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UFO's, Panspermia en Buitenaards Intelligent Leven

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We observed stars. We know what goes on in the centre. They explode, laying bare their content. And what we have discovered is that the elements of the periodic table - that is we are made off - derive from the actions of stars. They have manufactured the elements, exploded, scattered their enriched guts across the galaxy, contaminating or enriching gas clouds that then form a next generation of stars populated by planets - and possibly life - And so, when you look at the ingredients of the universe the number one ingredient is hydrogen. Next is helium. Next is carbon. Hydrogen, helium, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen. Those are the top ingredients of the universe. They say: "OK, that's kinda cool. And they look at Earth - because we like to think of us as special - We say, "Oh, we're special!" So what are we made of? What's the number one molecule in the body? Water, water. Where from is water made? H2O. H2O. Hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen and oxygen. The fact that if you rank the elements in the human body with the exception of helium which is chemically inert. Useless to you for any other reason than just to inhale it so that you sound like Mickey Mouse. You can die from helium if that's all you breath. So number one in the human body is hydrogen. Matches of the universe. Number two is oxygen. Matches of the universe. Number three is carbon. Matches of the universe. Number four nitrogen. Matches of the universe. And for each of us is each element - other - the same in both places. OK? And had we been made of some rare isotope of bismuth, you had arguments to say, "Hey, we're something special!" But there are people who are upset by that fact. What do I mean by special, it's special in another kind of way. Because when we look up at the night sky it's not that we're here and that's there. It's that we are part of that. And that association for me is actually quite enlightening and ennobling and enriching. Almost spiritual. Looking up at the night sky and finding a sense of belonging. So now we have ourselves to ask, "Are we alone in the universe?" We're made of the most common ingredients there are. And our chemistry is based on carbon. Carbon is the most chemically active ingredient in the entire periodic table. If you had to find a chemistry on which to base something really complex, called life, you would base it on carbon. Carbon is like the foremost abundant ingredient in the universe. Isn't that rare? You can make more molecules out of carbon than you can make all other kinds of molecules combined So, if we act ourselves as if we're alone in the universe. It would be inexcusably egocentric to suggest that we're alone in the cosmos. No, we haven't found life outside of Earth yet. We're looking. Haven't looked very far yet. If the galaxy is that big, we've looked that far. And how about life on Earth? Is it hard to form? Just because we don't know how do it in the lab doesn't mean nature has problems. So it may be given that information that, given the right ingredients, which are everywhere, life may be inevitable. An inevitable consequence of complex chemistry. If that's the case we look at our own solar system, we look at Mars. All the evidence suggests that Mars was once a wet, fertile planet, an oasis. There are dried riverbeds and flood plains and river deltas and meandering rivers. It's all bone dry now. Something bad happened on Mars. Some knob got turned in its environment that left it the way it is right now. Some bad knob got turned on Venus too. Runaway greenhouse effect. You saw the clip on that. 900 degrees Fahrenheit on Venus. Some knob got turned down too. People say, "Why spend money up there, when..." Because up there we might learn about down here, OK? I don't want a runaway greenhouse effect here. Venus is the best example in the solar system of a planet gone bad. But learn about that first. So it turns out more we learn that asteroid impact when they hit can cast rocks in the surrounding area, into space with escape velocity so that they never come back to the planet from which they were launched. If Mars was wet ???? before Earth was, as all evidence suggests and if Mars had life before Earth had life, it is possible for there to have been bacterial stowaways in the nooks and crannies of the rocks that were cast into space - there are some hardy bacteria that we already know to exist on Earth that survived extreme temperatures, pressures, freeze dried, reconstituted, radiation. The hostile environment of space would be nothing to some of these bacteria. It may be that life on Earth was seeded by bacterial stowaways on rocks that were cast free from Mars. It is a plausible scenario that is called Panspermia. The transfer of life from one planet to the next. If you look at our closest genetic relative to human beings that be the chimpanzee, with we share like 98% plus identical DNA, we are smarter than the chimpanzee So let's invent a measure of intelligence that makes human unique, let's say intelligence is you build ???? things like compose, poetry, symphonies, ???? art, math and science. Let's say. OK? This is the arbitrary definition for intelligence at the moment. Chimps can't do any of that. Yet we share 98-99% identical DNA. OK? The most brilliant chimp there ever was maybe can do a little bit of sign language. Toddlers can do that. Toddlers... So, here's what concerns me deeply. Deeply. Everything that we are that distinguishes us from chimps emerges from that 1% difference in DNA. That's the difference. The Hubble telescope, these grand... that's in that 1%. Maybe everything that we are that is not the chimp is not as smart compared to the chimp as we tell ourselves it is. Maybe the difference between constructing and launching a Hubble telescope and a chimp combining two finger motions as sign language, maybe that difference is not all that great. Imagine another life form that's 1% different from us in the direction that we are different from the chimp. Who... what are we to they? We would be drooling, blithering idiots in their presence. That's what we would be. We would... They would take Stephen Hawking and roll him in front of their primate researchers and say: "Well, this one is one of the most brilliant among them because he can do astrophysics in his head." "Oh, isn't that cute, little Johnny here can do that too. (Laughter) It's on the refrigerator door. Here he is." Quantum mechanics will be intuitive to their toddlers. Whole symphonies will be written by their children and, like I said, just put up on the refrigerator door the way our popsicle logic ???? are on our refrigerator doors. (Laughter) So, the notion that we're going to find find some intelligent life and have a conversation with it? (Laughter) It's like you stopped to have a conversation with a worm... (Laughter) or bird. You might have a conversation, but I don't think you expected an answer, all right? So we don't have conversations with any other species on Earth with whom we have DNA in common. To believe that some intelligent other species is going to be interested in us enough to have a conversation. So look at the Hubble telescope, oh, isn't that quaint? Look what they're doing! So I lay awake at night wondering whether simply we as a species are simply too stupid to figure out the universe that we're investigating. And maybe we need some other species, 1% smarter then we are, for which string theory would be intuitive. For which all the greatest mysteries of the universe - dark matter, dark energy, the origin of life and all the frontiers of our thought - would be something that they would just deal with intuitively?????. I'm jealous of that possibility.

Video Details

Duration: 9 minutes and 55 seconds
Country: United States
Language: English
Views: 264
Posted by: ridelo on Jul 29, 2011

Neil deGrasse Tyson bespreekt kort, op een speculatieve maar gemotiveerde manier, enkele marginale gebieden van onze wetenschappelijke kennis, zoals de oorsprong van het leven op aarde en het bestaan ​​van - en de mogelijkheid tot interactie met - buitenaardse intelligente levensvormen. Dr Neil deGrasse Tyson is een Amerikaans astrofysicus en de Frederick P. Roos directeur van het Hayden Planetarium aan het American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Een volleerd wetenschapper heeft hij eveneens een uitgesproken rationalistische en sceptische kijk op de wereld. HIj werd geëerd met de 2009 Isaac Asimov award van de American Humanist Association.

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