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BITC / Biodiversity Diagnoses - Gaps 2

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It's a particular species, so that will ease the process. That's in the future, or perhaps not even in the future ##### Well, you may need to go to the field which takes a lot of effort as we saw, that probably has medium difficulty, new field surveys or some kind of, new kind of remote sensing that you may plan and it will be hard but eventually it may happen that some inaccessible sites may eventually ####(rereached) such as volcano, or #### (subsoil), the bottom of the ocean Do you know how many times we've been to the moon? I mean some people have been on the moon? #####(I mean they're continuously on the moon) but it's different. How many trips have been done by the human to the moon, so far? Remeber? I remember staying up all night waiting for Armstrong stepping there. Six times. OK, how many times have we been to the deepest bottom of the ocean? It's much closer, it's only 11 Km down rather than 300000 Km outside of the atmosphere. How many times? No guess? Twice. First time in 1960s. An enormous machine which was basically a #### (back/bag) of fuel that provide buoyancy And a bowl of steel, yes it was steel, hanging down. They went down, when they hit the bottom, an enormous cloud of lime went out, So, they couldn't see anything and they had to go up. That was in the 60s. Second time was two years ago, when a very very wealthy film director, James Cameron, made his #### (sound) very little compacted submarine and went to the same place with host of cameras to film whatever was there I'm rather suspicious that something went wrong because no single foot of film has been released yet. So, there are still places where we haven't yet been. Now, this is an ideal procedure for gap control which means how should we deal with the gaps? We should start here and then do some kind of gap detection, we should try to find a gap And normally, first I will see that if there is a gap, this gap is filled? If it's filled, it's because there is not a gap. So, we can end by there. But if it's not filled, we may try to fill the gap. Obviously, the easiest way to try to fill the gap is looking for if there is DAK available. If there is digital knowledge available. If there is, we try to fill or to source from DAK. But whenever, we fill a gap from DAK, and it's available, we have to go back to gap detection because by filling a gap We might perhaps open a different gap. So, it will continuously recycle until we are sure that the gaps filled. If there is no DAK available, then we try to get to something slightly harder which is trying to get existing data in hard formats into digital formats. I call this DAKifying gray data. If there aren't any gray data that could be DAKified and then go back to the cycle and eventually end Then we start to fieldwork. We have to go out and collect the data. But again, when we have the data, we have to repeat the gap detection analysis to see whether we have to fill the gap or not? Now, what types of gaps we're dealing with in primary records? First, taxonomical gaps. I'm going to talk about three main gaps, there are many more. What is the taxonomical gap? It's something that arises from what ##### called the "Taxonomical Impediments". or Taxonomic Impediments. The amount of wisdom, of knowledge about taxonomy is not increasing. It's actually decreasing. Because taxonomy is salt over the shoulder by many #####. Because it's not nice enough. It doesn't have enough lights to it. It's done by people sitting in the labs, going out to the field collecting data with a lot of difficulty and spending hours and hours and days and months and years trying to distinguish one bug from another bug. So, it's not shiny. It tends not to be funded. Which means that the amount of trying taxonomists is actually diminishing It doesn't have much of our recruit So what we know about taxonomy is basically partial. Some data are known, some data are not known. There is also something else which I call ####(uneducated) knowledge transfer The knowledge may be there, but sometimes the taxonomical knowledge requires again some kind of taxonomical expertise. to the way through the see of redenominations, synonymization and new combinations of species is normally a nightmare unless you are a specialist in this group The second type of gaps is time gaps which may mean that the natural cycles are not covered, for instance. if were want to know something about certain species or number of species that how natural cycle that appears in summer and disappears in winter and we only have winter data basically, we know nothing about the species. There is also the limited span that Town explained before. We may only have data from a certain period of time Last, those are the geographic gaps that Town explained in the previous talk. which may include shallow coverage, which may include spotty coverage, good coverage but in a few places Or biased coverage. You are leaving the field and there some data that you could have collected. Or generalized coverage. You get data from very general areas that will offer you a little or no information at the level of detail at the regional or local level. To give you an idea of how much or how many gaps you may find even in supposedly #### (public) and corrected data, let's look at this plot here This plot here explains how the data that are available about Spain in GBIF indexes has been completed. We have the geospatial sector, the date sector, and the taxonomy sector. Over this axis here, what we have is the amount of datasets that are complete or partially complete So, these columns here are the number of datasets that our geospatial data is complete which means they coordinates, they have datum So they can be well-located in space. The yellow ones are the ones that have complete dates for #### And the red ones, they have complete taxonomies. That's what we should expect. We actually should expect that we only have these columns and we don't have these columns. And those columns represent the number of datasets that may have no data or only a partial amount of data in their records. 60% means that 60% of data records are complete which means 40% are not complete, are lacking something like coordinates, taxonomy, dates and so ever So, there are gaps everywhere. Let's go to the taxon data gaps. As I told you before, this arises from the taxonomical impediments. A world-wide shortage of taxonomic information As defining ##### In evolutionary biology, that leads to gaps in taxonomical knowledge and in a #### cycle shortage of trained taxonomists. If we were presented the number of species in the world of organism according to group What is the most diverse group in the world? Do you remember which is this? Which group of organisms is the most diverse as known from the current taxonomy? [audience]: Insects? [Arturo]: That's correct. Insects. And within insects? Bugs, ##### (Hemiptera or Calyptra). Right? This was presented by Bob #### in this very nice picture. The size of the icon represents the number of known species. Known in the current taxonomy. This is completely wrong in a sense because now we know that the highest diversity is in the bacteria and we won't go into that. So, insect is the most diverse group, the next one is plants, upper plants. And the next one is crabs. Of which we know a few species that weren't ##### and the next one is snails, and then fungi, and then protozoans. This might be also false because that's what we know about protozoa, but we know that we don't know a thing about protozoans. Algae, fish is the first vertebrate. Then flatworms, #### worms, birds, jellyfish, reptiles, starfish, sponge, I don't know what it is, frogs or amphibia and lastly mammals. However, we started to say names of animals here except for plants because you thousands of plants We'll probably be able to name twice or three times or four times as many vertebrates and mammals as anything else. Right? And what we internally know, we know a lot about vertebrates, we know less about invertebrates is actually what exists in the current knowledge. In the datasets. Let's look at these three maps. At the map, there is representation of the amount of entities or in this case the amount of records The size of each time is proportional to the amount of records that exists in this case in GBIF. What we see here is that most data are basically birds. That's what we know more. I have a different three map for species names. It's different and we won't go into that now. Those are plants, the green things. And those are other taxa which mean almost anything else. Those are fish, and those are insects. Insects should be by far the largest group. However, most records are basically birds. So, there is a discrepancy between what we should know and what we know. We should know a lot about insects and plants but we do know a lot about birds. Sorry, but this is what it is. Thank to the work of ornithologists. Which solutions do we have? We may #### (resolve - resort) to names and taxonomies, global initiatives that will provide us with the names Which may provide us with the name of solutions as we did in this exercise. We can go to GBIF, we can go to Encyclopedia of Life To Catalogue of life, Taxamatch and other tools that will help us finding species names But they will not resolve the very basics of the things. We need to attribute content to the taxonomy. And that will always depend on taxonomists. We're back to the Taxonomical Impediments. We don't have taxonomists, this up there will come to nothing eventually. And most species actually remain unknown. How many species do we know? How many species have received names? Remember? It's about 1.5 to 1.8 million. But how many species are out there waiting to be discovered? There are several estimates. So, what did you guess? How did you know the estimates of how many species are out there to be discovered? It's millions. The estimates vary a lot. But they go from a lower bound of 5 million up to an upper bound of 100 million. And finally, the accepted estimate is 20 million of existing species. That doesn't count species that have already disappeared. Because most species actually aren't there anymore. They have disappeared. What was the last time you saw a living #####

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Duration: 15 minutes and 55 seconds
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Language: English
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Posted by: townpeterson on Jul 26, 2016

This talk was presented in the course on National Biodiversity Diagnoses, an advanced course focused on developing summaries of state of knowledge of particular taxa for countries and regions. The workshop was held in Entebbe, Uganda, during 12-17 January 2015. Workshop organized by the Biodiversity Informatics Training Curriculum, with funding from the JRS Biodiversity Foundation.

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