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Выступление Bruce Perens на ROSH 10.10

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Hello Russia! This is Bruce Perens. And I hope you're doing well today. I'm sorry I can't be there I would really like to be in Moscow for Open-Source Forum this summer but it was cancelled and I do hope to get to Russia soon. I'm Russian, by the way, before my name was Perens, my family's name was Peretensky(???). And I changed that in United States in 1950's. Amyway, lets talk about Open-Source Hardware. Open Hardware really brings me back to my beginnings with Open-Source, when I started working on Debian. It was because I wanted to make a Linux for ham-radio. And I still have the domain the for today (???). But Linux for hams didn't happen because I went to work on Debian and eventually became Debian project leader and did a lo of other stuff for Open-Source. Which I never regret it. Now however, I'm working with ham-radio again because of Open Hardware. My ham-radio callsign is K6BP (Kilo-Six-Bravo-Papa). And ham-radio connection reminds me that Open Hardware has been going on for hundred years. That's right. Because that's how long hobbyists've been building their own wireless communication devices. and sharing schematics with each other. I remember as a child I would open a ham-radio book and it would be just full of schematics which they expected you to build. And back then you built radios by cutting big hole in a metal chassis for a tube socket, putting the tube in. I remembering 70's We were just training the radio hams at that time to work with the new printed circuit boards. And of course now the concern is that we don't use through-hole components in printed circuit boards anymore. Everything is surface mounted. Not that a lot of people learning how to do surface mount at home which can be a bit of a challenge. I do have my own surface mount workstation a home. So, my two favorite organizations for ham-radio Open Hardware are TAPR and AMSAT. That's TAPR spelled T-A-P-R and AMSAT spelled A-M-S-A-T. TAPR has been making Open Hardware for radio communications. packet radio, communicating data over radio since 1982. And that time they made TNC1 which was the first hobbyist device for wireless communications on your computer. Of course we had a walkie-talkies way before then, but it was really the first time that you can have a LAN or a Wired Area Network in most of those devices were used to build a Wired Area Network of hams in the city or town at twelve hundred bod half duplex so that was a very slow wire but of course that time our modems were slow as well we did really happen internet that people used at home. AMSAT is a very special organization, because they make space satellites and they've been doing it for quite a long time. And I think very quietly most people don't even know they exist, but it happens that AMSAT launch the first hobby satellite the first ham radio project satellite in 1961 - only four years after Sputnik® How did they do that? Well, they became the first space hitchhikers. And the way that works is rockets are built to carry a specific weight. And if satellite you're launching on a rocket doesn't weight that much what they used to do they carry a ballast weight into space just a dead [???] made of metal. Now, obviously it's a sin of incredible stupidity to carry a big slab of dead metal into space when you could carry something better. So, what happened, was ham-radio hobbyists mostly through AMSAT started to create a hitch-hikers satellites which were secondary paloads on rockets that were launching a main satellite. That's was space hitch-hiking. However, much ballast weight was available on a particular launch we might be able fill with the secondary satellite And so, from 1961 until the present AMSAT has launched over sixty space satellites. That makes it the most successful private space program. Ever. This things, like [???], I mean They're not big, compared to the history of AMSAT, all that obviously they're going to put much larger things, and more of them into space eventually so the ham-radio hobbyist and Open Hardware hobbyists have been there first and live satellites that AMSAT is doing is called ARISS-1 (A-R-I-S-S-dash-1). and the I-S-S is for "Space Station" it will be sent to the Space Station on the Progress-41P (???) flight which is scheduled to be launched from Russia in in January of 2011 And that will include telemetry and also repeating of communications broadcast by hams from the Earth-2 the satellite to the Earth So if you aim at the satellite and send a signal in the right passband you can illuminate a very large part of the Earth with the signal. coming back to the ground from that satellite. and do long-distance communications without the way that hams usually do it, which is using an ionospheric [???] bouncing signals of ionosphere So this is the different way of communicating over long-distances. and anyone with a ham-radio license will be able to use this satellite to communicate as they can use a number of satellites that are currently in the space If you'd like to learn about this, the organization working on it is and today they're pursuing Open Hardware projects as a project for both AMSAT and TAPR I'm working on "Codec 2" Codec 2 is an ultra-low bandwidth voice codec for ham-radio and satellite communications. So it takes a voice signal and it makes it into less then 2400 bits per second and reproduces good quality voice at that brake (???) It doesn't care at what language you speak It will do Russian, English, Chinese equally well. And the algorithm developer of Codec 2 is David Rowe who also build the Mesh Potato, you'll be hearing about on the conference today. That actually the topic they have today is Open Hardware licensing. And since we already used Open-Source licensing Many of us have assumed that licensing would work the same way for Open Hardware and unfortunately I have bad new about that. Under the laws of most nations copyright can not be used to protect hardware design That's what patent is for. It isn't usually possible to protect an electronics circuit with copyright So, the way that many open hardware licenses actually work is they restrict copying of the plans and the distribution of the plans of the scematics rather than actual hardware The hardware is not restricted by the Open Hardware license under the laws of most nations You can however restrict things like firmware, software that runs in that particular piece of hardware So, the sad news here is that there isn't a GPL for hardware So why is this the case? I'm going to read a part of the american copyright law. The similar law exists in many countries i simply can't read the russian one And the american law says: "In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated or embodied in such a work." Why is that in copyright law Well, it's because the law is saying these are the things, that is supposed to be covered by patents so if we rely entirely on copyright, which is what we use to as open source developers, we really restricted to something like BSD-licensing on hardware That's unless we actually patent part of our designs but in most places patent is much more difficult to acquire than copyright. Copyright is something we get automatically Patent costs thousands of dollars and complicated documents and years of waiting for the government to grant or not grant the patent. And in general patents go against the reason we have open hardware. We're making open hardware that everyone can build it. Not's (??) that we can't restrict principles so that no one can use them So, in general unfortunately I think the law as it exist today is not going to allow us to protect Open Hardware the way that we protect Linux or other GPL software. For example Busybox to which I'm creator of is very well-known because GPL has been prosecuted against a number of companies I don't have the same assurance that my hardware designs can be protected in the same way So, that's unfortunately as you design Open Hardware I want you to understand the rules are different and that Open Hardware for the most part really is a gift, like BSD licensing is not sharing with rules like GPL licensing And sometimes people ask me about this -- If you can't protect principle or procedure how can you copyright software? Well, if there's only one to do something in software, And you have to write your program in that one way or it won't work. Copyright does not protect that part of the program at all. But when your work includes choices and creativity that go beyond what's strictly necessary -- copyright protects that part of your program. Unfortunately, that's not also true for hardware. You can't protect a schematic design with copyright the way you protect a document or a software program. And of course discussing this in Russia is a kind of silly because unfortunately copyright licenses today are not enforced the way that they are in other places. Or perhaps fortunately, because we have too much enforcement of copyright in United States too many locked-down devices which can't be modified which control the people using them, as much as the people control devices. And too many things like DMCA which have restricted the way that we can play video on Open-Source Software. So, in some ways you're lucky that there's less enforcements so far in Russia than we have in Europe, the United States, Japan and some (??) of these issues. But, anyway we're not making Open Hardware to play lawyer how I am to do it all to often. We're making Open Hardware to do creative things for fun and help people and to improve technology. For all sorts of reasons of our own. And for that reason there's something that I think you -- Open Hardware designers -- should be working on. And that is the fact that today we are getting so many closed devices -- devices like iPhone, which we actually have to jail-break before we can put our own software on them And eventually I think most commercial computers that you buy will be locked down the way iPhone is, at least as we get it the States. And it's Open Hardware that can produce for the World the whole bunch of non locked-down devices. The hard part is making those devices attractive to normal people. That means we have to listen to users, have to put in our devices what users want. That's hard for some of us, a lot of us not even like users. But if Open Source and Open Hardware are to be a force in a greater market, obviously, we have to listen to people as well as having our own fun. So I'm hoping that many of you will look at the problems that can be solved in the World with technology like Open Hardware Not just locking down of devices, but many such problems. And design devices to solve those problems in the open way. And it's only that way that we can convince the World around us that Open is the way to handle these things. Thank you very much! I'm glad to be invited to Russia today!

Video Details

Duration: 16 minutes and 18 seconds
Country: Russia
Language: English
Views: 123
Posted by: ipse on Oct 3, 2010

Выступление Bruce Perens, специально записанное для ROSH 10.10

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