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The University (v29)

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First one, do you think mankind can control the future? We are predicting the future by creating it ourselves. It's a magical time.. If people recognized really the greatness we’re about to unleash, I think people....lot more excited about the future ahead. Best ten weeks in my life. It was the best experience of my life. Going to SU has changed my life in more ways than I can probably even imagine. Here’s a quote: “In the past century, there were more changes than in the previous thousand years. The new century will see changes that will dwarf those in the last. My core thesis is that information technology grows exponentially not linearly That may seem obvious but actually a lot of people find it difficult to really wrap their minds around the profound implications of that idea. Now look at this curve. This is Moore’s Law. Over the last hundred years through good time and bad time, war time and peace time. Recession, depression and boom time. This is the result of faster computers being used to build faster computers. The rate of change is explosive to the point that our ability to understand the applications of it is going to be out of our grasp very soon. We are going to go from Internet that’s the size of a golf ball to an Internet the size of the sun. Riding on Moore’s Law are set of extraordinarily powerful technologies. What if we created a university focused on the exponentially growing technologies. I called Ray and he said: "Great idea, let's do it". We are announcing here at TED and in true TED tradition Singularity University. It’s a new University that’s founded by Peter Diamandis, who’s here in the audience, and myself. It’s backed by Nasa and Google and other leaders in the high-tech and science community. We're living in the most extraordinary time ever in human history. You have the ability, as individuals and as small teams, to literally do what only governments and large corporations could have done in decades past. What you do with that opportunity is up to you. And the next ten weeks are chance for you to really find that passion in your heart and soul and then let no one tell you you can’t do it. I am extremely honoured and pleased that Singularity University is based at NASA Ames in Mountain View. It is really a very interdisciplinary, innovative NASA field center. Whether talking about biological work, small satellites, lunar satellites, it’s a place that’s ideal for SU We had to be in Silicon Valley, it’s just the center of the universe of the technology we’re teaching. Within 50 miles of Singularity University you’ve got this incredible economic engine going on. Google, Twitter, Facebook and a slew of companies coming out of this environment. But ultimately, the breakthrough then has to be put into production. We’re up and running. So I have a couple of quick announcements, and they’re kind of big announcements in a weird way they’re more for you than they are for us. My name is Andreas Raptopoulos and I'm from Greece. I'am Paola Santana and I'm from Dominican Republic. I established the first constitutional court in the Dominican Republic. I was 25 years old. My name is Sam and I’m from Canada. I am engineer and entrepreneur. My name's Jessica Scorpio. I'm Canadian. Before coming to SU I worked for the Prime Minister of Canada. My name is Aaron Kemmer. I'm from Clearwater, Florida and I've been an entrepreneur for about ten years now. My mom swears that I had the largest Kool-Aid stand in all of Florida. My name's Jason Dunn. I'm from Florida and I’m an aerospace engineer. My name is Bryce Goodman and I was born and raised in Los Angeles. Prior to SU I went to Oxford University where I studied philosophy, politics, and economics. So you got to meet everyone for the first time. What were your first impressions of all the students? Brilliant. Yeah. When people ask me why I did aerospace engineering, it's a little bit of a joke but somewhat serious that part of it was to be able to call myself a rocket scientist. So now I’m a rocket scientist, I get to say that. I wanted to come to SU because I've always been really interested in the intersection between science and technology on the one hand and society and ethics on the other. I was actually bored out of my mind in the Netherlands with what I did and I thought I can do more and I can do better and I wanted to find a community where people are positive, and where people are the forefront of all the technologies and all that is happening in the world are out there. The answer is that SU is that kind of place? Yes, SU is that kind of place. Okay, so this is what we're gonna do, a fun little exercise here. A get to you know you exercise. Put this big circle so we can see everybody’s face. You have to shout out three metatags. Not three sentences, not three paragraphs, not three stories. Three metatags. Entrepreneurship, finance, and team-building. People, education, and adventure. Policy, technology, education. Google search and failed start up. Nanoscience, computational biology and mathematical programming. It was really cool to see it pop around, we were all in a big circle. You just pop around the room, all of the different words people have. From these experts from everywhere. It was a really neat mix. Did you say non-pop music volleyball? Non-pop-music, volleyball. Okay. The stories they had. Everything started in 1999, when the Matrix came out. So, yeah. When I was younger, we had the hole in the ozone layer. I actually cried a lot about that. About the coral reefs dying. My dad gave to my brother and me walkie talkies. Radios. So I was six and I started to play with my brother with these walkie talkies. My brother was in another room and I was in another room and we were talking. And I said: "Wow, what is it happening? where is the wire? I don't see the wire! What is it happening?” These things started curiosity in me about all the technology. All the telecommunications, the Internet, things like that. I think why? It was beyond my understanding. Now I’m a telecommunications engineer. Now I’m a telecommunications engineer. I think growing up in Greece in general, you have a sense of time that it is very, very different. You think about the different civilizations, the different conquerors, the different technologies that changed the game for civilizations or empires, and you know somehow it gives you a different perspective. When I was growing up, I spent a lot of time in the hospital. I was diagnosticated cancer when I was 5 years old and then I was diagnosticated a second time when I was thirteen. That, has made me see the world in an entirely different way, I think, than many people and I am so grateful for that. My name is Jianying Ji. I started my PHD program in Washington State University. My major is Materials Science. In one more year I can graduate. I grew up where there was no electricity access. So, When I was 10 years old I first time know Ok, there is electricity and this kind of stuff. <em>"How do you mean, what do you mean by that?"</em> That means before 10 years old, I never know in this world. They have electricity, this kind of thing. <em>You didn't see electric lights until you were 10 years old?</em> Yeah yeah. <em>Where did you grow?</em> I grew up in Gansu Province in a very small town. The first time I saw television there was only one channel. But I saw, you know, like research scientists doing research. I think, "Oh, because of these guys then we have electricity". Then I wanted to work in technology. So I always work on technology because I think technology can change our lives. How many folks here came to this program with the intention to either start a company or be part of a new start up? If you could raise your hands. And he challenged us at a very beginning, to take the summer, to try to find our purpose, what can we do for the world. Grand challenge week is a week devoted to understanding what the grand challenges facing humanity are. Grand challenges being water, education, poverty. Energy, food. Security. Space. Environment. What else is there? Health. And waste. They teach you and they show you what it's coming. They bring people here from all over the globe. If you want to affect someone in Africa, then you need somebody from Africa there to tell you how it is. What's the state of food on our planet? How do we deal with fresh water on our planet and access to water? Every week in China a new coal plant is built. Every single week. How we deal with security and poverty? When the price of food just climbs by couple percent of points, 44 millions people fall back into poverty. It's like a vicious cycle. What I consider to be the biggest challenge is the increasing impact of climate change especially in highly populated areas. It is gonna disrupt all of human civilization on Earth simultaneously. And yet we’re blindly going ahead, adding more and more greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In spite of knowing. These are the biggest challenges we as humans face and we hope that our students' innovations can help address these challenges. The team project it's kind of a culmination of the entire summer. You create a project that leverages advancing technologies to solve a big problem that impacts positively a billion people’s lives within ten years. Build a company, a product or a service they could positively impact the lives of a billion people. Positively is the key, you know. Not eventually. Within this next decade. Like a big, big, big problem. One billion people plus problems. And today the word biggest problems, the things that make billions of people suffer, are also the world’s biggest market opportunities. Yeah, I mean it’s not a small amount of pressure. We set out such a grand goal. Such a big expectation. Are they going to touch the lives of even one person, let alone a billion people? Solve hunger, health care, education, water, energy, whatever it might be. Becoming a billionaire in a process and have the gratitude of billions. It's very rare you start new universities and to start one like this, would it work? I’m an optimist. I believe we're going to get there. But there are no guarantees. <em>Why did you come to Singularity University?</em> Why? Because I want to change the world. <em>Do you want to change the world?</em> To what? <em>Do you want to change the world?</em> To change the world...Ah, if I want to change the world. I am changing the world, That is a fact. <em>Do you want to change the world?</em> Sure. <em>Do you want to change the world?</em> I mean, I don't even really know what that means. <em>Do you want to change the world?</em> Ehehe...I can give you the classic answer, and tell you yes....Yes, I want to change the world. The question is: what can I do to change it? I like to think that I'll be in the future history books. And I think, thinking of it that way, it's really a good way of just taking on something bigger than yourself and thinking about your life is in a way that, how do you use it to impact the most people for the better? Being challenged to affect a billion people is a really difficult thing to wrap your mind around. You can’t even really conceptually understand the number one billion. But, it's been done and it will be done again. Of all the different areas, you know, I think they all have something going for them. Everybody knows how important having energy, security is. And within water I think there is a real obvious humanitarian angle there. But of all the different areas I was attracted to waste and one of the reasons why because waste is not sexy, It's not cool. You know, it's something people do not want to deal with, they don’t want to think about it. It's a lot sexier to design the new iPhone than it is to try to come up with a way of disposing of it. For instance in 1995, the average life of a computer is five years, in 2000 it shrinks down to 2 to 4 years, and nowadays, the average life of a new electronic good is between one to two years. Dark side to this, the dark side of Moore’s Law is the waste stream that this generates. Electronic wastes is a huge issue, a huge humanitarian issue, a huge environmental issue and a huge social issue. At present in the United States we collect less than 20% of electronic waste that gets generated by consumers. 2009, there were 15.7 tons of copper produced from all the mines in the world that same year we threw away around six million tons of copper in electronic waste. Of the 20% that is collected, it’s estimated that up to 80% gets shipped abroad to developing countries where it undergoes informal recycling. Informal recycling takes place in places like Guiyu, China. And there you have elderly people and children triyng to leech out gold using cyanide or to try to smelt the copper using open burning. As a result, Guiyu, China has the highest level of dioxins ever recorded. And according to the United Nations is the second most polluted site in the world. The first most polluted site being the abandoned nuclear reactor in Russia. The idea behind Biomine is to try to transform this waste into a resource. To put into perspective, if we look at commercial-grade gold ore, it will contain anywhere between two to four grams of gold per ton. By contrast, a ton of old cell phones, it will contain anywhere between 400 to 600 of grams of gold per ton. So you literally have two orders of magnitude more gold contained within cell phones, and the same is true for copper, palladium, as well as silver. So, the goal of our company is to transform the waste of today into a valuable resource for tomorrow. And remember if you drop one of the balls, it’s lost in space. Alright? In this case,it’ll go to the bottom of the pool, and then it's done. Okay? How could that be hard under water? Upside-down, with gloves on. Tethered. My name is Dan Barry, a former NASA astronaut. Flew on a three space shuttle flights, did four space walks, a couple trips to the space station. And I build robots. I am Neil Jacobstein, I am co-chair of A.I. and robotics at Singularity University. People often think A.I. is a future technology but actually has been delivering value for 25 or 30 years. It's embedded in our traffic control systems on the ground and in the air. It's in video games, all over the world. It's in decision making systems for credit card companies. It really is ubiquitous and has already delivered billions of dollars of value. We called our track A.I. and robotics. Because in some sense, these are two parts of the same coin. A.I. is about using intelligence to manipulate information, robotics is about using intelligence to manipulate molecules in the real world. There's a couple of places that robotics will ultimately be. In the far future, no human being has to do any physical labour that they don’t want to do. You will grow up with your A.I.. You will have conversations and tell stories back and forth. If you have cognitive deficits, here’s a creature, a companion who will listen to the same story every day and laugh at all the right places. A.I. is going to be moving its arms, its legs, doing things through robots. In everyday communication with humans. The upside of that is no more loneliness, the down side of that is maybe people want to hang around with their A.I. more than with other people. IBM’s Deep Blue beat Gary Kasparov in a famous game of chess. That was one of the high-water marks, but then people said well, chess is a very systematic game. It's nothing like a game like Jeopardy, for example. Same category, $1200, answer, daily double. IBM’s Watson didn’t just beat but trounced the two world champions in Jeopardy. We are looking for Bram Stocker and we find Who is Bram Stocker, and the wager, Hello! 17,970 to 41,413 and a two day total of 77,147 I think that we’ll see that AIs will develop really remarkable intelligence that exceeds human intelligence in many different dimensions. We'll see A.I.'s develop types of intelligence that human beings stand up and we will be them in many respects. That doesn't necessarily mean that they’ll want to turn us into slaves. Some of your friends may ask you, what are you worrying about all of these new technologies for, Don’t we already have enough technology? And the answer to that is a simple "No". There’s lots of robots doing lots of great things. Being concerned today that robots are going to take over the world? Forget about it. If you leave the room and just close the door, 99% of robots aren’t going to get out of that room. They’re just going to hang up against the door until they run out batteries, okay? But, there is potential there, you know for the future. What kind of pressure is there on the students? What do you feel yourself? I feel the pressure to do something great. You said you wanted to change the world? You said you were interested in technology? With what you have today, what can you come up with and give me your best shot. Matternet is addressing the poverty grand challenge. One billion people are disconnected because they have no access to all-season roads. That means that they cannot send goods to market, they cannot receive goods, they cannot receive medical supplies. It's almost impossible for them to find the path out of poverty. So it's not about building more roads, it's not about more subways. It's not about more bridges, really. It's about how we're thinking. How this infrastructure is growing. We are building a network. We call it Matternet, a network for transportation of matter, using unmanned aerial vehicles. These vehicles fly autonomously, they just use GPS coordinates to fly between fasted locations where they exchange payloads and batteries in order to fly further. If you have a system that allows you to transport things aerialy, you do away with the need to build roads,which is a huge expense. Let's take Africa for instance. If you look at it from one perspective, it's a virgin continent. In America there's like 4.2 million miles of roads. Would you wish the same for a virgin continent? And my answer to that is "No". Can we jump those stages of building roads, millions of kilometers of roads that cost millions and billions of dollars. We can create these ultra flexible networks. That connect people, without having to build something that will remain, that will cost a lot and remain there forever. One of the most amazing technologies that we got to see during S.U. was the self-driving car. The talk was given by Sebastian Thrun, who at the time was the director of the A.I lab at Stanford University. He actually talked about it and how it’s going completely change how people get around and how they drive. I’m going to talk about cars, and I assume I’m the only person talking about cars to you. We are really bridging the sort of dumb cars we have today with the smarter, more connected, more autonomous cars we’ll have in the future. Getaround enables car owners to offset the cost of ownership and others just to pay when they need to use a car. Essentially we are working to solve a problem that we call car overpopulation. Cars are being used about 3%, 4% of their lifetime. and they’re being parked 96%. Just think for a second what the implications are. Just think of your favorite cities. Is it irresponsible of us to ever park the car? If we invented a car that you could send home for your spouse when it drops you off at work, you could save the time for finding parking at work and the single car might suffice for a family that would otherwise use two cars. With Getaround it is way more cost effective than owning a car and it’s actually a lot more convenient. You can live a healthy life, get the car when you need it but the rest of the time, you don't have to think about a car. In the city, if you turn a thousand cars into Getaround vehicles, you can take over ten thousand cars off the road, remove 100 million pounds of Co2 out of the atmosphere, you can benefit the whole planet. Traffic accidents are the number one killer of young people, in this country from about age 3 to 39 In fact, it's one of the biggest insanities that we tolerate today. And no one really talks about this. The self-driving car will make driving safer. It will also make it more efficient and it will mean that not everyone needs to own a car. So, we really felt like, what we’re changing is people's behavior around their cars. We’re moving from the idea of "one car, one driver" to, you know, you have one car and multiple people using it. With the behavior change we’re creating, we feel that we’re paving the way for self driving cars. Here.....ein, zwei, drei, you right. I am going to be starting over the course of the summer to share with you lessons I’ve learned, in pulling off what other people call impossible. <em>Peter Diamandis, what do you think about him?</em> Woof! Peter D. How would I describe Peter? If you’ve ever seen him talk, you understand thathe kind of carries this energy with him that it almost precedes him. That can affect positively the lives of a billion people within a decade. I guess I don’t know how I would describe Peter. I sometimes think that he is a reincarnated Spartan general, who’s been placed back to drive his legions on towards some impossible Quest. Peter Diamandis is a bomb. A genious. Peter D. is a genious with a vision in the future. <em>Did you say a bump?</em> A bomb. Maybe I pronounced it wrong. A bomb, a bomb. Like he is explosive, like I feel ready to tackle the world whenever I hear that guy speak. Remember across the Atlantic 71 years ago, he didn’t improve technology. He changed the way the public perceives aviation traffic. And we’re all about is changing the way people perceive space travel. It's not just for a few. It's for everyone wants to go. This is the next frontier and we’re about making that happen. I was born in 1960s, and during Apollo I became absolutely passionate about space flight. It was my mission in life. I ended up becoming a doctor to make my mom happy. If for nothing else. But all along, my passion was space. And over the years, I’ve started over a dozen companies in the space arena. One of my companies, Zero Gravity Corporation, has taken 12,000 people into weightlessness. We flew Stephen Hawking, that was a real achievement. In ‘96 in Saint Louis we offered a ten-millions-dollar cash prize. for the first private team that could build a 3-person spaceship, to carry people up into space, come back down within two weeks and do it again. And we had 26 teams from seven countries who spent a hundred million dollars to win that 10-million-dollar prize. Matt, would you call it? 368 thousand feet! Wooooo! The promise is that you’re going to inject a little capitalistic notion into pioneering and encourage people really from the outside the normal area. People who are not the traditional aerospace players. To come up, and that is where breakthroughs come from. These companies have been my impatience for wanting to open up the space frontier. In fact, my latest company is a company called Planetary Resources to go out there and mine astheroids for precious metals and materials. You know, ultimately though, doing any of these big, bold adventures takes three things: technology, money, and people. And technology is marching along, it’s driving, it’s exponentially growing, There is plenty of money around the world. But getting access the right people, is always the hardest thing. All my life, I've loved pulling together communities of people who share a common ethos to do great things. And, S.U. for me was my next step, it was, you know, creating the place that I would want to live my life, with the community that I would want to be with. The mindset that says anything is possible. It's a big bold idea. But ultimately, that's the place I want to be living. The place I wanna be spending my time. And this was my shot. And if it doesn’t work? And if it doesn't work. I, I would be very upset. I'd be, um, if it doesn't Um, hmm. We try at S.U. to live the life that we are projecting, making it experiencial We got a chance to bring up 36-odd students flying in a zero G plane. Like a football....wooohhhhh....Oh! Today we say there’s an app for that. Tomorrow we're going to say there is an org for that. There’s an organism that will fix anything you can imagine out in this world. It's just one of the new tool sets that we have. And it's one of the most powerful we will ever have. Synthetic biology is probably the most powerful technology on the planet today. We are going to essentially march up the evolutionary tree, creating a new one. Synthetic biology is effectively a new form of genetic engineering. It's being able to print DNA. It’s going to change our energy business, our food business. Every part of our existence. Yeah the writing the genetic code changes everything. Before, to write genetic code, you needed a PHD. The thing that’s really changing the entire game is being able to print out genetic code with a very simple device. So now it's no longer so much about how you're going to make this code and more about what you want make with it. We are here today to announce the first synthetic cell. This is the first self-replicating species that we’ve had on the planet whose parent is a computer. Could you explain in layman’s terms how significant a breakthrough this is, please? We actually believe this is going to be a very powerful set of tools and we are already starting on numerous avenues to use this tool. The beautiful thing about biology, is that it's chosen a language and it stuck with it for four billion years. I’ve always looked at it as the language of God. Really since life began, we've been, living things have been constrained by Darwinian evolution, survival of the fittest. Now we are able to create entirely new organisms that nature would never have selected for producing something that has some value to society. And now it’s got an economics selection or a selection for just something that we absolutely need. From materials to food, to new medicines, new vaccines, we're trying to make fuel from carbon dioxide. Now lots of organisms fix carbon dioxide, that's the bases of photorespiration. Starting these on a new scale, instead of waiting billions of years for evolution, it's a whole new approach to the future. We can start to replace the older chemical techniques which are really crude with more sophisticated biochemical techniques that are made from natural compounds, are made at room temperature, are made without toxic catalysts that are ultimately made of, you know, bio-compatible materials using living cells as for their manufacture. Which really means that you end up being able to start to think about programming everything that's living on this planet. Really in the next few decades, we have the capability of taking over the control, the programming of even our own species. I think humanity will change totally in the future because of these capabilities. We have a chance to physically change our own bodies. When we can start designing our own human beings, the code that makes us. I don't know where that takes us, because we don't have to stay constrained by the spaces barriers that is human anymore. We can start to incorporate elements from other creatures. What happens when we make a photo synthetic human? Do we want to delete out things we know can cause diseases later in life? Do we want to live longer. We've never have the choice in this before. We have nothing in our history to guide us moving to our future. We're going to have to figure this out the hard way by doing it. I’m just going to depress. We've literally trained tens of thousands of students how to do this technology, starting using computer software. But you understand the point of what we’re doing? Okay. Go forward and biologize. And so they're exploring in the same way that 30 years ago students were exploring how to program a personal computer. It’s not going to glow. Nature hasn’t been awesome enough to create this bacteria that glows on its own. So we're gonna help it along. It's an exponential technology. We're going to get better at writing genomes very, very quickly. It's not just reading the book of life. It's actually starting to write new books. Coming into S.U. I thought I really understood a lot of these advancing technologies and I think it's pretty wrong. I learned about a lot during those first couple of weeks, things that I've ever learned before. The technology that really struck out to me was 3D printing. 3-dimensional printing is a way to create a part directly from a computer file. You create your computer model, you send to the printer and the printer essentially grows the part. It's additive, that’s the main difference is that you’re assembling molecules either by layer or by dust particle or by liquid that’s being centered or liquid that’s being deposited. You do it enough times and you get an effect similar to what you originally intended. 3D printing is the next industrial revolution. I mean, it’s that simple. Since you don't have steel tools cut in china and parts that have to be injection molded you can actually just create your digital file. Create your part and put on the open market. You can have that part in hand immediately. We're seeing aircraft parts printed in this way. They are printed very optimally and with very rapid turnaround. We're seing lot of first run cars that are full of 3D printed parts because it gets the car to market faster. So if you are for example Formula One, they don't have time to tool up all their parts and to debug them to get them prepped, so they simply print it, they have on the car, they test it and it gives them a very fast iteration cycle. Pretty much anything that is physical you can turn into something digital and then you can do something with it and 3 dimensionally print it out again. You can 3 dimensionally scan your cat and print it. I think 3 D printing has a lot of interesting convergencies with health care. One example is, you know, 3 D printing a personalized prosthetic limb. So this leg has a seven bar linkage so the motion of the knee is perfectly calibrated to human motion, it moves through the same motion we do. You can now create a product that address the needs of an individual and that's completely different from mass production which really wants everyone to fit into one of 3 categories: small, medium, large. One of the holy grails, is possibly to replace organs with generated organs, essentially 3D printed organs. There's many patients who die every year, thousands from organ shortages. And a 3D printer will essentially print cells using cells instead of ink to create that key building block of an organ: the blood vessels. It's a type of technology that just allows a whole different way of thinking. And, hopefully a whole different type of solution for people who have real needs So thanks for your time, I hope you found it really interesting. I had no idea what’s happening in this world. I mean, you come here and you’re like, wow, 3 D printing and DNA. You know, you got robots and all this stuff you’re like, I had no idea it was all so cool. I came to Singularity University with the specific interest of starting a space company. That's when I met my co-founder, Jason Dunn, who also had the same interest and I really think that’s why we hit it off so well and why we were able create something is because we both had that passion to create something what would affect the space industry. A lot of people say that, the reason the dinosaurs are extinct is because they didn’t have a space program. There is absolutely a survival aspect. We have more and more ways to blow ourselves up and kill ourselves. The more that we’re limited to earth, the less likely we have a chance of even surviving as a species. If we can colonize other worlds, build colonies in space, we're basically just backing up, building redundancy making sure that our species stays around. I think that by nature we want to explore everything that there is to explore. You know, those things that just make us curious and space is that next frontier. By going on the frontier, we're going to solve problems that humanity has been facing for a long time. The team project is called "Made in space". The idea is we bring 3d printers to space and we bring manufacturing to space with it. There’s many reasons why you’d want to build in space. One of the reasons is independence from Earth. Imagine if, everything that you need today, you had to go get from London or Australia. You know, that's very similar to how it applies to space. So emergencies happen. You know, the big one is Apollo 13. Where they had to put a round filter into a square hole to make sure the astronauts got enough oxygen and not too much carbon dioxide We had to mock together a big solution. At this point in time I think the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was really about 15 millimeters If astronauts had 3D printers on the space station, then they would be more Earth-independent, if a tool breaks they can fix the tool. If a part doesn't exist that they need, they can build the part. They don't have to rely on Earth so much, which means their missions become less risky. Another reason you’d want to build in space is you don't have to build for launch. So right now, all of our systems are constrained to a launch vehicle, that includes mass and volume, it also includes being constrained in terms of having to survive very high vibration loads in the intense 7-minitue journey into space. Imagine if you could build large things in space, things that are larger than, you know, the launch vehicle today. As you conceivably build and flesh out the idea, you can imagine where you can build structures that are a kilometer long or more. The challenge itself is daunting. I think that’s the easiest way to say it, it's daunting but at the same time, it's really, really exciting. The idea that what you're doing has the potential to impact a billion people, positively. Once you decide to do that, and once you wrap your head around that you can live that life, solving big problem like that. It's hard to turn back. What is the technology that going to literally make or break your industry and or allow you to solve grand challenges? In the 80s we saw Robocop, we were like, aw wow look at that, that’s not going to happen. Sike! 'cause it did. I am excited about what technology is going on. It’s not science fiction anymore. It’s science fact, actually. 50% of the things that are being talked about were in movies or film 20 years ago. I think Star Trek has been brought up 20 times in the discussion, dreaming about what could be next. Ah, I think becomes almost a bar that gets set. Where are going? We went on a trip to Abu Dhabi, to talk about S.U. in the Middle East. I want you to notice two things on this graph Number one, over the last hundred years, how smooth that curve is This sense of incredibly rapid change is embodied in this entire country. It really brought home for me the importance of us getting out there, not just bringing students in from a variety of countries but the factulty going out and meeting lots of people and understanding the culture by being there. Putting aside the international travel and hanging out and teaching celebrities, it comes down to one thing: the SU companies. Will they work? Will they touch the lives of a billion people? Ultimately will they survive in the real world? Do we want students to create a team project that in the beginning is real and does something? Or do we want people to create a team project that has the potential to touch lives of billions people and the answer is "we want both". And so we’re looking for a car sharing program, on year one that touches a thousand people, that’s great but if it leads to autonomous cars ten years from now that’s touching a billion people. I think fundamentally our team projects or not churning out or not working in the way we would like to see. I agree that the 10^9+ projects has had mediocre results, I still personally, my drive is to spawn those companies. Look, the press only has four stories. Astounding, “amazing new kid on the block”. That's the first story. And then the second story is “new kid stumbles and screws up” The third story is “down in the dumps”. And the fourth story is “come back kid”. And they do those stories in sequence and they stay too long on one story but when they switch stories they get stuck on it. And this organization has had a really nice run of publicity. And you guys, we guys, are teetering on the edge of going from “new kid on the block” to “new kid stumbles”. We need your help. Ultimately we need your commitment to giving your all to get this team project to the state of were they can be. Because we depend upon their success. To help us move S.U. forward in the eyes of the donors, the benefactors, the faculty and all, to do next year again. And then if not you, who? If not not now, when? That you have the tools to really fundamentally make a difference in these key areas. Okay. Things that fail. Everything, my gosh It's funny, you know. I try not to think about failure that much. It’s a peculiar quirk I have so I have to force myself to think, “Okay, Where was there a failure? Oh yeah that’s the majority of what we do. In the venture business we need to be focused on taking more risk than we would naturally feel comfortable doing. Imagine waking up each day and saying, most everything I say and do is going to end up being wrong. Everything I believe in, everything I invest my money in, everything I speak publicly and vociferously about will be wrong. You know, slightly more than average. That can start to be disconcerting to some, might start to discourage others from continuing that activity. But we have to because when it works out right, when an entrepreneur has an idea that can change the world and it does change the world. The Googles, the Baidus, the hotmails, you know, the whirlwind of change is so exciting AND the economic pay-off is so great that it makes up for all the losers. Probably the biggest, single thing that's good about Silicon Valley is its love for failure. Here, if you haven't failed, if you only have successes, people will look at you skeptically like, that means you've never done anything interesting. It means you only did something that, you know, anybody could do. Right? You never take risks. And it's the notion of fail often fail early. It's the idea that if you don't try stuff, you become very risk adverse. The more you've invested in something, the less you're willing to let it go because my God, I spent so much time, I spent so much money. How can I possibly stop? I’ll fail. If you want to make something work, you have to follow the scientific method and that requires failure, it’s part of the process. Edison in fact had advisers that said, after 1,000 or 2,000 filaments it didn’t work, this lightbulb project really should be abandoned, it wasn’t working, like we told you it wouldn’t work. But he felt, no he’d actually succeeded in finding out that these 2,000 filaments didn't work. And I’ve had also a lot of failures. I want to be very clear about this, the companies I’m not telling you about. Science is very frustrating. For every one breakthrough, there are 10,000 broken dreams. Seriously, launch vehicles, satellite communications, telecom companies. Plenty of companies where I’ve lost millions of dollars and years of time. But i learned something. Aliens didn’t give us this technology, it’s a biproduct of hard work, of dead-ends, of frustrations. Well that didn’t work too well But, after those frustrations are cleared out, we see the clear road to the future and we say to ourselves: "I helped to create this future". My name is Marc Goodman, I am in Chair of Policy, Law, and Ethics at Singularity University. I work to understand the security implications of emerging technologies. Marc Goodman is the chair of the track, worked at, I love this, Interpol, LAPD, Nato, United Nations. We employ only the best spies. You can't really have a very useful discussion on robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotech, synthetic biology without considering the broader social implications of these technologies. Robots will be creating massive disruption in society for example, we will see robots increasingly replacing humans on the job. We need to think about what are we going to do with all of these people. In one utopian vision of the future, everybody will be sitting on the beach with a cocktail while robots do all the work. But is that the most likely scenario? For every bit of technology that gets introduced, there’s potential upsides and there’s potential downsides. We're seeing more and more robots that are being armed. There are 12,000 ground based systems robotics systems in Iraq and Afghanistan that have got guns. Who's thinks it's a good idea to have a robot a gun? I am quite concerned about the idea putting weapons on autonomous vehicles. And then providing those vehicles with the authority to decide when and whom to shoot. How we keep that under control and how we manage that is an open question right now. Synthetic biology has the opportunity be highly, highly disruptive, it can create abundant fuels, we can have biofuels such that we are no longer required to rely upon petroleum. Once we do away with the need for petroleum products, the whole economic system of the world shifts. What happens in the Middle East, geopolitics relate to that. What's interesting about synthetic biology is that since 2008, syn-bio has been proceeding at a pace 3 to 5 to 10 times Moore’s Law, which means that the rapid development in synthetic biology as an avocation and as a profession, may not take 30 years as it did with the personal computer. But it might only take 10. What that means is that many, many more people will be playing with biology They’ll try to produce fish that glow in the dark. They will try to produce cancer treatments, they’ll try to produce things that are half-horse, half-elephant, I mean, who knows what they’re going to do. In the future, even a high school kid may be able to get a contraption simply type the letters of the alphabet: A, T, C, J in different order and create a designer virus. You know, while I think it’s very cool on one hand we have all this biohacking going on. I think it could also be the most dangerous trend. You don't want your kids to be the first one on the block to make ebola virus. We saw Aum Shinrikyo, the organisation that was responsible for the 1995 Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system used chemical weapons. But what most people don't know is, for ten years proceeding that, Aum Shinrikyo had biological weaponization program where they spent one million dollars a year for ten years, trying to produce a bio-weapon. In the end, 30 years ago it was too difficult, so they went towards chemical weapons. No innovation is risk free. But I think we do have to be concerned about the innovations where the potential downside could be not limited but almost global. The cat’s out of the bag, the horse is out of the barn at this point, the toothpaste is out of the tube, whatever way you want to explain it. We’re not going to pull back, we are not going to stop the technological innovation. No, we can't stop innovation even if we wanted to. If Einstein knew what E=MC squared would result in. You know, the atomic blast, would he have had the inkling and the idea and just stopped even developing it further? I don't think he could have. Climate change, epidemics, and terrorism are all problems beyond the control of individual governments. There is only a limited amount science and technology can contribute to their solution. These problems have been created by people. They have not been created by other species, we have created them, and we've created them through the power of our immaginations. And it's only through the power of our imaginations that we’ll find the solutions that we now need. If you don't realise it, let me hold up America. You are freaking out the rest of the world. Okay. They don't understand or know what you're doing. It's really important that you understand that you make people uncomfortable. Does that mean you should stop doing what you’re doing? Absolutely not. Charge on. And you can take solace, you can take comfort in the fact, knowing that people like Galileo and Charles Darwin and others that had great scientific breakthroughs of their time. Face similar forms of discrimination from the institutions of power in their day. That's the mission. That's, if you would, hopefully the take away that you can. And let no one tell you you cannot. These nine weeks you've had, if nothing else, is perhaps a small glimmer of insight of if you're allowed to dream in a community of people who are dreamers. And ultimately doers, that there is nothing impossible. We all ready? Yeah! You guys excited? Yeah! All right. Let's go party! These companies, these ideas, were created within this bubble of optimism. within Singularity University, where anything is possible. And when they go home, the question is: "Is this all for not?". Impact a billion people in 10 years, how we are going to do this? What are we doing, does this actually matter, is it really going to amount to anything? Are we really going to be able to pull this off? Are these companies going to be able to survive? Will we actually be able to create something great? Will they survive in the real world? Since leaving S.U. we created the company. We took it out in the fields for our first trials of Matternet in the Dominican Republic, in Haiti. We went into post-earthquake camps and really saw what it is to fly in a first response type of situation. We really wanted to see the technology working at that place, where it could be used and see what problems would emerge there. The whole experience really informed our thinking tremendously. Papua New Guinea has a big tuberculosis epidemic. Probably 80% of the population, they don't have access to health care. So, Doctors Without Borders called and said: "Can you help because we have this big emergency in the country and the Government has called us". That, that is priceless. Like, yeah, it's life changing. So, for those that feel believe that this is science fiction, I firmly say to you that it is not. The Prime Minister of Bhutan found us after watching our TED-talk. We worked in Bhutan, with the Ministery of Health and world health organisations. They have a big telemedicine project connecting rural clinics with hospital labs and the next step after having this telemedicine project is to say "Okay, I will send you a medicine". And that bit was, you know, missing. One of these first flights was launched by the prime minister himself. When you have an idea so much, into the future, such an outlier idea, I think really working on building credibility for it and working through the issues, in order to make it happen in the world is really, really important. The very word drone comes with like many negative connotations. They think of them as killing machines, as Orwellian scenarios of the future where you have machines spying on you, you know, not a friendly thing. We hope we are going o be one of the companies that will reverse that. We're launching our first product this year. The components that will allow people in companies to set up their own transportations networks. And I'm super excited to see what happens. To see what people and companies are gonna do with these products. This is a big deal. It's very bright, the future of Matternet is very bright. What is it you want it? Since the end of S.U. we’ve made some amazing progress. Our idea for the team project was Getaround. One of the biggest challenges was getting insurance coverage. Personal auto policies don't really allow you to rent out your car to other people. We catalyzed this by getting som legislation passed in California. And since it's gotten to Oregon and Washington state. Though it was sort of rocky and we weren’t surely exactly how to get it done, we did get it done. We launched at TechCrunch disrupt which is one of the top tech conferences and we won the grand prize of 50,000 dollars. Today we've raised total of over fourty million dollars. Getaround's headquartered in San Francisco. We’ve been in the space for about a year. we’re about 30 people. We’re in five cities San Francisco, Oakland, Berkley, Portland and DC. Now it's really just bringing that to more and more places around the world. The general idea is that. You won’t need to own a car, if you can just hit a button, unlock a car and drive. We see the potential to have millions of car shared on the site in the next three years. What it’s basically doing is paving the way for a complete change in how people see and use cars. We're really excited when self driving cars will be part of the equation and can be part of the Getaround fleet. We’ve got some gas in the tank now. So, since graduating, we founded Biomind, we put together the business plan and about a year later we put together a team of world class experts. When out and identified viable technologies for recovering value from electronic waste. Today we've raised nearly 50 million dollars. And that financing allowed us to really put together the engineering plans to build our first facility in the United States, which will be the first facility of its kind in North America to recover value from electronic wastes. Former vice president Al Gore was actually there to help make this announcement today in Mississippi County during a ceremonial ground breaking. It was surreal, former Vice President up there, talking about your dream and making it happen. This started with environmentalists who were looking for a way to deal with a very bad environment problem. My parents obviously abstractly know that I've been working on this thing for a long time. So to have them come to this ground breaking and actually see something physically happening it was validating and hopefully convinced my parents that I do have a job. If everybody in the world were to enjoy the same quality of life and affluences as those within United States and Europe, we would need ten times more copper than is found in all of proven reserves. So, there is an absolutely need for companies and technologies to recover this material. My personal hope for the company is that we are able to open up a similar facility in places like Guiyu, China, places that need this the most in the world. Since I left SU, we’ve made significant steps with bringing 3D printing into space. We were lucky enough to nail our first contract with Nasa to do a bunch of zero gravity flights where we tested our concepts for 3D printing. Jason Dunn here, live in a zero G airplane with a Made in Space experiment, coming to you live For the first time we’re going to manufacture in weightlessness I like it. We flew a lot of different types of 3D printers and ones that we hacked up and built ourselves. We flew roughly equivalent of about two hours at zero gravity time. That's far more than Nasa has ever accumulated in all the years that they've been researching manufacturing in zero gravity. Being in zero gravity takes you to a whole other world. We got to understand what zero gravity really feels like. It let the team understand the environment they’re designing for. Go, go, go One, two, go, go, go. By the end of those tests, we basically became the people who understood how 3D printing worked in zero gravity. High five! Facebook! How’d you do? Great! After we did all these successful zero gravity flights, we went on to develop a design for a 3D printer with Nasa. This is where the magic, really happens. Seriously. This is a milestone not even just for Made In Space, not even just for America, but really for our species and for humanity. It’s a milestone that’s going to help push us further. And everybody here has been really, really helped to make that happen. We were down at Cape Canaveral with SpaceX 4. Where our printer was strapped to the top of a rocket, being launched to the international space station. Ohhhh!!!! Dude. Dude. Yeahhhhh!!!!!!!!!!! Yeah!!! .......Go, go, go!!! .........go, go, go........... ......go..................... Man when that rocket launch, we were crying, On the ground, in the air, 3d print everywhere! Wooo...................... It was a big moment. I spent four and a half years leading up to that point. One of the biggest things that was on our mind after we launched the printer, was: "What is going to be the first thing that we print?". That’s the first thing ever manufactured off of planet earth. The universe is kind of getting a tattoo in the sense that, ah, that wherever we build first, is going to be it, we really can’t undo that. The first thing we ever made off of planet earth was a piece of the printer itself. While this was a very simple part of print, it's also symbolic of we we’re headed. This is a printer that is now printing parts of itself, which means it could be printing parts of another printer. So, where we’re headed is the idea self-replicating machines. We’ve been doing some 3D printing, it's just amazing what we're doing, now this is just baby steps, we’re just getting started here, but eventually hopefully we can make parts and install those parts while we’re in deep space. Who knows where it will lead. One day, Butch Willmore, the astronaut floats over the printer, and he’s like, “hey you guys have my wrench in there?” And we e-mailed it to the printer on the space station and only a couple hours later, the astronaut was holding that wrench in his hand and that ended up being the faces anything..............space. When we started the company, we planned out three stages: fly printers in zero gravity, designing a printer and put it on the ISS, Now we've done that and now we’re trying to figure out what do we do next. This, right here, was made out of moon dirt simulate. With our 3D printer, so we’re learning how to build out of moon sand or lunar regolith, so we can our future off of planet. So what we can do is actually send our 3D printers to the moon well before humans ago and those printers will start building structures, they’ll build habitats for people, they’ll build roadways, landing pads. All the things we need to sustain humans. You can imagine if we were going send people to Mars or to the moon or to the asteroids. They would want to bring this technology with them. It's the essential tool kit for the space explorer. If we can make it even a little bit easier for humans to go to space, then we, we’re not impacting a billion people. We’re impacting everybody. We were impacting the whole planet. Do you think you guys are on your way to effecting a billion people? Ah! We are on the road to impact one billion people. It’s definitely a really big goal. I think it can be feasible. I mean, it is obviously unrealistic. I mean, how many companies can you count that have impacted billion people? There aren’t that many. I think also it depends, you know, how you are measuring the success of S.U. I think S.U. has already proved that it’s working. What you find here are companies that are taking huge risk, they don't see much, sometimes much potential in the near term because everybody here is focused on how do you change the world, how do you do something that across the rest of your life has a giant impact. I think that if S.U. can change the conversation and can draw people away from, you know, these sort of short-term goals and into this more long term thinking, Then I think it’s succeeded in its mission. I think that for many people like me, S.U. is one of the best things that have happened in their lives. The fact that Singularity University has given this opportunity to people like me, that were hungry for changing the world, for doing things differently, for thinking differently, this in itself is a big success. I think. Who's your, did any particular faculty member have a big impact on you? Dan Barry. Dan Barry. Dan Barry. Dan Barry was definitely one of the most inspiring people I've ever met. Everybody in my first grade class wanted to be an astronaut By the time I was in sixth grad, only half, and by the time I got to high school nobody else wanted to be an astronaut. And in fact my high school guidance counselor told me: "You'll never be an astronaut". And you need to start dressing for success and get real, 'cause you are definitely, never gonna be an astronaut. So, I never met anybody for years that was gonna be an astronaut and it became embarassing and I stopped telling people that’s what I wanted to do. Except for my wife who I told on the very first day we met, and now she believes me about stuff. But anyway. So it really was embarassing, I wouldn't tell people that I wanna be an astronaut because people would think I was this big joke, right? And so I found other things to do. But started to apply. And in 1978 I applied to Nasa to be an astronaut and they said "No". So then in 1979 I applied and they said "No", in 1980 they said "No". In 1981 they said "No". So I applied in 1982 and they said "No", I applied in 1983 and they said "No". 1984 they said "No". In 1985 they didn't take applications, so that was a good year and 1986 they said "No", in 1987 they said "No". Well, by 1988 I was assistant professor and I was I was already embarassed to tell people I was applying and now you have to go to your department chairman and say: "You know, I want to apply to be an astronaut and I need your recommendation sir". And of course the response was "What?". So, ‘88 I applied and they said "No". In ‘89 I went back to my department chairman and I said: "I need you to write another one” Having failed last year. And he said, “You know, you ought to be thinking more about tenure and less about space. I know, but we need to still send out the, okay. So, in 1989 I applied and they said "No" and in 1990 I asked him again and he said "You’re way too old". Oh crap, so I called Nasa and I said "Am I too old?" and they said "No, you're not too old, keep applying, we know who you are". So, okay. So, I applied 1990 and they said "No". I went to the department chair in 1991 and I said: Well, you know, let’s do this again, and he said “well at least you’ve got tenure but I still think it’s stupid and you’re really too old.So I applied ‘91 and they said "No". So. Do you ever get the thin envelope, you know? In April, every April I get this thin envelope. They don't call you and say no. They just send you this thin envelope, I was like the king of thin envelops. Right? I was waiting for the FedEx thick package which never came, right? So, anyway, so I applied in ‘92 and I got a phone call. Which is way better than an envelope. And I went down there and I met all these other people who wanted to be astronauts. And then people who were astronauts, and I hadn’t met anyone else who wanted to be an astronaut, for 20 years! I can't find anybody else! So, I wrote home and I said: "I found people just like me". And I don't care whether or not they let me be an astronaut, I'm coming here to work. And, the neat thing is that, tonight, after today, I’m going to write a really similar e-mail. So, it was great to meet you all today. Dan what year did you finally get in? 1992! Ignition and lift off....................the satellites. People say, “were you scared on the pad?” I really wasn’t, the only concern I had was whether or not this adventure that I had been waiting for 40 years to do, wouldn't live up to the billing. Suppose I got there and didn’t like it. You're never know, right? From the moment the engines turned off and I was in zero G those experiences, seing the earth from above the sky, flying like Superman, these kind of things not only met these high expectations but exceeded them. It's so hard to describe the feeling of freedom when gravity's gone. The ability to fly is like magic super powers. That is passion. Right? So, how do you get that passion? Goes back to the first thing and I've said: "Every single time you find it in your hearts". Lots of people told me I wasn’t smart enough to be an astronaut, lots of people told me I wasn’t athletic enough to be an astronaut. But you just push past that. I'm very proud. You know, we’ve only had a few hundred students come in the short history of the SU university. And dozens of companies have been built. A handful of them have been extraordinarily successful. You know, over the next decade, we're gonna see thousands of students and hundreds of companies impact this planet and help guarantee, enable, ensure inspire our future. SU for life? Yeah! Yeah, I think so, it is a cult. It is absolutely a cult. Ok we can’t put that in the film. I think you should.

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Posted by: gabriella61 on Mar 4, 2018

The University (v29)

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