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Making Sense of Minerals_Final

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>> Hi there. Welcome to the second part of our series on micronutrients. In the last lecture, you learned about the 13 vitamins that are necessary for optimal health and functioning. In this lecture, we'll be talking about minerals which are equally important types of micronutrients. All minerals originate in the earth. They're completely natural substances, and they cannot be made by living organisms, broken down, or changed into another substance using chemical means. The minerals in our diet come either directly from plants or indirectly from animal sources who get them from plants. Plants obtain minerals from the soil. Soil mineral content varies geographically and is impacted by farming and pollution. Minerals may also be present in the water we drink, but this also varies by geographic location. When people think about nutrition, they tend to think about macronutrients and vitamins, but minerals are super important to a balanced system. It's important to maintain normal levels of all the minerals because they work together as a team to manage stress, balance insulin levels, maintain normal reproductive function, and optimize thyroid function. In order of quantity in the body, the six major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, and magnesium. All six minerals play an important role in the body. Let's start with calcium. This is the most abundant mineral in our body, and it's mostly found in our bones and teeth. As you probably know, calcium plays an important role in building healthy bone structure. But did you know it's also used extensively as a signal for cell function throughout the body? Calcium levels are tightly regulated through a process involving parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, using the bones as a source of calcium and as a storage facility. Here's an important fact to remember about calcium, it has a much greater effect when consumed in the diet than when taken as a supplement. We absorb it much better when it's taken as part of the meal. Having sufficient levels of vitamin D improves calcium absorption in the body, so it's important to get your levels tested and make sure to get into the sun and to consume vitamin D rich foods, like cod liver oil. Additionally, magnesium plays a role in calcium absorption. So it's crucial to include magnesium rich foods, like dark leafy greens every day. Also, consuming smaller amounts of calcium more frequently over the course of the day is more ideal for absorption. For this reason, supplementation, if needed, should be limited to no more than 500 milligrams at a time. The recommended daily dose of calcium is 1,000 milligrams. It is very important to maintain the recommended level during growth and development to promote healthy bone development. Remember that got milk campaign of the '90s, and how kids growing up in prior decades were always told to drink their milk. We now know that there are plenty of other great forms of calcium out there beyond cow's milk. But the same important message is, and always has been, calcium is critical for a growing body. It is super important for adults too, especially women. Calcium deficiency results in bone loss, so it is very important to maintain recommended levels during the growth and development stages of life. Now this is where hormonal health comes into play because adequate estrogen levels facilitate maximum calcium absorption. This is why women are at risk for bone problems as they age. Also, it's worth mentioning here that amenorrhea causes a decrease in estrogen. Declining estrogen levels can contribute to osteopenia, which is reduced bone density or to osteoporosis, which is when the bone become brittle even in younger women. Foods high in calcium include dark leafy greens, like collard greens, kale, and spinach as well as full-fat organic dairy products and sardines. Next we have phosphorus, a major component of phospholipids, which are made up of phosphorus and fatty acids. Phosphorus is involved in bone mineralization, energy production, cell signaling, and regulation of PH balance. The body must maintain very tight control of its PH both outside and inside the cells so that all of the metabolic processes work properly. Phosphorous helps to regulate how much calcium is removed or returned to the bones to help maintain this PH. It is the second most common mineral in the body, like calcium, it's also incorporated into the bones. The bioavailability of phosphorus from food is usually very high. An exception to this is phytate phosphorus found in plant sources, such as grains, legumes, and seeds. Foods with highly available phosphorus include full-fat organic dairy products, wild-caught fish like salmon, and shellfish like scallops. The recommended daily dose is 700 milligrams. The tolerable upper limit is 4,000 milligrams in adults and 3,000 milligrams for people over the age of 70. Now what do I mean by that? Well, too much phosphorus can have negative effects on the kidneys, bones, and heart, especially in the elderly and those with chronic illness. Many foods have phosphorus-based additives, which raises a concern that there's too much phosphorus in the standard American diet. Also, many sodas, especially the colas, contain phosphoric acid. This may contribute to a decrease in vitamin D which reduces calcium in the blood. This encourages the breakdown of bone to release calcium, yet another compelling reason for your clients to avoid processed foods and soda. The third most abundant mineral in the body is potassium. It's inside every cell in the body, and it participates in the production of energy and the metabolism of carbohydrates. Our bodies have a tightly-controlled balance of sodium and potassium that's necessary to maintain life. Potassium levels in the blood are low, while levels inside of the cells are high. This is why a large injection of potassium can be deadly. High-dose potassium supplements are not approved for use due to this risk of cardiac death. This is not something that you want to mess with. However, this doesn't appear to be an issue with the potassium found in food. The recommended daily intake is 4.7 grams. Potassium is commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and legumes. White beans have one of the highest amounts, but it is also found in potatoes, bananas, dried apricots, prunes, raisins, avocados, and mushrooms. Okay, next up is sodium which, as I just mentioned, is the other half of the balance with potassium. Levels of sodium must remain high outside the cells and low inside to maintain fluid balance. This helps to support a normal blood pressure and normal function of the muscle cells. The recommended daily intake is 3.3 grams for adults. However, deficiency doesn't usually result from a low salt diet, especially not in our society. The body has ways to conserve salt by decreasing sweat and urine production. So it's possible to survive on as little as 0.18 milligrams of sodium a day. However, this is not an adequate diet for good nutrition because you'd be missing a lot of other nutrients if this were the case. Sodium is found naturally in meat, seafood, eggs, dairy, celery, and artichokes. However, almost all of our sodium intake comes from foods with added salt. And if you studied food labels, especially for processed and packaged foods, then you know that there's a lot of salt added to practically everything on the supermarket shelves. Too much salt has been implicated in high blood pressure, although not all people are sensitive. This is likely due to the fact that those who are not affected have genetic differences that allow for other mechanisms to maintain normal blood pressure in the body. When speaking with your clients about the type of salt they use, consider suggesting that they replace regular iodized-table salt with Himalayan or sea salt. Table salt is not recommended because it is heavily processed. It lacks natural minerals, and it contains anticaking agents. Sodium and potassium are managed in part by cortisol, which prevents sodium from leaving cells and encourages potassium to be released. Too much cortisol, which is to say too much stress, can cause body fluids to be drawn into the cell to balance out the sodium. This can cause kidney stones, high blood pressure, weakness, and fatigue. Yet another reason to encourage your clients to really examine the sources of stress in their lives so they can begin to mitigate its adverse effects on their health. Next, let's talk about chloride. This is the salt version of chlorine and is usually paired with sodium and potassium. In the body, sodium and potassium have a positive electron charge, chloride has a negative charge. So it's needed to balance the charges. It's also an essential part of the PH balance in the stomach and the small intestine. Natural dietary sources include sea salt, table salt, tomatoes, seaweed, celery, and olives. The minimum recommended amount of chloride is 150 milligrams per day. However, due to excessive salt intake in the typical diet, most people get far more than this amount every day. Last, we have magnesium, which is one of the most important minerals for health. Magnesium plays a role in over 300 enzyme reactions in the body. It's also involved in energy production, protein synthesis, ion transport, and cell signaling. An adult body contains approximately 25 grams of magnesium, 50% to 60% of this is stored in the bones, the rest is mainly stored in soft tissues. Your clients will love to know that magnesium is found in dark chocolate. It's also naturally found in dark leafy greens, seaweed, almonds, avocado, coriander, pumpkin seeds, and flax seeds. At high doses, supplemental magnesium can cause difficulty breathing, extremely low blood pressure, irregular heart beat, and even cardiac arrest at extremely high dozes. So clients who take magnesium supplements should take care not to exceed the upper limit of 400 milligrams. Luckily, magnesium in food doesn't appear to cause these issues because the body metabolizes it slowly, and then the extra magnesium just goes out in the urine. So clients can enjoy that bowl of guacamole or dark chocolate without worrying. One of the most important benefits of magnesium for clients who are stressed out is that it helps to improve sleep. It's also been seen in multiple studies to play a role in improving insulin sensitivity. This may be related to an effect on the beta cells in the pancreas which secrete insulin. Magnesium deficiency may also be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. This is why it can be helpful for women with PCOS related to insulin dysregulation. It's the most common mineral deficiency and can be difficult to diagnose because most magnesium is inside of the cells. Well, that's a wrap for these six major minerals. Don't worry about memorizing everything that we just covered, I know it's a lot of information. We will continue to cover these concepts in future modules and in greater detail. Think of this as your introductory foundation. To recap, we covered the six major minerals of the body, which are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, and magnesium. And we covered their roles in the body and how they can help balance hormones. Looking at the food sources of minerals and looking at your diet, is there a mineral that you can think of that maybe you could use more of? What is it? Let us know in the Facebook group. Thank you so much for watching, and we'll see you again real soon.

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Duration: 11 minutes and 39 seconds
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Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
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Views: 5
Posted by: ninaz on Mar 25, 2018

Making Sense of Minerals_Final

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