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What happens when the wind blows hard or of the water current is fast? Often the top layer of soil is blown away by wind or washed away by the water. This removal of the top soil from a place due to the wind or water is called soil erosion. Wind is one of the main agents of soil erosion. Wind blows away top soil from the places where there is no vegetation. Roots of plants hold the soil in place. The speed of wind is reduced if there are many plants. The soil erosion will be less in such places. Soil erosion by wind is the most common in the deserts. In absence of vegetation, water also washes away the soil particles. Soil erosion by water is most common in hilly places, where rivers carry the top soil down the slope. This soil is deposited in the plains by the river. When the soil deposit increases, the river is forced to change its course. The river changes path to flow on land, thereby causing floods. Soil erosion is also caused by human action. One such action is cutting down of trees. This is called Deforestation. The roots of the plants hold the soil. The protection to the soil by roots of the plants is removed, so, soil gets easily eroded by the wind or the water. And, what about animals? Allowing the cattle to overgraze exposes the soil by removing the plant covering. This also leads to soil erosion. If the land is left uncultivated after cutting the crops, the soil gets eroded fast. Ploughing the soil on the slopes loses the soil, and it gets carried away by wind or water. So, we summarize that the agents which cause soil erosion are wind, water, human activities like deforestation, overgrazing of cattle, leaving uncultivated land, ploughing on the hills. So, what steps should be taken to protect the soil from erosion? When the soil is protected from erosion, it is called Soil Conservation. Soil can be conserved by planting trees. Planting new trees to cover a large area is called Afforestation. Have you seen the tea or coffee plantations in the hilly regions? Why are they in form of stairs? For climbing on them? No. The hill areas are slanting. So, the rain water flows very fast unlike in the plains. As the water flows, it carries the top soil with it. To avoid this, the farming is done in steps. This cutting step on the slopes or terraces is called as Terrace Farming. This reduces speed of flowing water, and the soil carried by water from one step is deposited on next step. This prevents soil erosion. Why are the tall plants or trees are grown along the sides of a farmland? Growing fencing plants and trees along the farmland reduces the speed of the wind and the soil erosion. And, how can the soil be prevented from getting washed away by the river? For this, embankments are built along the river banks. This not only prevents soil erosion from the banks, but, also prevents the river from flooding the fields. So, we saw Soil Conservation can be done in four ways. First, by planting more and more new trees, which is called Afforestation. Second, by doing Terrace Farming in the hilly regions. Third, by growing fencing plants and trees along the farmland. And, lastly, by building embankments along the river banks. As we saw, it took millions of years for the soil to be formed. But, it can be eroded in very less time, by the wind or the water, if proper care is not taken. This could be hazardous to us only. So, we should preserver the precious soil by growing more and more trees, and ensuring that the trees are not cut down unnecessarily. Let's relax and enjoy. Let me ask you some puzzles. What kind of bank needs no money? It's a river bank. What runs and has no feet, roars but has no mouth? It's sea. And, what did the water say to the boat? Nothing, it just waved.

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Duration: 6 minutes and 24 seconds
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Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 6
Posted by: pgtranscribes on Apr 4, 2015

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