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diffa last version

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The Diffa region is highly diverse for centuries, this region has been populated by human groups as diverse as the region For the last thirty years, climate change has deeply affected the mobile herding systems Now, climate change experts are announcing worrying forecasts for West Africa For certain, there will be a increase in temperature of probably 3.3 degrees secondly, dry spells like flooding periods will be more intense and more frequent Who are the pastoralists? They are human groups that live essentially from their herd their animals get all their food from the natural resources in the region in no circumstance do these animals interfere with food destined for human consumption Certain groups, for the last thirty years, have shown more resilience than others Some are completely failing to adapt or are currently facing a crisis Why? The groups that are most affected by climate change are the poorest For example, the Fulanis in the region of Babalmi are failing because they cannot recover from the multiple shocks of droughts since the middle of the 70s until today They have lost all their large livestock They only have a few sheep and some goats which means they can no longer be mobile they are forced to be sedentary and it becomes a miserable situation Other groups facing difficulties, the Wadaabe nomadic herders with a reputation of being the "best' in West Africa But their high level of mobility is now turning against them competition because of repeated drought is exacerbating access to water and pastures in the south of the region their mobility has gone from 150 - 200km to about 50 to 70 km now However, some groups have adapted much better It's the case for the Mohamid Arabs who came from Tchad as political and drought exiles about twenty years ago Highly mobile, highly professional camel herders they have known to adapt their mobility and professionalism to the climatic constraints and the to constraints of the regional market and economy A good example of this is their efficient use of the freed space caused by the retreat of Lake Tchad Thousands of hectares have opened up for pastoral or agricultural use and them, faster and more systematically have integrated these opportunities in the herding system To sell camels successfully and to have access to good pasture, at the right time you have to be well informed People must therefore have access to modern means of communication like mobile phones and the use of motorbikes Therefore, youth are the link between the camps in the bush on one side and their parents in town on the other And it is these parents, well-off merchants, that are well informed about the price of goods on the market of opportunities, and that can inform their families in the bush Camels are sold in the Northern markets at a high price, to match the demand from Libya The profit from the sale of the animals will be spent on the Southern markets where the supplies are much cheaper Modern means of communications are essential to know the fluctuating course of the regional markets and that, the poorest cannot do it These strategies are supported by a very strong social and family cohesion Women support the life system in the rural areas despite the difficulties they prefer the bush for one essential reason there, under the tent, they are the queens It's them that own the home If they go to the city, they will lose their sovereignty What's also interesting, is the relationship with the youth The youth have two visions Some want to stay as pastoralists, living in the bush others want to go like in the city, to do commerce The strength of the Mohamide, is that there is no contradiction between these two visions Many pastoral groups have changed their vision of education To be a modern pastoralist you have to know how to read and write To use a mobile phone, for example you also have to fill out forms to commercialise livestock One must also have to know the law and be able to negotiate So, school has taken another dimension even for girls Climate changes, economic changes and politics within all of that? For certain of these groups it's the political changes that are more difficult than climate change Niger has launched in the elaboration of a pastoral law that gives nomadic group the fundamental right to their mobility, and that also recognizes the efficiency of mobility But the spirit of the law is not known, nor recognized by all In dry zones like Diffa we are headed directly for a worst case scenario But alternative scenarios are possible nomadic herders create wealth, pay tax But what do they get in return? Pastoralism represents 55% of the GDP of the Diffa region Where are the services that are owed to them as Nigerien citizens? They also have a right to school to health and clean water. Expected changes in the climate don't inspire optimism They will throw us into situations that we will not control For centuries, or millenias pastoralist, nomadic societies have learned to live in extreme conditions We have a lot to learn from them at this time in history

Video Details

Duration: 9 minutes and 59 seconds
Country: Niger
Language: French (France)
Views: 90
Posted by: gfpcanopy on Dec 9, 2009

diffa last version

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