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1 Citations 101

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Hi, everyone, and welcome to the Launch Your Dream Book course. Today, we have a very special guest, Tim Tate. Tim has worked in the publishing industry for 20 years. He has worked for the major publishers, such as Macmillan Computer Publishing, Pearson Education, and most recently, Wiley. He is an Integrative Nutrition graduate and is currently working as their publishing consultant. So today, Tim is going to teach you all about citations and referencing so that you can properly learn how to cite and quote in your own books. Welcome, Tim. Thank you, Lindsey. Hi, everybody. It's good to be with you today, and we're going to talk about something that's very important when you're writing your own book, and that is when you get to a point where you want to quote somebody else's book. So today, we're going to talk all about citations. So what we're going to cover is quoting other works, what's called fair use. We're going to talk about quoting song lyrics, referencing your sources, and lastly, copyrighting your own book. So when we talk about quoting other people's works, it's very important to know that, as you might realize with your own book, books are very personal to people when they write them. And they don't want people taking their ideas and using them as their own, or basically making money off of their ideas, certainly without their permission. Think of it in terms of you're writing your own book and what if somebody came along and started taking from your book without your permission? So certainly, it's important to consider the other authors when you are thinking about quoting from them. Now, it can be a tribute to another author to say, "Hey, I love this author. I'm very inspired by them. And therefore, here's a line from one of their books that really got me to thinking." Something like that is certainly understandable. Lots of authors do that. We just want to make sure that you're doing it in a way such that you protect yourself against any possible legal action. There's no 100% way to prevent legal action from happening. However, there are ways to protect yourself 99%, let's say. So let's go to the next slide. And one of the things to consider is the length of the quote. There's a difference between quoting one line or two lines, and a whole paragraph or a whole chapter. Not that you're going to quote a whole chapter, or maybe not even a whole paragraph. So when looking at quoting, the idea is to keep it short, to keep it small. The best way to protect yourself against any possible legal action is to request permission from the other author. And if you have permission in writing, it's going to be very difficult for anybody to win any sort of legal action against you. So to request permission from another author, if you don't have that author's contact information, you can look on the copyright page of a book. The publisher will be listed, and their contact information, usually their address, and in more recent books, there will be a web address. So you can contact them through that, tell them exactly what you're wanting to use and what you're wanting to use it for, and they will then contact you about possibly a price for quoting the material and what the restrictions are on using it. One of the things to keep in mind, though, when you're writing your first book, if you're wanting to do it within six months or so, some publishers take a long time to get back to you. It can be months before they get back to you and work out an agreement. So that might not be the best way to go for your first book. Something to keep in mind for future books down the road. And another thing that's very advisable to do is to learn about copyright law. Whether it's in the United States or if you're living and working in another country, learn about the copyright law in your country. It's very important to protect yourself that way. So let's go on to looking at what's called fair use. And this is based on the US Copyright Law. And the fair use provisions of the law permit the unlicensed use of copyright protected works in certain circumstances. And when looking at whether fair use is appropriate in a case, courts will use four factors in evaluating the fair use. They are the purpose and the character of the use. That is, what are you using it for? Are you using it for a commercial purpose, or is it nonprofit educational. I think most of us are thinking in terms of health coaching or health education, thinking in terms of making profit. It is a commercial venture? So keep that in mind. However, you might be working for a nonprofit, or it might be educational as far as you're working with a school or something. So there are different weights to those types of use. The nature of the copyright work itself. Is it a fictional work, like a novel? Or is it a factual work, such as a technical article or a news item or something like that? And the more factual it is, the more likely it is to support a claim of fair use. And one of the reasons for that is it's not necessarily something that somebody made up. It's a fact that exists that maybe they just organized it. So it's a lot easier to prove that it is fair use for you to borrow some of that other person's work. Again, when in doubt, ask permission. Number three. The amount and substantially of the portion you used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole. This goes back to what we were talking about, keeping your quote short in relation to the entire work. One or two lines is usually safe. And the fourth one is the effect of the use upon the potential market for a value of the copyrighted work. If you are borrowing too much of somebody else's work, could it possibly impact the sales of the other person's book? Why would I want to go buy that book when this person just told me all the good stuff from that book? So again, be careful about how much you use and in what context you use it. So let's talk a little bit about song lyrics. I know some people have asked, can I quote a song in my book? I know we're all inspired by music and songs and we want to share a song with somebody else. I know I like to do that. One of the things about song lyrics, going back to the amount of the work that you're quoting relative to the length of the work, songs are very short. So if you quote even one line from a song, that's a relatively major percentage of that work. And the bottom line in song copyrighting is people don't like you to use their songs without permission. And when you request permission, they usually want you to pay. That's the way songwriters make their money. So it is advisable to consider other than quoting song lyrics. And one of the ways to do that is you can use song titles and artist names. Those are not copyrighted. So if you want to refer to somebody else's song, you can say, "Oh, in that wonderful song such and such by so and so, they sing about this and it really inspires me." Then you're not actually quoting the song, but you're giving people exactly what you want them to know about that song and how it affects you or how it makes your point. So again, bottom line, not a good idea to quote directly from songs. Now let's go on to talking about referencing sources. One of the things about when you're quoting other works is you want to make sure that your conscience is clear, that you know that you have done everything you could to quote the work properly and to reference the source, to let other people know where you got that material. It is going to be a lot more comforting to you, I guess, as you publish your book, knowing that you cited everything properly. So when you're referencing your sources, there's four things to keep in mind. The first is, one, you can quote using footnotes. Everybody pretty much knows what a footnote is. You have the little superscript number beside the quoted material in the text. And then at the bottom of the page, there is the citation of the work or an explanation of where it came from. If you have a lot of footnotes, you can put them at the end of the chapter or even at the end of the book, in a section of what is called end notes. So you just list all of the footnotes there in one place. That way, they don't complicate the page layout and they don't interfere with the flow of the narrative. You can also, if you don't have very many of them, you can use what are called n-text references. So in the middle of the paragraph, when you say, "As so and so stated in their book such and such," and then you quote the material. Doing it that way, you don't necessarily have to then also do a footnote. You can if you want, or you can still do your end note. But you don't have to. Again, you're stating clearly where you got the work from and whose work it is. And then the fourth thing to keep in mind is the actual format of the citations. Most of us, anyway, have been through a college course where we've had to write a paper and they've taught us how to cite sources. And there is the AP style. There is the Chicago Manual style format. There's several others. A lot of times, colleges, schools will have their own formats for citing references. And you have to list the author. You have to list the title. And it has to be in italics. And you have to list the page numbers and the copyright year, and sometimes the city in which the book was published. So there's no real hard and fast rule as to what you have to and don't have to cite in a source. However, it's good to follow some sort of source. So if you want to pick the Chicago Manual style or the AP style, and stick to that. Be consistent about that. That's going to go a long way towards showing that you've taken referencing your sources seriously. And again, it goes back to that peace of mind. You're making the effort to show people where you got the material from. So you've written your book. You may or may not have cited other works. And it's time now to look at protecting your own work against possible copyright infringement. And the best way to do that is to actually contact the US Copyright Office and file an application. And you can do that now online, electronically, through what's called the Electronic Copyright Office. And there's the URL on the screen. And when you go there, there are instructions and there's a fee structure. It's actually pretty inexpensive. I think it's less than $50 to electronically file for copyright. And I'm not going to go over all the rules there. They're clearly stated on the site. If you have any questions, you can contact them. But it's a quick and simple process. And it's a good thing to do just to have your work registered on file as being your original work. So we have talked about quoting other people's works and how to do that under the fair use doctrine of US Copyright Law. That is, if you haven't actually requested permission-- which is certainly advisable, if you can do it in a reasonable amount of time. We've talked about quoting song lyrics and alternatives to quoting song lyrics, which is the way I suggest you go. And when quoting another work, be sure to reference the source properly. And then lastly, seriously consider copyrighting your own book when you're done with it. And remember that again, about sleeping well at night, sleeping easy when you publish your book. Know that you've done your best to cite any source. Using your book as a business card. This is saying, "This is who I am. This is what I'm about." And you want it to be true to who you are. So integrity is going to be your best asset as a Health Coach, as an educator, as an author. So don't settle for second best. Do everything you can to do everything properly. And with that, I want to wish everybody good luck on your book. And I'm sure you're going to do a fantastic job and you're going to do it in such a way that you're going to be proud of it both creatively and legally. So thanks, everyone. And again, good luck to you. Bye bye.

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Duration: 15 minutes and 36 seconds
Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
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Views: 5
Posted by: integrativenutrition on Aug 11, 2015

1 Citations 101

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