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Maximize Nutrition With Protein_Final

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>> Welcome back. In the previous lectures, we talked about fats and carbohydrates and how they can impact your hormonal health. In this lecture, you'll learn all about the third macronutrient, protein. We'll go over the different types and then we'll discuss the benefits and pitfalls of plant proteins. Ready to get started? Protein is a powerhouse of a macronutrient. In addition to creating your organs, muscles, nails, and hair, protein helps your cells communicate, facilitates muscle contraction, and the transmission of nerve signals. Protein makes up immune molecules, blood cells, hormones, and enzymes. And it even assists your cells in making new proteins. Wow. Having these roles to perform it's easy to see how essential it is to consume an adequate amount of protein. Protein is made up of chains of amino acids and each type of protein has its own unique combination of amino acids. These are broken down in the body and are used to build tissue and signal metabolism and other processes. Your body is like a super intelligent computer and DNA is like the programming language for the proteins in your body. DNA tells the body how to create the right proteins for nearly every process that occurs. In order for your body to follow this map of instruction set out by DNA, there have to be plenty of amino acids available. Just one single missing amino acid will result in a protein that's unable to complete its function. There are 20 amino acids. Many of these can be synthesized in the body, but there are eight that we're unable to produce, so we have to get them from our food. These are called essential amino acids. Animal protein contains all eight essential amino acids in adequate amounts. This is why meat eaters typically don't have a hard time obtaining an adequate diversity of protein in their diets. There are also several complete plant proteins, but did you know that not all of the protein in these non-animal foods is available to the body. So you may not actually be getting as much protein as you think you are on a plant protein diet, not knowing this critical detail misleads a lot of people into thinking, they're consuming adequate protein when they may not be. Due to possible difficulties absorbing the full amount of the protein from plant sources, it's important to encourage your vegetarian and vegan clients to eat a varied and abundant diet of high quality protein sources. There's been a lot of controversy around red meat as a protein source. And many studies have shown that eating red meat regularly can increase cancer and heart disease. However, the protein in red meat doesn't appear to be the problem, it's actually the fat composition of the meat. Just like fats, the type and quality of the protein makes a difference. Higher quality proteins like grass-fed meats, pasture-raised eggs, wild-caught fish, and organic vegetables facilitate better hormone function. So if you have a client who doesn't eat meat or any animal products, you'll want to guide them to improve the quality and diversity of the foods in their diet wherever possible. And for the carnivores you'll work with, you want to explain to them that even though meat is a good protein source, they can maximize the benefits of their food by opting for grass-fed over conventional. So how exactly does protein affect hormonal balance? Protein is an essential structural component of all hormones, which means you've got to consume sufficient protein to make enough hormones. When protein is digested, insulin acts as the gas pedal and glucagon acts as the break. When the stomach signals that there is food, the insulin gets revved up and starts processing what it thinks will be a lot of glucose, but protein doesn't actually have very much glucose in it. Too much insulin without any sugar to process causes hypoglycemia which is when your blood sugar drops below normal. To slow insulin down, arginine, an amino acid from the protein that's being digested lets glucagon know that it's going to have to swing into action and stop insulin from stealing all the glucose out of the bloodstream to vast preventing hypoglycemia. For clients with insulin resistance, a protein only meal at least once a day has been shown to keep blood sugar from swinging so much. However, in the real world, that isn't very practical for your clients, is it? Instead, you can suggest your insulin resistant clients that they include protein, fat, and carbohydrates in every meal in order to keep their blood sugar stable. How much protein do you need? A low protein diet less than 15% of total calories or about 50 grams per day decreases levels of prolactin, growth hormone, estrogen, thyroid hormones, and insulin. And it stimulates a stress response which drives the body toward fat storage, increasing both body fat, and fatty liver. On the other hand, a diet that's too high in protein can result a damage to the kidneys, as well as increased body fat. For non-athletes, that would be more than about one gram of protein per kilogram of body weight. As you can see it's important to balance protein intake based on the specific needs and activity levels of your clients. For instance, a client with amenorrhea or missing periods may benefit from increasing her protein consumption. So for those who eat a plant-based diet the question remains, how can you get the most bang for your buck with vegetable proteins? Many people choose to get all or most of their protein from plant sources so it's important to understand that plant proteins have their own advantages as well as challenges. You can't suggest that your vegetarian or vegan clients start eating meat because above all else, you have to honor their bio-individuality, but you do want to educate them on the challenges of plant proteins and how they can best optimize this diet. There are a lot of different plant proteins and they vary both in amino acid composition and in bioavailability, which is how much of the protein is actually available to be digested and processed in the body. The best plant proteins that are both complete and highly bioavailable are spirulina, hemp, soy, quinoa, lentils, buckwheat, and amaranth. There are other proteins that while not complete provide adequate nutrition when combined with another plant protein. For example, brown rice, peas, beans, chickpeas, and tahini. It isn't necessary to eat complete protein at every meal as long as you are getting all of the amino acids over the course of every day. One of the benefits of plant protein is the host of phytochemicals they offer. Phytochemicals are biologically beneficial compounds found in plants. They are responsible for properties, such as, the deep purple color of blackberries or the bright orange of carrots. The phytochemicals include bioflavonoids, isothiocyanate, carotenoids, anthocyanins, polyphenols, chlorophyll, phytosterols, and lignans. Let's look a little closer at these eight phytochemicals. Bioflavonoids act as antioxidants, protecting the body against stress. They're commonly found in citrus, onions, tea, parsley, wine, soy, and dark chocolate. Tea contains a potent antioxidant called EGCG, which is a bioflavonoid that's been shown to decrease fatty liver disease and improve insulin resistance. It also may inhibit growth of thyroid cancer cells. Isothiocyanates are derived from cruciferous vegetables. For example, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and kale. Studies have shown that these sulfur-containing nutrients help fight cancer and combat stress in the body. They are also considered goitrogens which we'll talk about in a moment. Carotenoids are yellow orange pigments that act as precursors to vitamin A. They include beta-carotene and lycopene and are found in foods like carrots, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes. They may play a role in preventing some cancers, but there aren't any conclusive studies as yet. Anthocyanins are a form of flavonoid that are blue purple pigments. They scavenge free radicals and act as antioxidants, reducing stress in the body. They are found in blueberries, elderberries, and blackberries as well as purple and red grapes. They may play a role in preventing heart disease. Polyphenols are another flavonoid and are found in tea, cinnamon, coffee, and many fruits and vegetables. They have many beneficial effects in the body, including preventing cancer cells from creating new blood vessels, reducing stress, protecting from ultraviolet radiation, reducing inflammation, and protecting the heart. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in all plants. It's rich in vitamins A, C, E, and K. It also contains minerals including magnesium, iron, potassium, and calcium, as well as fatty acids. It helps to repair DNA and keep it from mutating. This function may help to prevent cancer. Phytosterols are plant compounds that may help to block uptake of dietary cholesterol. Some preliminary studies show that they may play a role in preventing cancer. They're found in wheat germ, rice bran, sesame oil, whole grains, nuts, and legumes. Lignans are phytoestrogens found in many seeds and plants. The biggest source is flaxseed. They may potentially decrease levels of testosterone and other male sex hormones, but they've been shown to be beneficial in keeping blood sugars more stable for diabetics, so male clients with low testosterone may want to avoid lignans while women with polycystic ovarian syndrome might benefit from more of this in their diet. Flaxseeds have also been seen to improve fatty liver. Overall, they appear to have few negative side effects. Lignans can interrupt circulation of estrogens in the GI tract in two ways, making them less available for use. First, as a dietary fiber, it can bind it to estrogens in the digestive tract which then go out with a stool. Second, lignans can beneficially affect the composition of intestinal bacteria, reducing enzyme activity which lowers levels of free estrogen. Dietary fiber intake also increases the concentration of globulin in the blood which binds to sex hormones and reduces levels of free estradiol by rendering them inactive. This might be helpful for a client who is estrogen dominant and is looking for ways to reduce her estrogen levels naturally. Now for the downside of plant proteins, while animal protein comes packaged with fat, plant protein comes packaged with carbohydrates. As we discussed previously, too many carbohydrates in the diet can contribute to inflammation and blood sugar imbalance. Also, plants are not defenseless. They produce a host of defensive chemicals that are designed to prevent creatures from feasting on them. These are collectively known as antinutrients. These antinutrients can keep us from absorbing all the nutrients in the plant. They can also cause side effects for people who are sensitive to them or have hormonal imbalances. For instance, phytate or phytic acid is the primary storage compound of phosphorous in plants. There's some phytic acid in all plants, but the levels in grains, beans, and the oil seeds which are soy, sesame, and rapeseed are the highest. It's known to bind minerals in the GI tract, keeping them from being absorbed. This can lower iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels. It also makes it harder for your body to digest proteins and fats by inhibiting the digestive enzymes. However, there are several advantages of phytic acid which include scavenging heavy metals and acting as a weak antioxidant. Also, because phytic acid slows digestion down, it may help to balance blood sugar levels. Oxalate or oxalic acid is generally found in rhubarb, tea, spinach, and parsley, and may also be found in asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, collards, lettuce, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, beets, peas, coffee, cocoa, beans, potatoes, berries, and carrots. It can bind calcium and other minerals making them insoluble and decreasing their bioavailability. Ingestion of foods containing high concentrations of oxalates may cause decreased bone growth, kidney stones, renal toxicity, diarrhea, and impaired blood clotting. They are particularly known for kidney stone formation, that's why people with kidney stones are told to avoid many of the foods just mentioned. Goitrogens found in sulphur-containing vegetables like cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, and broccoli make it harder for the thyroid gland to absorb iodine because they compete with iodine for entry into the gland. Additionally, goitrogens weaken the activity of the enzyme thyroid peroxidase which is required for conversion of T4 to T3. The impact of the goitrogens has probably been overstated in the past. The amount of goitrogens present in kale, for example, is not really enough to have an impact. Your client would actually have to eat two pounds of kale to have an impact on their thyroid. Could you imagine how long it would take to chew two pounds of kale? The vegetables to be avoided for clients with thyroid conditions are raw brussels sprouts and collard greens. Cooking decreases the goitrogenic effect, so typically brussels sprouts can be eaten without any problem. Regardless, if your client has a thyroid condition, you'll want to pay close attention to their consumption of these foods because as you now know everyone's body responds differently to certain foods. Lectins are present in high levels in legumes. For example, black beans, soybeans, lima beans, kidney beans, and lentils, as well as grain products. Lectins are able to bind or clump together red blood cells. Blood cells clumping together can cause blood clots in the coronary arteries, the blood vessels to the lung, and the smaller blood vessels in the GI tract. Lectins can also interfere with nutrient absorption from the intestine and it's been speculated that they encourage bacterial overgrowth in the GI tract. Glycoalkaloid is an antinutrient produced by the nightshades which are plants that include potato, tomato, tomatillo, peppers, eggplant, tobacco, and goji berry. Potatoes produce more than the others, but all produce some. For people who are sensitive to nightshades, they make experience symptoms, such as, depression, anxiety, indigestion, joint pain, and anemia. Heavy metals are found in the soil that plants are grown in and get absorbed by the plant. These include arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium. These metals have no biological function in the body, but accumulate in the tissues. They're highly toxic and all are implicated in toxicity to the kidneys and the brain. Heavy metal build up in the body has been linked to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis, and spontaneous abortion. Preterm deliveries, stillbirths, and low birth weight have also been reported. Although, aluminum isn't a heavy metal, it's worth mentioning because it's been shown in studies to damage nerve tissue and as a possible cause of Alzheimer's. We'll talk about detoxing heavy metals later on in this course. Soy is controversial which makes it difficult to talk about. It is not as good as that once was considered to be. And unfortunately, over 90% of the soy in the US is genetically modified. Soy is hard to digest because it has trypsin inhibitors which inhibit digestive enzymes. These trypsin inhibitors are only negated by fermentation and even then not completely. This is one reason why fermented soy products like miso and tempeh are recommended over others like tofu. In the past, the progesteronic effects of soy or assumed to be beneficial, at least for postmenopausal women. Now there's some doubt about the benefits of the phytoestrogens of soy. In fact, phytoestrogens are implicated in infertility, testosterone deficiency, and thyroid suppression. Soy in baby formula may contribute to early puberty, asthma, thyroid disease, food allergies, and behavioral problems. Another thing to watch out for is processed protein, especially the prepackaged meat substitutes made from soy. Did you know the processing required to create these foods uses acid washing in aluminum tanks in order to remove the antinutrients? This leaches aluminum into the product which has been implicated in Alzheimer's and learning disabilities. Processed meat substitutes also contain artificial flavorings, including monosodium glutamate, better known as MSG, which many people are very sensitive to. Fermented soy, such as, soy sauce, miso, and tempeh are healthier as long as the package is labeled organic and non-GMO. So, can you get rid of antinutrients? Luckily, the answer is yes. Antinutrients can be decreased by soaking, fermenting, heating, sprouting, and milling, or grinding. Soy, however, is very resistant to most methods of decreasing its antinutrients. People who consume large amounts of soy products can prevent mineral deficiencies by consumption of meat or dairy products if animal products are a part of their diet. Otherwise, they should be taking supplemental vitamins. The good news is that despite these defense mechanisms, plant protein is still very good for you. With the balance of plant proteins, it's possible to obtain adequate protein and a million other benefits from a completely vegetarian diet. Did you get all of that? Let's recap the main points of this lecture. Protein is a crucial macronutrient for sustaining life and it plays a vital role in hormonal health. The types of protein people consume vary across different diets and differing opinions and preferences exist when it comes to animal proteins, but it's important that all people consume an adequate balance and variety of proteins within their respective diets. This is necessary to consume a complete range of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Since some amino acids are only found in foods, it's necessary to consume a diverse diet so that your body gets all of the nutrients necessary to maintain balanced health and hormones. Plant proteins come with the added benefit of phytonutrients, but many also contain antinutrients. So it's important to educate yourself and your clients about how to maximize the nutritional value of plant proteins while reducing the impact of potentially dangerous antinutrients. What sources do you get your protein from? Be sure to visit the Facebook group and let us know. Thanks so much for watching and I'll see you real soon.

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Duration: 20 minutes and 11 seconds
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Language: English
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Posted by: ninaz on Mar 23, 2018

Maximize Nutrition With Protein_Final

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