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Female Anatomy Part 2-Internal Organs_Final

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>> Hi, and thanks for joining us for this lecture. In this lecture, we'll be discussing the internal organs of the female reproductive system. There are a lot of misconceptions about how these organs actually work. So we're excited to debunk some of those myths. Let's get right to it. The internal female reproductive organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. First, we'll talk about the vagina or the vaginal canal. The vagina is also called the birth canal. It's a 4 or 5 inch long stretchy muscular tube that connects the vulva to the uterus. It has a few important jobs including receiving the penis during intercourse, allowing the menstrual flow to exit, and delivering a baby from the uterus to the outside world. Wow, that's a pretty clinical description for something that has such a huge impact on women's lives. Like the other sexual organs, when it comes to vaginas, there is a lot of variety in size, shape, sensitivity, discharge, and even smell. It's really beneficial for female clients to become familiar and comfortable with their own vaginas so they can maximize their own sexual pleasure. You can help your clients work past any shame they've developed around their bodies or their sexuality by helping them discover what's normal for them. Additionally, by becoming aware of their own sensitivity, scent, and discharge, they will be aware if something seems off-track. One of the best gifts you can give your clients is the ability to be intimately aware of their bodies, so that they can spot any issues or irregularities in the earliest stages. On the front wall of the vagina about two to three inches up is the G-spot. This is a bit controversial since anatomically it hasn't been proven to exist. However, many women are aroused when this area is stimulated. It feels slightly different from the surrounding walls. For many women, it has a ribbed or roughened feel to it. The vaginal walls produce lubrication when aroused. The amount of lubrication is directly related to estrogen levels and may change during the course of the menstrual cycle. Estrogen helps keep the vaginal walls thick, elastic, and moist which protects the vagina. Female clients may experience vaginal dryness, particularly as they approach perimenopause and menopause, or if they have been on the birth control pill for an extended period of time. Vaginal dryness can also result from chronic antihistamine use for allergies because this type of medication dries out all bodily fluids not just the nasal cavity. Sexual intercourse when a woman isn't fully aroused may irritate the vaginal walls contributing to chafing or microscopic tearing of the vaginal walls. This can lead to uncomfortable or a painful sex. In healthy women, the vagina works like a self-cleaning oven, maintaining moisture, PH, and bacterial levels to keep it functioning optimally. But there are many ways that the system can get off-track, especially if the bacterial population gets affected by dysbiosis, insulin resistance, or infection. You may work with clients who notice a change in their normal discharge or scent. If this happens, they should seek medical care. As their coach, you can work with them to improve their bacterial population, estrogen levels, and blood sugar control. There are many well documented natural remedies that have been shown to be helpful with improving symptoms of yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and bacterial imbalance in the vagina. But a client should always visit their doctor first to rule out sexually transmitted infections and other serious problems before choosing to take matters into their own hands. Second, we'll talk about the cervix and its importance in vaginal health, as well as during pregnancy and delivery. The cervix is the opening to the uterus. It sits at the top of the vaginal canal. It's a thick collar of muscle that holds the uterus closed. The cervix controls when substances can pass into and out of the uterus. It's able to produce a thick cervical mucus that fills the cervical canal and forms a mucus plug, blocking the flow between the uterus and the vagina. Around the time of ovulation, the consistency of the cervical mucus becomes much thinner allowing the passage of sperm into the uterus for fertilization of an egg. The cervix is fairly mobile and changes position throughout the menstrual cycle. During ovulation, it actually sits up a little higher to help ensure that the strongest swimmers are the ones to reach the finish line, and softens and opens to allow passage of the sperm into the uterus. During the menstrual period, it sits low and feels firm like the tip of a nose, but is open to allow passage of menstrual blood. Before and after ovulation, it sits low and is firm and closed. During pregnancy, the cervix also forms that thick mucus plug that I just mentioned which helps protect the developing fetus by sealing the uterus from possible contamination by external pathogens. This mucus plug normally stays in place until the cervix begins to ready itself for delivery. During labor, the cervix thins out, until it's flexible enough to allow the baby to pass into the vagina. One complication of pregnancy is what's known as an incompetence cervix. This is when the cervix is too weak to maintain its closed position. While this term sounds a bit insulting, it's a serious condition because it can contribute to loss of pregnancy or premature birth. This might be picked up in an exam or on ultrasound. If it's caught in time, the doctor can sew the cervix closed which will allow the women to maintain the pregnancy. If a woman has a previous history of incompetent cervix, this procedure must be done early enough in the pregnancy to prevent loss. Next, we'll discuss the uterus and its role in menstruation and pregnancy. The uterus is the primary organ for fetus development and is usually small in women who've never had children. A little bigger than a closed fist. It sits in the pelvis just behind the bladder and in front of the rectum. The uterus is well supported by the tissue around it including a set of ligaments that hold it in position. It can vary in its position from tilting forward to tilting backward. When the bladder is full, this can also push the uterus backwards. About 20% of women have a backward tilted uterus called a retroverted uterus. In some cases, the uterus is completely folded backwards on itself and it's called a retroflexed uterus. This can cause a number of difficulties including pain during an after sex, difficulty conceiving, and constipation as it presses against the rectum. The uterus has a thick lining that's meant to cushion and support a baby during development which gets even thicker as a woman approaches ovulation. If her pregnancy results, the fertilized egg will settle into the lining. If no pregnancy results, the lining is released along with the egg allowing the body to restart the cycle. The uterus is designed to provide all the care and nutrients that the fetus needs to grow into a healthy baby. By week four, the uterus develops a placenta which passes nutrition from the mother to the fetus through the umbilical cord. The uterus stretches and thins out as pregnancy progresses. By week 12 of pregnancy, it goes from being an organ housed solely in the pelvis to becoming an abdominal organ that pushes everything out of its way to expand. In fact, it grows to about the size of a watermelon. During delivery, it contracts forcefully to deliver the baby into the birth canal. Fourth, we have the fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes are attached to the uterus at the upper corners and supported by a fold of tissue called the broad ligament. The eggs are carried from the ovaries to the uterus through these tubes following ovulation. If sperm is present in the fallopian tube, the egg may also be fertilized. It's then normally transported into the uterus where it will implant into the wall. The fallopian tube is lined with finger like extensions which are activated by rhythmic contractions of the muscles that line the wall of the fallopian tubes, helping to propel the egg into the uterus. Nothing is left to chance. These little fingers grab the egg as soon as it's released from the ovarian follicle and move it into the fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancy, sometimes called tubal pregnancy is when the fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus. This happens in about 2% of pregnancies, most commonly in the fallopian tube. It is more common in women who have previously had sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, women taking fertility drugs and women who've had previous surgery on the tube or the uterus. Smokers are also at risk for ectopic pregnancy. Smoking interferes with the action of the cilia, fine hairs that line both the respiratory tract and the fallopian tube, making it harder for the egg to be propelled through the tube. Low progesterone levels have also been associated with ectopic pregnancy. It is unclear whether this is a result of the ectopic pregnancy or is a risk factor. However, adequate progesterone is required for proper tube function. Low progesterone levels, as can be seen in women with high stress, may contribute to a higher risk of ectopic pregnancy. Tubal pregnancy can result in loss of both the pregnancy and the fallopian tube. If the tube ruptures due to the pregnancy, this can be a life threatening situation for the women requiring emergency surgery. And finally, we have the ovaries which are small ovoid organs that sit on either side of the uterus attached by a folded tissue called the broad ligament, just below the fallopian tubes. They are about 2 inches in length and about 1.5 inches in width. They become somewhat larger after puberty and then after menopause, they may shrink quite a bit in size. Inside the ovaries are one to two million potential egg cells. During woman's lifetime, only about 300 of these will mature into eggs capable of being fertilized. Throughout the menstrual cycle, the ovaries produce sex hormones in varying amounts. The main hormone is produced by the ovaries are estrogen and progesterone. The hypothalamus triggers the release of these two hormones to prepare the uterus for pregnancy and menstruation. Most of the progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum which is formed within the ovary after ovulation from the mature follicle that releases the egg. Progesterone prepares the body for pregnancy signaling it to thicken the uterine lining. If the woman does not become pregnant, the corpus luteum will disappear and menstruation will occur. Did you know that more hormones are released during pregnancy than in any other time of woman's life? That's right. If a woman is pregnant, the pregnancy will trigger high levels of estrogen and progesterone which prevent further eggs from maturing. Progesterone is also secreted to prevent uterine contractions that may disturb the growing embryo as well as preparing the breasts for lactation. Near the end of pregnancy, the increased estrogen levels tell the pituitary gland to release oxytocin which causes uterine contractions. Before delivery, the ovaries release another minor hormone called relaxin which loosens and softens the pelvic ligaments to prepare for labor. Finally, during perimenopause, estrogen levels can fluctuate wildly or drop significantly, and in menopause, estrogen levels drop even further. Both of these phases of a woman's life are characterized by dropping progesterone too because the ovaries are no longer ovulating regularly. Okay, that wraps up our discussion on the internal anatomy of the female reproductive system. To sum up our lecture today, we reviewed the anatomy and functions of the internal female reproductive system. You also heard about how the reproductive system changes during pregnancy and we reviewed some common conditions associated with the reproductive organs, including an incompetence cervix and ectopic pregnancy. Do you now feel more comfortable identifying and talking about the internal parts of the reproductive system and how they function? We've given you all of this information on female reproductive anatomy, so that when you talk about things, like sexual health, female reproductive issues, pregnancy, and fertility with your clients, you have a solid understanding of the parts involved. You don't need to memorize every single detail. The goal here is to have a working understanding of what's going on down there. So you have a context for which to explain things to your clients. To help you facilitate these discussions and help you visualize what we've been talking about, we've provided you with a handout called "A Visual Overview of the Female Reproductive Anatomy," which contains a diagram of all the parts of the female reproductive system. Don't forget to stop by the Facebook group to ask any questions and let us know how you'll use this new knowledge to work with your clients. Thanks for joining us, and we'll see you soon.

Video Details

Duration: 13 minutes and 22 seconds
Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 5
Posted by: ninaz on Apr 13, 2018

Female Anatomy Part 2-Internal Organs_Final

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