "Kal - ee - forn - ya."

tzmofficial 1:06:05
1:06:08

Ladies and Gentlemen! The governor of the great state of California

tzmofficial 1:06:09
1:06:13

Arnold Schwarzenegger!

tzmofficial 1:06:17
1:06:19

-So for example, for the last election, 2008

tzmofficial 1:06:20
1:06:22

the advertising industry gives a prize every year

tzmofficial 1:06:22
1:06:25

for the best marketing campaign of the year.

tzmofficial 1:06:25
1:06:27

2008 they gave it to the Obama campaign

tzmofficial 1:06:27
1:06:30

who beat out commercial competitors.

tzmofficial 1:06:30
1:06:34

The idea is: We market candidates the same way we market toothpaste

tzmofficial 1:06:34
1:06:37

or lifestyle drugs or automobiles.

tzmofficial 1:06:37
1:06:39

Of course it helps to have a lot of money.

tzmofficial 1:06:40
1:06:44

And in fact Obama greatly outspent McCain.

tzmofficial 1:06:44
1:06:46

And not because of popular contributions.

tzmofficial 1:06:46
1:06:50

They came mostly from financial industries. He was their candidate.

tzmofficial 1:06:50
1:06:55

And his policies will presumably respond to his constituents.

tzmofficial 1:07:00
1:07:03

-Prominent intellectuals continue to argue that the world's complexity

tzmofficial 1:07:04
1:07:06

makes democracy impossible.

tzmofficial 1:07:06
1:07:08

A recent cover story in Time Magazine claimed that

tzmofficial 1:07:08
1:07:12

"Democracy is in the worst interest of national goals.

tzmofficial 1:07:12
1:07:16

The modern world is too complex to allow the man or woman in the street

tzmofficial 1:07:16
1:07:19

to interfere in its management."

tzmofficial 1:07:20
1:07:23

A man who surely would have agreed was Edward Bernays.

tzmofficial 1:07:23
1:07:27

Like Lippmann, Bernays served as a propagandist on the Creel Committee.

tzmofficial 1:07:27
1:07:30

And like Lippmann, he went on to re-fashion wartime propaganda

tzmofficial 1:07:30
1:07:33

for peacetime aims.

tzmofficial 1:07:35
1:07:39

In his classic text "Propaganda" Bernays suggested that elites

tzmofficial 1:07:39
1:07:42

"regiment the public mind every bit as much as an army

tzmofficial 1:07:42
1:07:45

regiments their bodies."

tzmofficial 1:07:45
1:07:48

Bernays considered mass mind control so crucial

tzmofficial 1:07:48
1:07:50

that it constituted, in his words

tzmofficial 1:07:50
1:07:53

"the very essence of the democratic process."

tzmofficial 1:07:55
1:07:57

Bernays' opportunity to shine arose when a crisis threatened

tzmofficial 1:07:57
1:08:00

not only the profits of major corporations

tzmofficial 1:08:00
1:08:02

but the entire capitalist system.

tzmofficial 1:08:03
1:08:06

The solution, as theorized by business leaders

tzmofficial 1:08:06
1:08:09

would lead to social breakdown, environmental catastrophe

tzmofficial 1:08:09
1:08:13

and further alienation between the American people and their government.

tzmofficial 1:08:13
1:08:17

It would also lead to wealth, on a scale never before imagined.

tzmofficial 1:08:22
1:08:28

IV. Consumers

tzmofficial 1:08:28
1:08:32

-The major story that advertising tells us about human happiness

tzmofficial 1:08:32
1:08:36

is that, the way for happiness is through the consumption of things.

tzmofficial 1:08:36
1:08:40

That in fact buying of something in the marketplace will make you happy.

tzmofficial 1:08:40
1:08:42

In fact that's the message of almost every single ad.

tzmofficial 1:08:42
1:08:45

And that's not often you can say that there's one message that is in

tzmofficial 1:08:46
1:08:49

the literally millions of ads that are produced every year.

tzmofficial 1:08:49
1:08:52

I think that is the message of advertising as a whole

tzmofficial 1:08:53
1:08:55

is that it's better to buy than not to buy.

tzmofficial 1:08:55
1:08:57

That in fact the way to become... and that you will be happier

tzmofficial 1:08:57
1:09:00

as a result of buying than not buying.

tzmofficial 1:09:00
1:09:04

And I think that idea in fact is the major force

tzmofficial 1:09:04
1:09:09

for global social change, over the last 50 years.

tzmofficial 1:09:16
1:09:20

-In the 1920s, business leaders were faced with a dilemma.

tzmofficial 1:09:20
1:09:23

Over-production of goods had exceeded demand.

tzmofficial 1:09:24
1:09:27

Production between 1860 and 1920

tzmofficial 1:09:27
1:09:29

had increased by 12 to 14 times,

tzmofficial 1:09:29
1:09:33

while the population only increased by a factor of 3.

tzmofficial 1:09:40
1:09:43

There were several ways of solving the problem.

tzmofficial 1:09:43
1:09:45

One was to reduce working hours and raise wages

tzmofficial 1:09:45
1:09:49

so that production and consumption reach an equilibrium.

tzmofficial 1:09:50
1:09:52

This would have lead to more leisure time for workers

tzmofficial 1:09:52
1:09:55

and a higher standard of living.

tzmofficial 1:09:56
1:09:58

The problem with this solution is that it could have entailed

tzmofficial 1:09:58
1:10:00

a slight decrease in profits.

tzmofficial 1:10:00
1:10:03

Corporations are mandated by law to maximize profits

tzmofficial 1:10:03
1:10:06

on behalf of their shareholders regardless of social

tzmofficial 1:10:06
1:10:08

or environmental costs.

tzmofficial 1:10:11
1:10:14

According to business leaders, there was another problem.

tzmofficial 1:10:15
1:10:18

John Edgerton, president of the National Association of Manufacturers

tzmofficial 1:10:18
1:10:21

warned that a shorter work week would undermine the work ethic

tzmofficial 1:10:21
1:10:24

and potentially ferment radicalism.

tzmofficial 1:10:25
1:10:28

If people had time to stop and think, they might also take the time

tzmofficial 1:10:28
1:10:30

to re-think their position in life.

tzmofficial 1:10:30
1:10:34

"The emphasis should be put on work." Edgerton stated.

tzmofficial 1:10:34
1:10:37

"More work and better work, instead of upon leisure."

tzmofficial 1:10:37
1:10:39

It seems a harmless enough statement.

tzmofficial 1:10:39
1:10:43

But what businessmen were advocating was revolutionary.

tzmofficial 1:10:44
1:10:47

Production would no longer be about satisfying human needs.

tzmofficial 1:10:47
1:10:50

It would be an end, in and of itself.

tzmofficial 1:10:50
1:10:52

Rather than a democracy of ideas

tzmofficial 1:10:53
1:10:55

or a democracy of mass participation

tzmofficial 1:10:55
1:10:58

the United States would become a democracy of material goods.

tzmofficial 1:10:59
1:11:02

The citizen would be replaced by the consumer.

tzmofficial 1:11:03
1:11:06

- Look at those goods piled up over there.

tzmofficial 1:11:06
1:11:09

I'm worried. Here we are, we've got the new machines

tzmofficial 1:11:09
1:11:12

and they're doing even better than we expected.

tzmofficial 1:11:12
1:11:15

They've not only cut production costs

tzmofficial 1:11:15
1:11:17

but they've increased output over 50%!

tzmofficial 1:11:18
1:11:20

But we're not selling this additional product.

tzmofficial 1:11:20
1:11:25

Inventories are piling up. Now what are we going to do about it?"

tzmofficial 1:11:25
1:11:28

- It seems to me we've got to change our plan completely.

tzmofficial 1:11:28
1:11:32

Now that we're increasing production, we've got to put on more pressure

tzmofficial 1:11:32
1:11:34

work the territory more intensively.

tzmofficial 1:11:34
1:11:38

- You mean more advertising? - Yes.

tzmofficial 1:11:38
1:11:40

The problem of capitalism is the problem of consumption.

tzmofficial 1:11:41
1:11:44

And the problem is that after your basic needs have been met

tzmofficial 1:11:44
1:11:46

there is no real need for consumption.

tzmofficial 1:11:47
1:11:49

And so you have to convince people that in fact their identities

tzmofficial 1:11:49
1:11:52

are based upon the consumption of objects

tzmofficial 1:11:52
1:11:54

for which there is no material need.

tzmofficial 1:11:55
1:11:57

That's the problem that comes from the expansion of the market.

tzmofficial 1:11:57
1:12:00

If you look at advertising it's a very interesting history.

tzmofficial 1:12:00
1:12:03

In the first period of advertising, we can say right up

tzmofficial 1:12:03
1:12:05

until about the 1920s

tzmofficial 1:12:05
1:12:08

advertising talked about the goods themselves.

tzmofficial 1:12:08
1:12:10

They talked about how they were made, what they did

tzmofficial 1:12:11
1:12:12

how well they lasted, etc.

tzmofficial 1:12:13
1:12:16

It really is, at this course, about objects. About what goods did.

tzmofficial 1:12:17
1:12:21

Now starting around 1920, that changes. And from that period on

tzmofficial 1:12:21
1:12:23

advertising doesn't really talk about goods themselves

tzmofficial 1:12:24
1:12:28

they talk about the relationship of goods to our needs.

tzmofficial 1:12:29
1:12:33

-At the center of the new strategy was Edward Bernays.

tzmofficial 1:12:34
1:12:36

If Walter Lippmann had concerned himself

tzmofficial 1:12:36
1:12:39

with an overarching analysis of mass media in democracy

tzmofficial 1:12:39
1:12:42

Bernays would devote most of his energies to propaganda

tzmofficial 1:12:42
1:12:44

on behalf of the corporation.

tzmofficial 1:12:44
1:12:48

His uncle, Sigmund Freud, would serve as his muse.

tzmofficial 1:12:49
1:12:52

Rather than focus on the intrinsic worth of a particular product

tzmofficial 1:12:52
1:12:54

Bernays suggested a strategy

tzmofficial 1:12:54
1:12:57

where products became linked with the unconscious desires of the public.

tzmofficial 1:12:57
1:13:00

In this manner there would be virtually no limits

tzmofficial 1:13:00
1:13:02

to either production or consumption.

tzmofficial 1:13:03
1:13:07

-Freud's nephew was a man by the name of Bernays, and he's regarded as

tzmofficial 1:13:07
1:13:11

the father of modern public relations, particularly in the United States.

tzmofficial 1:13:11
1:13:15

His contribution, if you want to call it that

tzmofficial 1:13:15
1:13:18

was to take propaganda techniques that had been developed

tzmofficial 1:13:18
1:13:22

for military, psychological warfare

tzmofficial 1:13:22
1:13:24

national security type issues

tzmofficial 1:13:24
1:13:29

during World War I, and apply them in a systematic way to commercial issues.

tzmofficial 1:13:30
1:13:33

One of his best known efforts had to do with

tzmofficial 1:13:34
1:13:36

encouraging females, women, to smoke.

tzmofficial 1:13:36
1:13:40

He would stage beauty pageants, he would stage

tzmofficial 1:13:40
1:13:43

what would today be called photo-ops and that sort of thing

tzmofficial 1:13:43
1:13:47

in which smoking, by women

tzmofficial 1:13:47
1:13:50

was portrayed as women's liberation

tzmofficial 1:13:50
1:13:55

was portrayed as a way to be free and empowered

tzmofficial 1:13:55
1:13:57

is getting addicted to nicotine.

tzmofficial 1:13:57
1:14:02

The audience, the market, in Bernays' mind

tzmofficial 1:14:02
1:14:06

had a clear desire to be free

tzmofficial 1:14:06
1:14:09

to be stronger, to be more self-empowered.

tzmofficial 1:14:09
1:14:11

So women clearly wanted these things

tzmofficial 1:14:11
1:14:14

along comes Bernays and the tobacco industry

tzmofficial 1:14:14
1:14:17

and says "Here is how to have it."

tzmofficial 1:14:45
1:14:48

-Goods don't make us very happy. Goods are not central to satisfaction.

tzmofficial 1:14:48
1:14:52

What actually really makes people happy are non-material things.

tzmofficial 1:14:52
1:14:56

What makes people happy, seems to be, things connected with sociability.

tzmofficial 1:14:57
1:14:59

I don't mean to say by that material things have nothing to do with happiness.

tzmofficial 1:15:00
1:15:03

Poor people are not happy. They don't have access to clean drinking water

tzmofficial 1:15:03
1:15:06

they don't have access to food, they don't have access to shelter.

tzmofficial 1:15:06
1:15:09

So it's not that material things are not connected to happiness

tzmofficial 1:15:09
1:15:11

they are to some degree

tzmofficial 1:15:11
1:15:13

but, once you get past a certain level of comfort

tzmofficial 1:15:13
1:15:16

material things simply don't provide us happiness.

tzmofficial 1:15:16
1:15:20

At the same time there is this giant propaganda system of advertising

tzmofficial 1:15:20
1:15:23

that is again perpetually telling us that the way to happiness

tzmofficial 1:15:23
1:15:25

is through objects, the way to happiness is through consumption.

tzmofficial 1:15:26
1:15:30

What makes people happy have things to do with society, with connection

tzmofficial 1:15:30
1:15:32

with personal connection

tzmofficial 1:15:32
1:15:35

with autonomy, with relaxation.

tzmofficial 1:15:38
1:15:41

In fact when you ask people what it is that makes them happy

tzmofficial 1:15:41
1:15:43

goods very rarely come into it.

tzmofficial 1:15:43
1:15:46

However the problem is that capitalism has to sell goods

tzmofficial 1:15:46
1:15:48

the market place provides goods. And therefore

tzmofficial 1:15:48
1:15:51

what it did was it took the images

tzmofficial 1:15:51
1:15:53

of the life that people really want

tzmofficial 1:15:53
1:15:57

which is a life of meaning, of connection

tzmofficial 1:15:57
1:16:02

of sociability, of friendship, of family, of intimacy, of sexuality

tzmofficial 1:16:02
1:16:06

those are the images that it took, and it linked them to objects.

tzmofficial 1:16:06
1:16:10

And so advertising is both true and false at the same time.

tzmofficial 1:16:10
1:16:13

If you're simply false, you know it wouldn't work.

tzmofficial 1:16:13
1:16:15

But advertising is true to the extent

tzmofficial 1:16:15
1:16:18

that it reflects our real desires.

tzmofficial 1:16:21
1:16:24

-As bizarre at it may sound for people who dream of fantastic wealth

tzmofficial 1:16:24
1:16:28

as a cure for unhappiness, the same holds for the wealthy.

tzmofficial 1:16:28
1:16:30

Beyond a certain level of material comfort

tzmofficial 1:16:31
1:16:33

deprivation is relative.

tzmofficial 1:16:33
1:16:37

-At the bottom level sure it's 5 million to 10 million dollars a year.

tzmofficial 1:16:37
1:16:40

But once you've got 5 or 10 million, that doesn't seem like enough

tzmofficial 1:16:40
1:16:43

because your associated with people that have 15 or 20.

tzmofficial 1:16:43
1:16:46

And when you get to 15 or 20 then it's 50, or 100.

tzmofficial 1:16:47
1:16:51

And you wind up never feeling as if you have enough. And in fact

tzmofficial 1:16:52
1:16:55

people really never even thought of themselves as rich

tzmofficial 1:16:55
1:16:57

even when they were colossally rich

tzmofficial 1:16:57
1:17:02

because of this phenomenon that psychologists call relative deprivation.

tzmofficial 1:17:02
1:17:05

They were comparing themselves not to you and me, but with each other

tzmofficial 1:17:05
1:17:08

in this little world that they come to inhabit.

tzmofficial 1:17:21
1:17:23

-In his book "The Status Seekers," Vance Packard

tzmofficial 1:17:23
1:17:26

uses the phrase "Merchants of Discontent"

tzmofficial 1:17:26
1:17:28

to describe a deliberate strategy by advertisers

tzmofficial 1:17:28
1:17:32

of targeting the less affluent with status symbol messages.

tzmofficial 1:17:32
1:17:35

For someone with little chance of changing their social conditions in life

tzmofficial 1:17:35
1:17:38

consumerism offers a quick fix, that allows people

tzmofficial 1:17:38
1:17:41

to feel as though they are climbing the social hierarchy

tzmofficial 1:17:41
1:17:44

when in fact they are standing still.

tzmofficial 1:17:48
1:17:50

The strategy was particularly evident

tzmofficial 1:17:50
1:17:52

in mid-century automobile advertising.

tzmofficial 1:17:52
1:17:55

Studies found that people who lived in housing developments

tzmofficial 1:17:55
1:17:58

were more likely to park their cars outside of the garage

tzmofficial 1:17:58
1:18:01

than those who could afford more expensive homes.

tzmofficial 1:18:01
1:18:04

A typical example is this advertisement for Plymouth.

tzmofficial 1:18:04
1:18:07

It reads, "We're not wealthy, we just look it."

tzmofficial 1:18:08
1:18:11

The American way of life would be characterized by a myth

tzmofficial 1:18:11
1:18:14

which would seem to make political activism unnecessary.

tzmofficial 1:18:14
1:18:16

In the new democracy of material goods

tzmofficial 1:18:16
1:18:18

there were an infinite number of possessions

tzmofficial 1:18:18
1:18:21

to be purchased by rich and poor alike.

tzmofficial 1:18:21
1:18:23

There was no need to change institutions

tzmofficial 1:18:23
1:18:25

because the system was already perfect.

tzmofficial 1:18:25
1:18:27

It was called "The American Dream."

tzmofficial 1:18:28
1:18:31

And happiness was just one possession away.

tzmofficial 1:18:33
1:18:35

-Our young adults.

tzmofficial 1:18:35
1:18:39

And the shopping centers are built in their image.

tzmofficial 1:18:41
1:18:46

Selling to young adults demands a new kind of marketing.

tzmofficial 1:18:53
1:18:56

For these young adults, the shopping centers have built fountains

tzmofficial 1:18:56
1:18:59

commissioned statues, put in restaurants

tzmofficial 1:19:00
1:19:01

and free standing stairways.

tzmofficial 1:19:02
1:19:04

It included banks, loan offices

tzmofficial 1:19:04
1:19:07

rental plants, plant nurseries

tzmofficial 1:19:07
1:19:10

and places to buy building materials.

tzmofficial 1:19:10
1:19:12

The shopping centers see these young adults

tzmofficial 1:19:13
1:19:17

as people whose homes are always in need of expansion.

tzmofficial 1:19:17
1:19:19

People who buy in large quantities

tzmofficial 1:19:20
1:19:23

and truck it away in their cars.

tzmofficial 1:19:24
1:19:26

[Car honk] It's a big market."

tzmofficial 1:19:26
1:19:28

-In the tinsel and glitter world of Beverly Hills

tzmofficial 1:19:28
1:19:31

superstars reign supreme in million dollar mansions

tzmofficial 1:19:31
1:19:35

that hold a weird fascination for everyone else.

tzmofficial 1:19:35
1:19:37

Visitors rubber-neck for hours

tzmofficial 1:19:37
1:19:39

just for a glimpse through the garden gates.

tzmofficial 1:19:40
1:19:43

But for one man, already on the ladder to super-stardom

tzmofficial 1:19:43
1:19:45

just a look wasn't enough.

tzmofficial 1:19:45
1:19:48

For him it was love at first sight.

tzmofficial 1:20:30
1:20:34

-We just had, at the time of this filming, it was just a few days ago

tzmofficial 1:20:34
1:20:37

there was an incident at a Walmart in Long Island

tzmofficial 1:20:37
1:20:40

the day after Thanksgiving, where basically people were lining up

tzmofficial 1:20:40
1:20:43

for a sale, 5 in the morning.

tzmofficial 1:20:43
1:20:45

And one of the workers there was crushed to death!

tzmofficial 1:20:46
1:20:50

Was actually trampled to death by these shoppers.

tzmofficial 1:20:50
1:20:52

And when the ambulance arrived

tzmofficial 1:20:53
1:20:54

to take the poor guy to the morgue

tzmofficial 1:20:55
1:20:58

or to the hospital they didn't want to get out of the way.

tzmofficial 1:20:58
1:21:02

They said "I've been waiting here since 5 in the morning! I'm not leaving!'

tzmofficial 1:21:02
1:21:06

So there would be a consumer society at its finest.

tzmofficial 1:21:06
1:21:10

And oddly enough, exactly to the day 5 years ago

tzmofficial 1:21:10
1:21:13

on that day, the day after Thanksgiving

tzmofficial 1:21:13
1:21:16

the same thing happened at a Walmart in Orlando.

tzmofficial 1:21:16
1:21:19

It was not a worker, it was a woman who was shopping there.

tzmofficial 1:21:19
1:21:22

And she wasn't killed, but she was trampled unconscious

tzmofficial 1:21:22
1:21:25

and people wouldn't get out of the way for the medics to take her away.

tzmofficial 1:21:25
1:21:28

So when you get finally to that point

tzmofficial 1:21:28
1:21:30

this is what Marcuse was talking about

tzmofficial 1:21:30
1:21:33

and the whole idea of one-dimensional man

tzmofficial 1:21:33
1:21:35

was this tremendous emptiness again.

tzmofficial 1:21:35
1:21:38

So I'm gonna buy things to fill that emptiness up.

tzmofficial 1:21:38
1:21:41

And then we see the religious power of it.

tzmofficial 1:21:41
1:21:43

Because if the medics arrive

tzmofficial 1:21:43
1:21:46

basically to take the corpse away, or the body to the hospital

tzmofficial 1:21:46
1:21:51

and you're not gonna get out of the way because you're gonna save $50 on a DVD player

tzmofficial 1:21:51
1:21:54

that suggests something has gone fundamentally wrong!

tzmofficial 1:21:57
1:22:01

[shouting, screaming, commotion]

tzmofficial 1:22:23
1:22:25

I think there's not much difference

tzmofficial 1:22:25
1:22:28

between assuaging your anxiety by buying things

tzmofficial 1:22:28
1:22:31

and investing in the American Dream. They seem to go hand in hand.

tzmofficial 1:22:32
1:22:36

-The American Dream is a story about how society works.

tzmofficial 1:22:36
1:22:41

The American Dream says that if you work hard, you will succeed.

tzmofficial 1:22:42
1:22:45

-The bedrock of our economic success is the American Dream.

tzmofficial 1:22:45
1:22:49

It's a dream shared in big cities and small towns

tzmofficial 1:22:49
1:22:52

across races, regions and religions, that-

tzmofficial 1:22:53
1:22:56

If you work hard, you can support a family.

tzmofficial 1:22:56
1:23:00

That if you get sick, there will be health care that you can afford.

tzmofficial 1:23:00
1:23:03

That you can retire [applause]

tzmofficial 1:23:03
1:23:08

with the dignity, and security and respect that you've earned.

tzmofficial 1:23:08
1:23:11

That your children can get a good education

tzmofficial 1:23:11
1:23:13

and young people can go to college

tzmofficial 1:23:13
1:23:16

even if they don't come from a wealthy family.

tzmofficial 1:23:16
1:23:18

-And so he says we may start off in different positions.

tzmofficial 1:23:18
1:23:20

There are people who are rich and there are people who are poor

tzmofficial 1:23:20
1:23:22

and they're born into different kinds of contexts.

tzmofficial 1:23:22
1:23:25

But the playing field is level, and that's the dream

tzmofficial 1:23:25
1:23:28

of, you know, pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps.

tzmofficial 1:23:28
1:23:32

The problem with that is, that it's actually at odds with how social mobility works.

tzmofficial 1:23:32
1:23:35

Social mobility actually is much more based upon class

tzmofficial 1:23:35
1:23:41

and upon the resources that you have available to you, into which you are born.

tzmofficial 1:23:42
1:23:45

-Hi, I'm Paris Hilton and you're here for The FIT on MySpace.

tzmofficial 1:23:45
1:23:48

Let's go check out my shoe closet first.

tzmofficial 1:23:48
1:23:53

So welcome to my shoe closet. As you can tell, I really love shoes."

tzmofficial 1:23:53
1:23:55

-Part of those are material resources, and part of those

tzmofficial 1:23:55
1:23:57

are also cultural resources as well.

tzmofficial 1:23:57
1:24:00

There are class structures

tzmofficial 1:24:00
1:24:02

that keep people mostly in their places.

tzmofficial 1:24:03
1:24:06

There are some slight exceptions to this where there's movement between

tzmofficial 1:24:06
1:24:09

one rung or another, but, the level of social mobility

tzmofficial 1:24:09
1:24:13

is remarkably low in the society.

tzmofficial 1:24:13
1:24:16

And then the American Dream is punctuated by

tzmofficial 1:24:16
1:24:19

these very visible examples in the media that show us

tzmofficial 1:24:19
1:24:22

people who were poor who are now rich.

tzmofficial 1:24:22
1:24:24

And now the question is: If those people are rich

tzmofficial 1:24:24
1:24:26

if those people have made it

tzmofficial 1:24:27
1:24:29

and the vast majority of the people have not

tzmofficial 1:24:29
1:24:33

and the major thing that separates them is their own hard work

tzmofficial 1:24:33
1:24:36

then the reason that the vast majority of people are where they are

tzmofficial 1:24:36
1:24:39

is because that is where they deserve to be. You didn't work hard enough,

tzmofficial 1:24:39
1:24:41

you're not intelligent enough.

tzmofficial 1:24:41
1:24:44

-The right to life, liberty

tzmofficial 1:24:44
1:24:47

and the pursuit of happiness.

tzmofficial 1:24:48
1:24:51

Some are smart, some not. Some are successful, some not.

tzmofficial 1:24:51
1:24:56

-The United States never had mass prosperity throughout its history.

tzmofficial 1:24:57
1:25:00

It was just a period from 1946 to 1980,

tzmofficial 1:25:00
1:25:02

where the prosperity was really...

tzmofficial 1:25:02
1:25:06

it looked like it was just going better and better, for everybody.

tzmofficial 1:25:06
1:25:09

And that came after World War II.

tzmofficial 1:25:10
1:25:14

With the backlog of tremendous earnings from war industry and such

tzmofficial 1:25:14
1:25:16

the G.I. Bill that came in

tzmofficial 1:25:17
1:25:20

that developed a whole new big professional class and the like.

tzmofficial 1:25:20
1:25:22

And that lasted to about 1980.

tzmofficial 1:25:22
1:25:25

Since then there have been cutbacks to human services

tzmofficial 1:25:25
1:25:28

cutbacks in educational opportunities

tzmofficial 1:25:28
1:25:30

and greater and greater inequality.

tzmofficial 1:25:30
1:25:33

Since 2000 to 2008

tzmofficial 1:25:33
1:25:37

the inequality between the very rich and the rest of us

tzmofficial 1:25:37
1:25:41

that inequaility is greater than it's been throughout the 20th century.

tzmofficial 1:25:41
1:25:45

So we're back to like 1900 in terms of inequality.

tzmofficial 1:25:45
1:25:48

Everybody just can't make it.

tzmofficial 1:25:51
1:25:55

Throughout history, the rich have always argued

tzmofficial 1:25:55
1:25:59

that the poor are the authors of their own poverty.

tzmofficial 1:25:59
1:26:01

They're poor because they're stupid

tzmofficial 1:26:01
1:26:04

they're disreputable, they're hopeless...

tzmofficial 1:26:04
1:26:08

People are poor because they are paid less

tzmofficial 1:26:08
1:26:10

than the value that they produce.

tzmofficial 1:26:10
1:26:15

You need poverty. Poverty is needed if you're gonna have wealth.

tzmofficial 1:26:15
1:26:20

The only way a rich slaveholder, a Roman senator

tzmofficial 1:26:20
1:26:23

or antebellum plantation owner in the south

tzmofficial 1:26:23
1:26:29

the only way they could live in this fabulously luxurious mode

tzmofficial 1:26:29
1:26:32

is by having slaves who work

tzmofficial 1:26:32
1:26:36

from the crack of dawn down into the night.

tzmofficial 1:26:36
1:26:39

That's expropriation. That's creating

tzmofficial 1:26:39
1:26:43

the poverty of the slave, or the serf or the worker

tzmofficial 1:26:43
1:26:47

so that the slaveholder, or the lord, the feudal lord

tzmofficial 1:26:47
1:26:52

or the plutocrats, the capitalists can really accumulate wealth.

tzmofficial 1:27:35
1:27:37

-The idea that human happiness is connected to

tzmofficial 1:27:38
1:27:40

the immense accumulation of commodities

tzmofficial 1:27:40
1:27:43

I think that that idea is what is driving development

tzmofficial 1:27:43
1:27:45

in what we used to call the developed world

tzmofficial 1:27:45
1:27:48

it is driving development in China, it is driving development in India

tzmofficial 1:27:49
1:27:51

I think it will increasingly drive development in Africa as well.

tzmofficial 1:27:52
1:27:54

I think we're starting to see

tzmofficial 1:27:54
1:27:56

the results of what that means for the planet.

tzmofficial 1:27:57
1:28:01

When not only the 5 percent American population strives for that

tzmofficial 1:28:02
1:28:04

but when increasingly the rest of the world also is pulled into that.

tzmofficial 1:28:05
1:28:07

And you then have to provide the goods

tzmofficial 1:28:07
1:28:09

and the energy that those goods take to produce.

tzmofficial 1:28:10
1:28:14

We're arriving at the kind of exhaustion of the physical planet.

tzmofficial 1:28:17
1:28:20

The ancient philosopher Confucius, he was asked

tzmofficial 1:28:21
1:28:23

what he would do if he was ever to rule the state.

tzmofficial 1:28:24
1:28:26

Someone said "OK you're in charge of the state, what would you do?"

tzmofficial 1:28:26
1:28:31

And he said a very interesting thing, he said he would "rectify the language."

tzmofficial 1:28:31
1:28:34

And I think if he was asked that in modern day he would say

tzmofficial 1:28:34
1:28:37

"Let me control the media." If you can control the stories

tzmofficial 1:28:38
1:28:40

you don't need to have soldiers on the street corners to control them

tzmofficial 1:28:40
1:28:43

you can control people in their own heads and their own imaginations.

tzmofficial 1:28:43
1:28:46

On one end it's really depressing because it's like: "how do you then get out of it?"

tzmofficial 1:28:46
1:28:49

Because there's no way you can have control of the media

tzmofficial 1:28:49
1:28:51

there's no way you can compete with these stories that are told

tzmofficial 1:28:52
1:28:53

thousands of times a day.

tzmofficial 1:28:54
1:28:57

Through advertising, through programming, through newspapers.

tzmofficial 1:28:57
1:29:00

Through the Internet now, through video games, through all kinds of ways.

tzmofficial 1:29:00
1:29:04

But the reason I'm hopeful the reason that actually gives me some optimism is

tzmofficial 1:29:04
1:29:07

that capitalism has to do that.

tzmofficial 1:29:07
1:29:10

That unless it does that, they know that things will fall apart.

tzmofficial 1:29:10
1:29:13

So capitalism in essence is like a house of cards.

tzmofficial 1:29:13
1:29:15

A house of cards that has to be constantly held together.

tzmofficial 1:29:15
1:29:18

We have to be told every single day what this story is.

tzmofficial 1:29:19
1:29:21

They have to do it every day because it's unnatural.

tzmofficial 1:29:21
1:29:22

If it was natural they wouldn't have to do it.

tzmofficial 1:29:22
1:29:26

And if they stop they know that in fact it would fall apart.

tzmofficial 1:29:26
1:29:28

That actually is the great hope for me:

tzmofficial 1:29:29
1:29:31

is in fact, the amount of time they have to spend

tzmofficial 1:29:32
1:29:34

convincing us about the value of the society

tzmofficial 1:29:35
1:29:37

is in fact what gives me hope

tzmofficial 1:29:37
1:29:41

that there's an alternative, just below the surface

tzmofficial 1:29:41
1:29:46

And that alternative is much more human, much more compassionate

tzmofficial 1:29:47
1:29:50

it's much more connected to concern for other people

tzmofficial 1:29:50
1:29:53

it's much more connected to concern for the planet.

tzmofficial 1:29:53
1:29:56

And that it's being held down by this incredible

tzmofficial 1:29:56
1:29:59

and relentless propaganda system.

tzmofficial 1:29:59
1:30:05

V. Epilogue

tzmofficial 1:30:06
1:30:10

-If a decision is made by a centralized authority, it's going to represent

tzmofficial 1:30:10
1:30:12

the interests of the particular group in power.

tzmofficial 1:30:13
1:30:17

If power is actually rooted in large parts of the population

tzmofficial 1:30:17
1:30:20

if people can actually participate in social planning

tzmofficial 1:30:20
1:30:23

then they will presumably do so in terms of their own interests.

tzmofficial 1:30:23
1:30:26

So that's why Madison for example

tzmofficial 1:30:26
1:30:31

and Lippmann and Bernays, and a whole host of others

tzmofficial 1:30:31
1:30:36

have argued that we cannot permit the population to participate.

tzmofficial 1:30:36
1:30:39

Because if they do they will pursue their own interests.

tzmofficial 1:30:39
1:30:43

Not the interests of the wealth of the nation.

tzmofficial 1:30:43
1:30:46

If you have centralized power they'll use it for their own interests.

tzmofficial 1:30:46
1:30:49

You don't have to read that in a complicated textbook

tzmofficial 1:30:49
1:30:51

it's understandable by any 10 year old child

tzmofficial 1:30:52
1:30:55

not by "educated people"

tzmofficial 1:30:55
1:30:58

that have had it driven out of their heads.

tzmofficial 1:30:58
1:31:02

Various illusions replacing self serving illusions.

tzmofficial 1:31:02
1:31:06

If the population are participants they'll serve their own interests.

tzmofficial 1:31:06
1:31:08

Public opinion is very well studied.

tzmofficial 1:31:08
1:31:12

So we have a wealth of information about what the public wants.

tzmofficial 1:31:12
1:31:15

And there's a huge disconnect

tzmofficial 1:31:15
1:31:18

between public opinion and public policy.

tzmofficial 1:31:18
1:31:23

The public and policymakers differ enormously on crucial issues.

tzmofficial 1:31:23
1:31:26

It's all very natural... nothing surprising about it

tzmofficial 1:31:26
1:31:28

and people understand it.

tzmofficial 1:31:28
1:31:31

So about 80 percent of the population of the United States

tzmofficial 1:31:32
1:31:34

says that

tzmofficial 1:31:34
1:31:38

the government is run by a few big interests looking out for themselves.

tzmofficial 1:31:38
1:31:42

-What do you mean by democracy? If you mean by democracy

tzmofficial 1:31:42
1:31:46

a system that accepts

tzmofficial 1:31:46
1:31:50

that the relative distribution of power

tzmofficial 1:31:50
1:31:54

and influence and wealth and income

tzmofficial 1:31:54
1:31:58

in the society is sacrosanct

tzmofficial 1:31:58
1:32:03

if the social system we call and know as capitalism

tzmofficial 1:32:04
1:32:06

is inviolable

tzmofficial 1:32:06
1:32:09

and you can't in fact erode

tzmofficial 1:32:09
1:32:13

or undercut the primacy

tzmofficial 1:32:13
1:32:18

of that classes' power and property, politically

tzmofficial 1:32:18
1:32:21

then you've just ruled out democracy.

tzmofficial 1:32:22
1:32:25

The founders had a very clear idea

tzmofficial 1:32:25
1:32:31

that in order for political power to be democratic and to be equal

tzmofficial 1:32:31
1:32:35

economic power also had to be democratic and equal.

tzmofficial 1:32:35
1:32:38

And that was the last thing they wanted.

tzmofficial 1:32:38
1:32:42

So they saw clearly, that

tzmofficial 1:32:42
1:32:46

behind political democracy

tzmofficial 1:32:46
1:32:48

was economic democracy.

tzmofficial 1:32:48
1:32:53

Behind political equality was economic equality.

tzmofficial 1:32:53
1:32:56

And they did everything they could to block it.

tzmofficial 1:32:56
1:32:59

-The claims of mind control

tzmofficial 1:32:59
1:33:02

are based on the belief

tzmofficial 1:33:02
1:33:08

that human beings are powerless or relatively powerless

tzmofficial 1:33:08
1:33:12

when they become targets of psychological operations and propaganda.

tzmofficial 1:33:13
1:33:16

Media control yeah, it has an impact on public opinion

tzmofficial 1:33:17
1:33:20

without a doubt. It has an impact on the assumptions

tzmofficial 1:33:20
1:33:24

that people bring, to try to figure out what to do with their lives.

tzmofficial 1:33:25
1:33:29

It's powerful. But it's not the same as mind control.

tzmofficial 1:33:29
1:33:35

I think the best way to stop propaganda

tzmofficial 1:33:35
1:33:39

is for people to understand what it is and how it works.

tzmofficial 1:33:40
1:33:43

I don't think we're going to stop propaganda

tzmofficial 1:33:43
1:33:46

so long as we have freedom of speech.

tzmofficial 1:33:46
1:33:50

And frankly I think that's a good thing for us.

tzmofficial 1:33:50
1:33:54

But there will always be people who exploit freedom of speech for their own ends.

tzmofficial 1:33:54
1:33:58

But, propaganda loses its effectiveness

tzmofficial 1:33:58
1:34:00

if people understand what is going on.

tzmofficial 1:34:01
1:34:05

A very important thing that can be done to reduce the power of propaganda

tzmofficial 1:34:05
1:34:09

is to force the players to the surface.

tzmofficial 1:34:09
1:34:13

So that, where you have campaigns

tzmofficial 1:34:13
1:34:17

political campaigns, product campaigns, cultural campaigns

tzmofficial 1:34:17
1:34:22

that are organized by big propaganda agencies, public relations agencies.

tzmofficial 1:34:23
1:34:29

Then, part of the task for people who are observing this going on

tzmofficial 1:34:29
1:34:32

is to make this public. Make it understood

tzmofficial 1:34:32
1:34:36

that what's appearing on the front page of the Washington Post for example

tzmofficial 1:34:37
1:34:40

really is a propaganda or public relations campaign.

tzmofficial 1:34:40
1:34:43

It's coming from a particular faction of society

tzmofficial 1:34:43
1:34:47

who are paying for it. And, that they have names.

tzmofficial 1:34:47
1:34:52

-It depends on what people believe, what people perceive

tzmofficial 1:34:52
1:34:57

what people know. And for a democracy to really function and thrive

tzmofficial 1:34:57
1:35:00

unlike Eddie Bernays, I would say

tzmofficial 1:35:00
1:35:04

what we need is more information, more freedom, more transparency

tzmofficial 1:35:04
1:35:09

and more information about who's manipulating public opinion

tzmofficial 1:35:09
1:35:14

and the public mind. Eddie Bernays believed that fundamentally

tzmofficial 1:35:15
1:35:18

people were unable to govern themselves in a democracy

tzmofficial 1:35:18
1:35:21

because most of us were just too dumb to figure it out.

tzmofficial 1:35:21
1:35:24

And so he used that to justify his practice

tzmofficial 1:35:24
1:35:29

that he exalted, of managing and manipulating public opinion.

tzmofficial 1:35:29
1:35:33

I think actually what we need is a lot more exposure

tzmofficial 1:35:33
1:35:37

and education about how public opinion is managed and manipulated

tzmofficial 1:35:37
1:35:42

so that we have a citizenry that can actually

tzmofficial 1:35:42
1:35:45

function and be critical thinkers and decision makers

tzmofficial 1:35:46
1:35:48

and govern themselves in a democracy.

tzmofficial 1:35:48
1:35:52

Clearly, individual and public opinion

tzmofficial 1:35:52
1:35:55

is crucial to everything.

tzmofficial 1:35:55
1:36:00

As long as you can manage and manipulate public opinion,

tzmofficial 1:36:00
1:36:03

or as Burson-Marsteller liked to put it, 'public perception'

tzmofficial 1:36:03
1:36:08

you can control public behavior and policy.

tzmofficial 1:36:08
1:36:11

That's what Eddie Bernays knew. That's what he was saying

tzmofficial 1:36:11
1:36:14

when he talked about engineering consent.

tzmofficial 1:36:14
1:36:18

And so yeah, I believe that the ultimate battlefield

tzmofficial 1:36:19
1:36:22

really is in the mind.

tzmofficial 1:36:34
1:36:43

Psywars is part of a series. Please visit Metanoia-Films.org for other entries.

tzmofficial 1:36:47
1:36:52

Written and Directed by Scott Noble

tzmofficial 1:36:54
1:36:59

Narrated by Mikela Jay

tzmofficial 1:38:19
1:38:29

Metanoia-Films.org