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DavidGallo_2007-480p

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We're going to go on a dive to the deep sea, and anyone that's had that lovely opportunity knows that for about two and half hours on the way down, it's a perfectly positively pitch-black(漆黑的) world. And we used to see the most mysterious(神秘的) animals out the window that you couldn't describe: these blinking lights -- a world of bioluminescence(发光生物), like fireflies(萤火虫). Dr. Edith Widder -- she's now at the Ocean Research and Conservation Association -- was able to come up with a camera that could capture some of these incredible animals, and that's what you're seeing here on the screen. That's all bioluminescence(发光生物). Like I said: just like fireflies(萤火虫). There's a flying turkey(火鸡) under a tree. I'm a geologist(地质学家) by training. But I love that. And you see, some of the bioluminescence(发光生物) they use to avoid being eaten, some they use to attract prey(猎物), but all of it, from an artistic(艺术) point of view, is just positively amazing. And a lot of what goes on inside -- There's a fish with glowing(发光的) eyes, pulsating(脉动的) eyes. Some of the colors are designed to hypnotize(催眠), these lovely patterns. And then this last one, one of my favorites, this pinwheel(风轮) design. Just absolutely amazing, every single dive. That's the unknown world, and today we've only explored about 3 percent of what's out there in the ocean. Already we've found the world's highest mountains, the world's deepest valleys, underwater lakes, underwater waterfalls -- a lot of that we shared with you from the stage. And in a place where we thought no life at all, we find more life, we think, and diversity and density than the tropical rainforest, which tells us that we don't know much about this planet at all. There's still 97 percent, and either that 97 percent is empty or just full of surprises. But I want to jump up to shallow water now and look at some creatures that are positively amazing. Cephalopods(头足纲动物) -- head-foots. As a kid I knew them as calamari(烤鱿鱼), mostly. This is an octopus(八爪鱼). This is the work of Dr. Roger Hanlon at the Marine Biological Lab, and it's just fascinating how cephalopods(头足纲动物) can, with their incredible eyes, sense their surroundings, look at light, look at patterns. Here's an octopus(八爪鱼) moving across the reef, finds a spot to settle down, curls(卷曲) up and then disappears into the background. Tough thing to do. In the next bit, we're going to see a couple squid(鱿鱼). Now males, when they fight, if they're really aggressive, they turn white. And these two males are fighting. They do it by bouncing their butts(屁股) together, which is an interesting concept. Now, here's a male on the left and a female on the right, and the male has managed to split(分开) his coloration(着色) so the female only always sees the kinder(有点), gentler squid(鱿鱼) in him. And the male.....We gotta see it again. Let's take a look at it again. Watch the coloration(着色): white on the right, brown on the left. He takes a step back, he's keeping off the other males by splitting his body, and comes up on the other side -- Bingo! Now, I'm told that's not not just a squid phenomenon with males, but I don't know. Cuttlefish(墨鱼). I love cuttlefish. This is a Giant Australian Cuttlefish. And there he is, his droopy(下垂的) little eyes up here. But they can do pretty amazing things, too. Here we're going to see one backing into a crevice(裂缝), and watch his tentacles(触须) -- he just pulls them in, makes them look just like algae(海藻). Disappears right into the background. Positively amazing. Here's two males fighting. Once again, they're smart enough, these cephalopods(头足动物); they know not to hurt each other. But look at the patterns that they can do with their skin. That's an amazing thing. Here's an octopus(八爪鱼). Sometimes they don't want to be seen when they move, because predators can see them. This guy can make himself look like a rock, and, looking at his environment, can actually slide across the bottom, using the waves and the shadows so he can't be seen. His motion blends(混合) right into the background -- the moving rock trick. So, we're learning lots new from the shallow water. Still exploring the deep, but learning lots from the shallow water. There's a good reason why: the shallow water's full of predators(捕食者) -- here's a barracuda(梭鱼) -- and if you're an octopus(八爪鱼) or a cephalopod(头足动物), you need to really understand how to use your surroundings to hide. In the next scene, you're going to see a nice coral(珊瑚) bottom. And you see that an octopus(八爪鱼) would stand out very easily there if you couldn't use your camouflage(伪装), use your skin to change color and texture(纹理). Here's some algae(海藻) in the foreground -- and an octopus(八爪鱼). Ain't that amazing? Now, Roger spooked(惊吓) him, so he took off in a cloud of ink, lands, and when he lands, the octopus(八爪鱼) says, "Oh, I've been seen. The best thing to do is to get as big as I can get." That big brown makes his eyespot very big. So, he's bluffing(糊弄). Let's do it backwards. I thought he was joking when he first showed it to me. I thought it was all graphics. So here it is in reverse. Watch the skin color; watch the skin texture. Just an amazing animal, it can change color and texture(纹理) to match the surroundings. Watch him blend(混合) right into this algae(海藻). One, two, three. And now he's gone, and so am I. Thank you very much.

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Duration: 5 minutes and 21 seconds
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Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 18
Posted by: boffin on May 16, 2016

DavidGallo_2007-480p

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