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[♪ Music ♪] [Maritime Training Services Inc.] [In case of any conflict between the requirements shown in the movie] [and the company's safety management system (SMS), ] [please follow the company's SMS requirements.] [Enclosed Space Entry Safety Preparations and Rescue] Nobody wants to get into trouble while in an enclosed or a confined space. Small mistakes can easily turn into tragic accidents inside spaces like ballast tanks, cofferdams, duct keels or even large pipelines. These areas can carry unique hazards like toxic gas, low light, and low oxygen. Should someone become injured these hazards make rescue much more complex, especially at sea. Entering and working in an enclosed space should never be impulsive. It should be a carefully coordinated plan to ensure that everything goes smoothly, and so that if something does go wrong, and someone needs help, the crew can act efficiently and decisively. In these cases, it is often a life that is on the line. In this video, you will learn about planning and preparation for entering an enclosed space, the formation of an entry team, preparations for entry, possible injuries in these spaces and how to conduct rescue, and different types of equipment used for entry and rescue. With good planning and team work, entry and work inside enclosed space can be safe and injury free. [Pre-Entry Meeting] Most of the planning for entering an enclosed space is done at the pre-entry toolbox meeting. It's important that all involved crew members participate. By the end of the meeting everyone should have a good snapshot of the scope of work, equipment needed, and hazards involved in working in that particular space. Start by reviewing your company's procedures for enclosed space entry, and discussing the layout of the enclosed space, and the job that needs to be done. Based on this information, form your entry and rescue teams, and delegate duties to each team member appropriately. Use your company's permit process, which may include a checklist to ensure that all steps for entry are covered, and that all the appropriate equipment will be brought to the site. Depending upon the nature of the entry, additional JSA's or risk assessments may be necessary. Any equipment that is not commonly used every day should be brought on site and reviewed with the team members prior to the work taking place. Finally, make sure the meeting is conducted in such a way as to allow for ample time for reviewing the scope of the work. All involved crew members must attend. And all crew members must understand their roles in the enclosed space entry that will take place. [The Team] Roles and responsibilities for the work are assigned in the toolbox meeting. The responsible officer or a competent person, typically determined by your company's procedures, is the on site authority for entry. They establish the sequence of work, brief the entry team, test the atmosphere, determine whether conditions of entry are acceptable, monitor who goes into and comes out of the space, establish clear lines of communication, and ensure all equipment is on site, operational, and accessible. Upon completion of the work, they finally confirm that all persons have exited the enclosed space, No further entries are allowed, and the space is closed off. The responsible officer appoints an entry or a stand-by attendant who is stationed outside the permitted enclosed space. The attendant monitors the authorized entrants and ensures that all rescue and stand-by equipment is ready and within reach. The attendant also maintains direct constant communication with the work team inside. The work team within the space should have a minimum of at least two people. At least one crew member to work, and a second crew member for spotting, and maintaining communications. Sometimes enclosed spaces are large and very complex, and obstacles can get in the way of personnel movement. Additional workers may be needed for the job in order to maintain clear communications, and complete the work safely. The work team should be sized in accordance with the job that needs to be done. In addition to the work team, a rescue team stands by with the important job of reacting quickly in case of an emergency. The team members must ensure that rescue equipment is readily available, and be familiar with its use. [Preparing the space for entry.] Preparation for entering an enclosed space will often begin a day or two ahead of the planned entry time, as the space will need to be ventilated continuously for multiple hours depending on the size of the space, the shape of the space, and the use or purpose of the pace. Ventilation of the space may be with either fixed or portable ventilation equipment, including installed fans with ventilation ducts, or portable blowers with ducts. While using blowers it is particularly important to note that clean air is supplied in, and that there is a separate outlet for the exhaust air. For some spaces, such as cargo tanks on a tanker, it will be necessary to wash the tank and gas free the space, and then ventilate, to ensure that the space will be safe for entry. Due to the possibility of oxygen deficiency, as well as the presence of hydro carbons, and/or toxic gases in confined spaces, it is the responsibility of the competent person to properly identify the known hazards, and the potential hazards of such spaces. It is important to obtain a representative cross-section of the compartment by atmospheric sampling for a range of toxic gases at several depths, and through as many deck openings as practicable using calibrated multi-gas detection devices, and colorimetric detector tubes, if necessary. Stop ventilation and wait 10 minutes before testing the space. The next step is to bring all the equipment for entry, work, and rescue to the work site. It must be laid out in an organized way so it is ready for use. The attendant should not have to leave his post to access any of the equipment. At the same time, the equipment should be placed so that it does not become a tripping hazard. If necessary, proper signs and barriers should be used to mark out any openings where any other crew could fall through if they were unaware of the work that is taking place. All crew must wear appropriate PPE for the job including hard hats, gloves, and appropriate safety boots. If the work inside involves working aloft, then full-body harnesses must be worn, with an arrestor secured to a safe point. Each person should also have appropriate lighting for the job. At this point, all hatches should be open. The space should have been tested and declared safe. Ventilation should have been turned back on for the workers. Equipment should be gathered and laid out. The responsible officer may now authorize the entry. It is best, and common practice, for each crew member to wear a multi-gas detector in the space so that each person may monitor for oxygen content, LEL, and appropriate toxic gases wherever they are physically located. Communication between the attendant, responsible officer, and work team is extremely important. For people inside the tank itself, communication can be difficult because of echoing, and noise from ventilation, and radio signals can be blocked from various levels of metal within the space. Your equipment should include intrinsically safe walkie-talkies that must be tested for battery strength, as well as signal strength from inside the enclosed space to the area where the attendant and rescue equipment are stationed. If, for whatever reason, radio comms fail, it may be necessary to relay information verbally from person to person. Be patient while waiting for a reply. Above all, frequent and periodic radio checks are important, as these can be the first sign that the workers in the space are in trouble. A pre-established time line should be made for conducting these checks. Ideally, you have made all preparations as required by your company's management system, and you have executed a flawless enclosed space entry. But as we're all too aware, accidents happen. No matter how well prepared a space is for entry, you must always be prepared to conduct a rescue. Unfortunately, addressing accidents and injuries in enclosed spaces can be extremely difficult and time consuming. Additionally, as we have seen in many incidents around the world, rescuers can be injured or killed quite easily attempting a rescue. For this reason, it's critically important for crew to be trained and equipped to perform rescue operations within enclosed spaces. [Why a rescue] If a person requires rescue from a space it is not always readily apparent as to the reason for it. Often, the tank stand-by attendant will be the first person that realizes a rescue is necessary, either by noticing a missed radio check-in, or witnessing the person in the space go down. That is why the attendant's job is extremely important, and the person must be vigilant 100% of the time. The attendant must immediately call for help over the radio, and notify the rescue team. The attendant must never go in after a person by themselves. If they do, they may suffer the same injury as the person in the space. Time and time again, this has proven to be the reason for the next victim. Wait until help arrives, so that the situation can be assessed. Reasons for rescue in an enclosed space can broadly be defined into two categories: injury and asphyxiation. If someone gets an injury by falling or slipping in an enclosed space, they may not be able to evacuate without assistance. They may need to be rescued by means of a stretcher, or extrication device, a lifting harness or hoisting apparatus. The type of equipment you use in the rescue will differ depending on the nature of the injury and the space. No matter how well the space was tested before the entry, enclosed spaces may still have low levels of oxygen or toxic gas in low-lying, lingering pockets. The crew working in such a space may be overcome by asphyxiation. These scenarios are life-threatening emergencies, and the rescue operation will require equipment that provides oxygen, like self-contained breathing apparatus, and resuscitation devices. It is very important to try and determine the reason for the rescue before anyone else enters the space, either injury or asphyxiation. Unless the cause and circumstances of the injury is obvious, assume that the person in the space has been overcome by asphyxiation, and proceed as if the atmosphere within the space has become unsustainable for human life. [Rescue equipment] The appropriate rescue equipment for any job should have been identified in the toolbox meeting, as well as in the company's MS procedures, and brought to the work site so that the stand-by rescue team can readily access it. It may also be listed on the Permit to Work. Rescue equipment can be broadly defined in two categories: extraction equipment and medical equipment. Retrieval extraction equipment is required in every enclosed space entry. This may include tank rescue davit and winch, SCBA, EEBD, immobilization spine board designed for extraction, such as an SKED® or Reeves Sleeve®, full-body harnesses. The kind of extraction equipment that is used in a rescue will vary with the kind of injury sustained by the worker. If a neck or spine injury can be ruled out with certainty, the injured worker may be extracted vertically through the smaller openings via a lifeline and the connection points on their harness. If it's suspected that the injured worker has a neck or spine injury, they should not be lifted from the space using only their harness, as this may worsen the injury, or even kill the worker. The injured worker should be immobilized on a spine board extraction device, such as a Reeves Sleeve®, before they are raised from the space. SCBA's must be available for workers entering the space, and additional SCBA's must be readily available for rescuers should an accident occur in the atmosphere, and the space is no longer breathable. The Permit to Work will also require medical equipment that provides oxygen and First Aid to people who have asphyxiated or sustained injuries. This includes an oxygen and resuscitation kit, AED, First Aid supplies such as cervical collars, splints, and bandages. Depending on the space and conditions, the Permit to Work may require additional rescue equipment, such as fire extinguishers and firefighting suits, additional hoists, and lighting designed for use in potentially explosive environments. Just like the entry equipment, all enclosed space rescue equipment must be positioned within easy reach outside of the entry to the space. And just as importantly, crew members assigned to the rescue team must be knowledgeable and experienced in rescue operations, and the use of rescue equipment. Efficiency comes with practice, and enclosed space rescue drills should be run at least once every two months, per SOLAS regulations. Being efficient could be the difference between a rescue operation and a recovery operation. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of not just the process for planning safe entry into an enclosed space, but also understanding why all these steps are necessary. Accidents can, and do, happen, and the ultimate responsibility for ensuring safety falls upon you and your crew mates. Preparation may make the difference between life and death for your co-workers, and maybe even you. [Special thanks to: Rhys Del Rosario,] [Seaspan Ship Management Ltd., Brendan Ball,] [OSG Ship Management, Inc.] [Maritime Training Services]

Video Details

Duration: 14 minutes and 53 seconds
Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 18
Posted by: maritimetraining on Oct 25, 2019


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