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3_Remer_Wells_Wisniewski

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Hi, I'm Dora. Just kidding! This is the nucleus of the cell. In the nucleus there are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes which are made up of long coiled up strands of DNA. DNA Is made up of deoxyribose sugar, phosphates, and 4 different nitrogen bases to form a double helix shape. The 4 nitrogen bases are Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine. A scientist named Erwin Chargaff discovered the idea of Complimentary Base Pairing which is why Adenine will pair with Thymine and Guanine will pair with Cytosine. DNA also contain genes which are the blueprint to make proteins. To make these proteins the DNA goes through a process called transcription. It begins as the DNA starts to unwind and an enzyme called RNA Polymerase slides across the DNA and adds a complimentary base to each DNA nitrogen base to create a strand of messenger RNA. However, there is no thymine in RNA but there is a different base that will pair with Adenine, called Uracil. When this process is complete, the new strand of mRNA detaches from the DNA and leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, which DNA is unable to do. hen the strand of messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm, it begins the process of translation. A ribosome attaches to the first codon of the messenger RNA. A transfer RNA, which carries an amino acid, will attach to a codon if its’ anticodon of bases matches. The ribosome continually moves along the messenger RNA as transfer RNA attach, bind their amino acid to the new transfer RNA, and leave. When the ribosome reaches a stop codon and the last transfer RNA releases its amino acid, there is a long chain of amino acid that make up a protein.

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Language: English
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Posted by: 21swisniewski on Feb 27, 2018

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