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02 IPM

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Okay, so we've discussed the importance of our role in pest management and pest control around the world. And we discussed that we use the biology's and the habits of those pests to help us get control when our clients have them. But most importantly, to prevent future infestations or in some cases, our clients may hire us to prevent those infestations from the start, not to control something because they may not have a problem but they may hire us just to prevent them from ever having a problem. So how do we go about managing pest and controlling them and keep them under control and keeping them out which is our primary goal. We utilize a system called Integrated Pest Management or IPM. And this next session will break down IPM and tell us exactly what it is from Orkin's standpoint and our viewpoint. We'll talk about kind of some of the steps and the tools that we utilize in delivering an IPM based service and we'll also look at what IPM is, how it happened. Now why do we control pest? Well, we control them because they can cause damage, the health risks but also because of things such as regulatory fines, our customer's expectations or requirements. These are some of the reasons why we control pest. We'll look at each of these individually but we know that we have to control these things, our customers expect us to control. Now what pest exactly are we talking about? When we look at our business, we're dealing with insects certainly, roaches, ants, flies, stored product insects, these are a group of insects that get inside food materials, beetles, fleas, other types of things. But pest also include some non-insect animals such as birds, spiders, mites and then also some vertebrates like mice and rats. These are all classified pest. Now what makes something a pest typically it's when that something is inside our area instead of where it belongs. Most pest actually have a very specific reason for being on this earth, they only become a pest when they intrude into our space and take over areas or start doing damage or start creating health issues for us and our families. Now let's look first at the pest damage. What are some of the things that these guys can do? Well, certainly they can provide direct damage to product or to structures by consuming parts of the structure, by consuming the food material, they can damage the packaging of food, they can contaminate food product, they can contaminate surfaces with their urine, their fecal matter, their body parts, their hair, their legs, their wings and they can also create contamination by attracting other insects. As you see at the picture on the top, there's two mice stuck to that glue trap and what else do we see there? We also see flies, the flies were attracted there because there were mice. If we were to look very close under a microscope, we might actually find some fleas or mites stuck on that glue trap as well, they came off of the rodents that were captured there. So the rodents can create secondary problems or secondary contaminations by having other insects. We see that with insects as well, we'll have insects that die inside a wall and simply by being dead inside a wall, it attracts other insects to come in to feed on the dead ones that are inside the wall area. So they can create contamination in a lot of different ways. There's also the possibility or the problem that we have with regulatory issues. In many parts of the world, there are regulatory systems in place that protect the public and protect the food. And if there are pest in these facilities, it can lead to things such as fines. The government's levying monetary fines against the food company or against the food distributor. The government in some cases can seize, can take possession of that material, can take possession of that property and take it away from the business. It creates a bad public image. If a food processing facility or a hotel or restaurant has a pest problem, it can create a very negative public image, people will not do business with them, it can lead to a loss of business and loss of the assets for the owners of those businesses. There's also health risks associated with pest certainly. Pest spread diseases, we'll talk a little bit more detail about some of those as we go through the slides but they can spread disease mechanically and they can spread disease biologically. Mechanically, some insects such as a housefly or a cockroach can actually carry bacteria around on the outside of his body, so when it sits on a surface or walks across a surface, it is potentially dropping and spreading bacteria onto those surfaces, some of those can be pretty nasty, pretty deadly to people. And some of them can survive long enough for us to get them into our body by placing food on that area, placing a hand on that area and then taking it into our body somehow. Pest also create allergy problems. As they grow, their skin breaks down when they moult, that moulted skin breaks down, becomes a dust and that dust can aggravate things such as asthma in children or asthma in people that are susceptible to that. Their fecal matter contains bacteria and biological compounds that can be harmful. As that fecal material breaks down, again it turns into dust, aerosolizes, it gets into the air, we breathe it in and thereby take in that contaminate into our body at times. That's how a lot of the diseases from rodents are spread, it's through that fecal matter that dries and breaks down into a dust. Now let's look at some of those diseases themselves. Cockroaches, one of the most common pest around the world. A cockroach can carry as many as 50 different disease organisms from the categories of bacteria, fungus and viral compounds. Some of the most common ones, of course, we see here, salmonella, staphylococcus or staph infection, E Coli, particularly the one that is potentially deadly, the 0157 and there's many others that they can carry around. But as many as 50 different disease organisms can be on or in that cockroach's body. When that animal walks across the table, potentially those bacteria can be spread to the surfaces. We can pick them up by making contact with the surface or by eating the food that those cockroaches have wandered onto. The other, one of the other groups of pest, of course, are ants, we do a lot of ant work and ants are not typically thought of, of being a disease problem but they are. Some ant species like the pharaoh's ant, has been proven to carry bacteria such as salmonella and staph, particularly in healthcare situations, hospitals, places where there are people that do not have the ability to fight off these diseases and these bacteria as well. Some ants such as fire ants in the US and there's fire ants in many parts of the world, have the ability to sting, inject a venom into our skin and some people have allergic reactions to those, can go into a state of anaphylactic shock, which if severe enough can actually cause death in a human being. There are deaths every year from people getting stung by fire ants. There are other species of ants that have the abilities to sting and to bite and all of them always carry the potential of a negative reaction to the person, depends on the individual's sensitivity to them. Flies, are one of our big pest groups that we do a lot of work on. Flies are the second deadliest group of insects, the house flies are second deadliest insect on the earth, the first being the mosquito. But the fly can carry over a 100 different disease organisms on its body and inside its body. Nasty diseases or bacteria such as E Coli can cause staph infections, create problems with dysentery and things like that. Now, you know, think about this for a second. How do most people react to flies? Most people really don't associate flies with being a public health type of problem but it is. And how most people react to flies, if you're in a restaurant someplace and a fly comes and lands on the table, most people in the world just kind of, you know, wave the fly off and go right about eating their food, never think about it. But if a cockroach walked up onto that table, then pandemonium breaks out, people get really upset about that. But as I said, the fly is potentially twice as deadly as the cockroach, it carries twice as many disease organisms, so we need to take things like flies very serious and take our controlled efforts for these insects very seriously. They are potentially very deadly animals. Now the last group that we'll discuss is rodents and rodents certainly have the ability to spread diseases, they also have the ability to do some pretty bad damage not only to structures but they can do damage to people and to animals by biting. A rodent... Some rats can carry over 55 different diseases which are associated with these animals, things such as the plague. Now they didn't actually carry the plague, the plague that wiped out a large population of Europe in the 1700s, they carried the fleas that carried the plague virus. They carry things such as typhus, hantavirus, things like this that are not nice diseases, all of these are potentially deadly. So rodents are a big health threat directly, certainly because they can transmit disease through the saliva if they bite us at times, they can transmit diseases to us through their droppings, their urine but they can also carry diseases to us through the parasites that live on them, such as the fleas that I mentioned that caused the plague in Europe. So the disease potential from the pest are pretty significant. So, you know, you ask yourself again, why do we control pest? Well, we control pest to prevent these things from happening, to prevent the disease transmission when possible. As we said in the introduction to pest control, over or as much as half of the foods supply of the world is destroyed by pest. They create a lot of public health problems, so we control these animals to protect the environment, protect the food, and protect the people. That's our job. So how again do we go about doing these things? Well, in the past, years ago, there was a heavy focus in pest control on the use of chemical. We used a lot of pesticide in the past and by we, I don't mean just Orkin but the industry in general. We used a lot of pesticide, a lot of chemicals, we were dependent on it, the applications were not targeted, material was sprayed for a variety of pest without any real consideration to, in some cases, the surface that it was going onto, the impact that that application might have on the environment or on the people around. So that was the past, that was what we did. Today, we focus completely different. Today, we utilize the system that we mentioned called IPM which is very target specific, it's very focused on the concerns of protecting the environment. When we say target specific, as a lot of advancement has been made in the chemistries that we utilize. In some cases, what we put out for a cockroach as an example, will only kill the cockroach, it won't kill the ant, it won't kill the fly. What we put out for a fly will only kill the housefly, it won't kill cockroaches or ants or rodents. So by doing this, we reduced significantly the amount of pesticide that we have to use in the environment. So pest control is provided today, utilizing this system called IPM. Now one of the problems with IPM is that if we asked a 100 pest controllers what IPM is, we would get about a 100 different answers, maybe 90, there'll be a few of them that agree with each other. So every pest control company has their definition of what IPM, Integrated Pest Management is. This is what Orkin's definition is. "We define IPM as the use of all appropriate technology and management practices to bring about pest prevention and suppression in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner." Now let's read that again. The use of all appropriate technology and management practices. Notice, it doesn't say no chemical, it says the use of all technology and practices to bring about pest prevention, we want to focus on preventing the pest from becoming a problem to our clients. We want to suppress the populations that are there and we want to do this in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner. And for the sake of our definition, when we've mentioned the environment, we're really talking about two environments. The greater environment of the outdoors and the earth certainly, but we're also focusing on that macro-environment inside where our clients live and work. So we're protecting two environments, the large greater environment and then the smaller environment that's inside with us, with our clients and with ourselves and our families. Now, where did this IPM thing come from, whose idea was this? IPM started off when resistance to pesticides were kind of ignored. People would spray a pesticide, it didn't really work after a time, so instead of trying to figure out maybe why, they would just spray more pesticide. So the problem of resistance and tolerance started building in the pest populations and that forced us to start looking at, well, what's going on? What's happening out there? Why is this material not working? Then a little bit later in history, in the 1940s or so, a new chemical was introduced and created, or created, then introduced, product called DDT. And this was thought to be the miracle pesticide, you spray DDT and everything insect wise die. People would spray it on their beds, people sprayed it throughout their houses, people sprayed DDT everywhere. And because it worked so well initially, it led to, again, it lead to this total dependence on pesticides. So we were using a lot of pesticides or the world was using a lot of pesticide, the insects started becoming accustomed, they became tolerant of the material, so instead of figuring out why? We just sprayed more and then DDT was developed and it worked so good that people said, "See, we were doing the right thing. We just keep spraying material and the pest go away, the pest die. " Well, they started becoming, people started becoming concerned about how much pesticide was actually being used and that lead to the development of Integrated Pest Management. Now I put this on a timeline because it makes it real easy for me to understand and look at. So if we break it down like this, in the 1900s to 1940, a lot of chemicals used, DDT was developed and introduced to the world and problems were solved. Then in the 1960s, 1962 to be specific, a young lady by the name of Rachel Carson wrote a book called 'Silent Spring.' In Silent Spring, that book written by this woman which now by the way has been translated into almost every common language on the earth, it's a very insightful book to our industry that kind of tells us why we do things the way we do it today. But her book brought the public's attention to the use of pesticides. Because of her book, it lead to the development in the US, of the Environmental Protection Agency in about 1969 or so. And the very first thing that the EPA, Environmental Protection Agency did was to ban the use of this DDT product, the material that was classified as the miracle drug, the miracle pesticide that solved all the pest problems. So it was banned for everything except essential uses. Today, it is hardly used at all, still used in some areas for mosquito control but not in the US. That lead to the 1980s which IPM became more common, at first, it became kind of a marketing sort of approach, we use IPM, we don't focus on chemistry but then it started becoming a principle and in some areas, a law, that this is how pest management really has to be done, particularly if you're in schools, public areas, healthcare facilities, food processing areas, places like that. It became not only a marketing but it became a principle and as I said in some situations, it became a law, that this is how pest management has to be done. What makes it different? Well, it focuses on prevention. IPM, if done properly prevents problems from coming in, it prevents problems from occurring. Now, you know, as you can see in these pictures, there's a lot of food material there, there's a lot of sanitation concerns in some of these places and unfortunately, these are not unusual, we find these every day in our work. By focusing on prevention, we have to address these symptoms, these sanitation problems, the maintenance problems, the conditions that make an environment conducive to pest living there. Now what is the pest looking for? Why would they want to come into these areas? Every pest requires four things. They require food, water, harborage, a place to live and they also require proper temperatures. Now what is food to the pest? Well, you know, food to the pest is almost anything, it's what we eat, but I also like to say that food for pest is not only what we eat, but it's everything that we won't eat. They will eat almost anything, they're omnivorous. So can we get rid of food inside a facility? Most likely not, we can't, the food is there and it's not the food that we recognize in many cases. Can we get rid of water? No, we can't get rid of water, we have to have water, all the things that a pest likes and that are attracted to the pest are the same things that we as humans have to have in order to live as well. We can't get rid of water, we require it, they require it. Can we get rid of proper temperatures? Pest, most of them like to live in the same general temperatures that we do. We're not gonna change that. Can we get rid of where they like to live, their harborage? Yes, and that's what Integrated Pest Management focuses on, is getting rid of one of those life necessities, specifically harborage and harborage can be eliminated either physically, by simply cleaning up and providing good maintenance and it can also at times be provided chemically. So as we said in our definition, IPM does not mean, no chemical, it means using the chemical when it is the most appropriate and necessary but using only the smallest amount needed to get the results that our client asked for. Okay. So our job is to eliminate these conducive conditions, the harborage, eliminate as much as we can in the food, the attractants, that create some of our challenges, when we look at commercial pest control and even in residential pest control, the challenges to this type of system is the sanitation. As long as there's bad sanitation, pest will still be attracted to an area. There are multiple ways that pest can get into a building, they can walk in, fly in, they can be carried in, in supplies and goods, can be carried in by us, by the inhabitants of the building or the workers in the building. There's a lot of attractants, some pest like a fly is attracted to odor. Can you get rid of the odor in a restaurant? No, it's what makes us walk into the door, to eat, it's because it smells good. Well, it smells good to the fly as well. So there's many attractants that these buildings have. There's a lot of places to hide, when you look in the back of a restaurant or a kitchen or in someone's home, there's a lot of places where pest can hide at. And there's also a lot of restrictions on, certainly the pesticides that we use, on where they can be used, where can they be placed and how can they be, how and when and where they can be applied. So these are some of the challenges that make pest control difficult at times, it requires us to be good detectives. We have to look at that situation and say, "Okay, why is the pest here? What is it's food? Where is it's water? Where does it live? Can we identify those things? The temperature is given but what are those other three? Where are they? And is there any way I can take one of them away? If I can take one of them away, I can control the pest or at least I can reduce its population." So that requires us to be very thorough in our investigation and depend on what we see and what we hear from our clients, more than the application of a chemical. Now when we move into some of the commercial facilities, we start looking at a program called HACCP which is required in a lot of commercial buildings. And how does pest control fit into this and how does IPM fit into this? HACCP is a required program in the food industry that focuses on reducing hazard. HACCP means hazard analysis critical control points. What are hazards that could get into food? And pest, certainly create some of those hazards. They create a biological hazard, a physical hazard and pest control creates potentially a chemical hazard, which of the three things, the hazards that we wanna try to avoid happening here. This is an internationally recognized program and pest control is one of the prerequisites, pest control must be in place for our clients to have a HACCP program. If you see number seven on the screen is a preventive pest control program must be in place, this is a requirement. What did I say IPM focuses on? Prevention. So how is a HACCP program supported? It's supported through Integrated Pest Management which is the type of service and the type of work that we as Orkin should be doing for all of our clients. What does it include, this preventive pest control program? It includes things like bird control procedures, it includes insect control procedures and the schedule of these services. It includes rodent control, application records and it also includes an inspection program. That's everything that goes into a preventative program. It requires and includes documentation of all the work that we do and we focus a lot on documentation. So HACCP, H-A-C-C-P is tied to pest control but it is tied specifically to the way that Orkin does business through Integrated Pest Management. That's how we're gonna focus our efforts. Why is the pest there? Can we eliminate one of those things that it is looking for? That's what we're trying to accomplish. Now how do we go about doing that? We do that through a couple of ways. We do that through non chemical solutions and then we do it through chemical solutions. An example of non-chemical solutions will be things such as traps, monitors, sanitation, exclusion or just plain physical removal. So what are traps? Traps, of course, are devices that capture pest, rodents, flies, insects, these are various types of traps that we utilize to capture rodents. They're also used as monitors in some cases. You see here this bucket and you might think, "Well, that's a bucket of rat poison." Well, it's not. It's actually a monitor, this is a product that we utilize quite a bit for rodents that tells us when there's activity going on. It's a bait block that has no poison in it. So it's a monitor, it tells us when there's activity. All these traps are used certainly for rodents, but we also use traps for other animals, vertebrates, such as cats in some places, where as to control cats, birds, things like that. So we use a lot of these types of things, traps. We may also use traps such as this. A sticky board that is used to capture insects, tells us what's going on, where they're at, why are they there. The other trap or monitor is an insect light trap, captures flying insects. We'll talk more about that when we discuss some of the biology and habits of flies in a little bit later. But these are all monitors and one of the differences between Orkin and the other pest control companies is how we look at these monitors. When one of our Orkin service professionals goes into an account and looks at that insect light trap or that glue trap, that sticky trap on the floor, they should never just look at and say, "Wow, there's a lot of bugs there." Throw it away and put another one down. They should look at it and ask themselves a question, "Why? Why is this here? I see that on my fly monitor, I have houseflies. What that means is I have some decaying garbage or trash somewhere within two or three meter range of where I'm standing at. I have fruit flies, they have red eyes. What that means is I have some type of organic material that's fermenting, that has a high sugar content somewhere within a meter or two of the spot, why? Where?" So understanding these monitors and how to read these monitors is something that you will learn in your training here in Atlanta when you come in, but it's important that we take that information to our technicians because they've got to understand and learn to think about and read what they see on these monitors. The insects are talking to us, we just got to listen and understand what they're trying to tell us, if we can, we can always solve that problem to the customer. If we understand why the insect is there and can answer the question, we can always solve the problem. Now sanitation is a big part of this program as well. Sanitation is pest control, sanitation is pest control, sanitation is picking up the litter, the trash, it's cleaning up spills, it's keeping waste in its proper place, getting the trash cans, put where they're supposed to be, getting the trash out of buildings, out of homes. Sanitation is pest control, sanitation and maintenance go together. Look at this picture, there are five numbers on this picture, what those numbers represent? Well, in this particular case, this is an example of really bad maintenance. Each of those numbers represents a different layer of wood on the wall in that restaurant. Cockroaches can live inside there all day along. As pest control professionals, it is our responsibility to not fix these problems but to bring them to our client's attention, educate them on why this is a problem and ask them to solve that problem for us. If we can do that, we can solve the pest problems in these cases. We look at other examples of poor maintenance, poor sanitation. If the pest comes in, they're attracted to these areas, if these areas exist, the pest population is going to get out of control. Sanitation and maintenance are pest control. Sanitation specifically, is pest control. If we put out bait materials for cockroaches let's say, but they have all this grease product here to the feed on like we see in this picture, they're not gonna eat our bait product, they're gonna continue to eat this grease material. Sanitation is vital to our products working, to the materials that we put out, it's vital to their working. It's also vital to reduce the attraction, we gotta keep it clean, so we reduce the attraction to the areas, attraction into the building. Now sometimes sanitation is not as possible as we want it to be. It's always possible but maybe not to the degree we really need it to be. So we also have to focus on exclusion, how is the animal getting inside? Is it walking through a door, crawling through a hole? How does it come inside? So part of pest management is we do exclusion work. Basically, we seal up holes that the insects or pest are using to come inside. And there's a lot of different types of ceilings, we might use door sweeps like we see on the bottom of the door here, where we install those to prevent pest from walking underneath the door, we might use something like this, a copper mesh that is placed inside the holes that the rodents or some other animals are getting into, we might use a expanding foam, something to physically fill up the space and prevent insects or pest from entering. We might even sometimes use concrete, things like that. So exclusion is very important. Whose job is exclusion? Is it ours or is it our client's? Well, it's both. As a business person, you have to make a decision, a business decision on how much is too much for the Orkin technician to do as related to exclusion? At what point do we fix it or at what point do we say, "You need to call someone that's a professional at repairing this." Either way, exclusion has to happen. We have to build out the pest and prevent them from coming inside. Now we cannot prevent a 100%. People are still gonna bring pest in, in the supplies, on their person, in their personal goods, when employees come to work, they may introduce pest through ladies handbags, gentlemen's briefcase, through their lunchbox, whatever. So pest can always come in but we have to minimize how they can come in, through exclusion. Now when they come in, and they will, we want to first take a step of physical removal. Can we just physically pick them up? Every Orkin vehicle should always have a vacuum cleaner on it and that vacuum cleaner is used to physically just pick up the pest, remove them from the building and keep them out through the rest of the procedures that we're going to follow. But physically removing them gets rid of the population very fast. It should be the first step that every Orkin technician takes. The vacuuming does something else that's also very important. It removes debris that's in the area that might prevent our pesticide applications from getting to where they need to be at. So if a pesticide doesn't get down inside the crack or crevice where the insect is living, they may not ever be exposed to it. So by vacuuming, we remove some of that debris and allows our treatment applications to be more effective. Now when we have to do an application and we go to a chemical, we want to always try to use a bait product first, if possible, not all pest respond to baits but if they do, cockroaches, ants, rodents, flies, if we can use a bait material and if there's one registered in your country, we want to make sure that that's our first choice. Baits are the first step in the chemical applications when they are appropriate. If they're not appropriate or for whatever reason they don't work, then we move to the more traditional types of pesticide application such as a liquid residual, an aerosol or maybe even a granular product. So chemicals are still part of an IPM solution. But they're used only when necessary and they're used very judiciously. We want to use the least amount of pesticide as possible to get the most affect and the desired results that our clients pay us for. Now there are some concerns, of course, that we have to be aware of when you're using pesticides, there are certainly restrictions on the labels, we have to make sure that the products are used as the labels direct, there's concern for the general cleaning. If someone is cleaning well and we put a pesticide down, they're probably going to remove it, but if they're cleaning well, we probably don't need to be putting down a pesticide or at least putting it where it's being cleaned because the pest are not living there. There's problems with accessibility, sometimes we cannot get into the places where we need to treat, there's also problems and concerns with the environmental conditions. The pesticides that we have in use today are sensitive to things like ultraviolet light, to heat, to exposure to things such as bleach, quaternary ammoniums, these sort of things. So all of those concerns we have to stop and think about, so that when we go to a pesticide application if required or necessary, we're doing the application properly, so that it gets the results that our clients ask us for. Now part of the IPM program and approach is education. We have to explain and educate our customers on what this is. In many of your countries, the general public is used to us coming in and spraying a lot of chemical, if they don't see us spray, they don't smell something, we didn't do anything. That's their mindset, their opinion. So if we come in and we're not depending on chemistry, often our clients are starting to question, "Well, what are you doing? You know, where's the spray? I don't smell anything, you guys didn't do the work, so I'm not gonna pay the bill." So we have to avoid those problems and those concerns by educating and teaching our customers what IPM is. Now to go through everything we just talked about with the client is kind of tough. It can be a confusing subject. So we've developed a program to help us communicate these things to our client. How do we communicate IPM to our customer?

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Posted by: rbanderas on Dec 20, 2016

02 IPM

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