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In the early midst of the 16th century, the protestant doctrine was undergoing stages in re-formation along with Catholic reforms that were introduced due to the arise of the new protestant doctrines across Europe. One of these first reformers to challenge the Catholic Church was Huldrych Zwingli. Huldrych Zwingli attended the University of Vienna and continued his studies as a pastor in Glarus where he was influenced by writings of Erasmus another reformer Huldrych Zwingli would continue openly criticizing the Catholic Church and the call for Christian faith to be more personal along with more power and control among believers in the church. This would all end when Huldrych would die in a confrontation among Protestants and Catholics. Much left of the protestant doctrine was left unformalized and later undergo formalization by a major reformer known as John Calvin. French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva, Switzerland. It was John Calvin who played huge roles in the protestant reformation. Influenced by the spread of early protestant faith as a child and later on with growing interest in law school. John Calvin sought to clarify and further delve into the reformation of the protestant faith. He was a key and prominent figure in the development of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. Calvinism includes doctrines of predestination and the sovereignty of God in who he chooses to receive salvation an idea that German reformer Martin Luther had and would serve as the basis and inspiration for John Calvin. Many of John Calvin teachings are yet to be followed and accepted by the community. Calvin would continue to published books and preach even though religious tensions were high in Europe especially with harsh prosecution against protestant Christians. Calvin would flee to Switzerland to escape rampant persecution in France and later recruited in the Geneva reformation where he would preach but still faced disproval of his ideas by the city council. John Calvin would be expelled from Geneva but later invited back to lead the church in 1541. Being the devoted God-fearing man, he believed that the ideal form of government was a theocratic one. Theocracy being a system of governance where high-ranking religious members rule in the name of God Protestants in Geneva would ask John Calvin to lead the city shortly after his return. He and his followers would enact strict rules in Geneva. Everyone was to attend religious classes, card games were banned, and those who sought to preach different doctrines would be burned at the stake for heresy. News of Geneva would spread and gain more followers to Calvinism in other parts of Europe. Many Swiss, Dutch, and French reformers would adopt the system of Calvinism into churches. While still small compared to the Roman Catholic Chruch Calvinism would travel as far to Scotland. But bitter conflicts between Protestants and Catholics would continue. The reformation of the protestant faith would consequently trigger the Catholic Reformation or known as the counter reformation. Even though protestant churches gaining traction, it is dwarfed when compared to the Catholic Chruch. To allow Catholics to remain loyal to the church leaders decided on the reformation of the catholic church. Out of the three reformers being Popes, one stood out and founded religious order was Ignatius of Loyola. Saint Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish Catholic priest and theologist. A known talented spiritual teacher who taught that the need of spiritual exercise in one's own life for their own salvation. This is explained in his book called the "Spiritual Exercises" composed of Christian Meditations, contemplations, and prayers to be carried over a period of 30 days. Being a part of the counter-reformations Ignatius set out to establish a religious order in 1540 called the "Society of Jesus" members were called "Jesuits." Such man emerged as important figure during the time of the counter-reformation. Jesuits members were well-educated in theology and social studies and founded many reputable schools across Europe. Members would also go on missionary missions to convert people to the Catholic Church with the goal of stopping the spread of protestant ideas. Such missionary missions would stop the influence of Protestantism in Poland and southern Germany. This religious order is still active across the modern world with almost 16000 members today. The embodiment and back bone of the counter-reformation was the Council of Trent which held between 1545 to 1563. The first objective of the Council of Trent was to define which doctrines were truly Roman Catholic ones and which doctrines were actually heretical. The Papacy believed that aim needed to be achieved to enable the rest of the Counter Reformation to be successful. The Roman Catholic church in affect had to know what it was defending as well as what did not really matter. The council of Trent agreed to several doctrines that served the basis of the Roman Catholic Chruch. The Church's interpretation of the Bible was final. Any Christian who substituted his or her own interpretation was a heretic. Christians needed faith and good works for salvation. They were not saved by faith alone, as Luther argued. The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. But the false selling of indulgences were banned. Like the society of Jesus, the council main objective was to steer people away from other doctrines such as Protestants. In 1521 Pope Paul IV ordered the formation of a list of banned books to stop what he deemed to be heresies. Across Europe Catholic priests were setting lists and parties to locate and burn banned books and sermons. Many works were burned and considering during that time the process of printing books was a lengthily process many works where wiped entirely. Even though books were being burnt by their masses, protestant printers and booksellers would continue operations in producing books which led many to burnt at the stake.

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Duration: 6 minutes and 54 seconds
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Language: English
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Posted by: jingoblogs on Jan 19, 2019

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