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Enclosed Space Entry_Hazard Awareness

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[MUSIC] [Maritime Training Services Inc.] [In case of any conflict between the requirements shown in the movie] [and the company's safety management system (SMS), please follow the company's SMS requirements] [ENCLOSED SPACE ENTRY HAZARD AWARENESS] Anyone who has worked at sea has heard many stories about people who entered enclosed spaces without taking precautions and died as a result. A welder entered the hole of a barge in British Columbia and became unconscious in the oxygen deficient atmosphere. Four other workers entered the hall to rescue the worker. All four rescuers also became unconscious. The welder died and the other workers barely survived. It's impossible to know what these victims were thinking before entering such spaces, but they must have considered the workplace to be safe for entry. After all, if it looks safe, what could possibly go wrong inside? In this program, you will learn about [TYPES OF ENCLOSED SPACES] different types of enclosed spaces, [TYPES OF HAZARDS] types of hazards found in enclosed spaces, [HOW TO PROTECT OURSELVES FROM THE HAZARDS] how to detect hazards, protecting ourselves from the hazards. Enclosed space means a space which has any of the following characteristics. [Limited openings for entry and exit] Limited openings for entry and exit, [Poor or no natural ventilation] poor or no natural ventilation where dangerous atmosphere may accumulate. [Not designed for continuous worker occupancy] It is not designed for continuous worker occupancy, [Cut off from the atmosphere] is normally cut off from the atmosphere, [Limited or restricted means of entry] it has a limited or restricted means of entry and it could be occupied by solid or liquid cargoes, ballast, or machinery. A confined space is a space that is tight or poorly ventilated, even an open hold, rope store, chain locker, or paint store, [ANY SPACE WHERE TOXIC GASES CAN COLLECT] any space where toxic gases can collect [CAN BECOME A DANGEROUS SPACE CONTAINING] can become a dangerous space containing the same hazards [THE SAME HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH AN "ENCLOSED SPACE"] associated with an "Enclosed Space." The spaces we crawl into all the time are still confined and we should not be complacent about entering them. Spaces we don't normally enter can require taking extra considerations prior to entering. It is the responsibility of the chief officer, chief engineer, chief mate, safety officer, or other competent person to make sure that entry procedures into dangerous spaces are followed correctly. [THIS PERSON MUST BE TRAINED] This person must be trained [IN ENCLOSED SPACE HAZARD RECOGNITION,] in enclosed space hazard recognition, [EVALUATION, MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL] evaluation, measurement, and control using standards acceptable to the administration. Practically speaking, any tank or an enclosed compartment that has been cut off from the outside fresh air for a period of time should be regarded as dangerous. Entering such spaces without taking precautions has caused many serious injuries and deaths. And the dangers are rarely visible. The common quiet inside an enclosed space has tempted many seamen to take a shortcut and enter without following the procedures, often with a tragic ending. [REMEMBER ANY SPACE WITH NO VENTILATION MAY BE DANGEROUS TO ENTER] Any space with no ventilation may be dangerous to enter. Always test the air inside. The dangers associated with enclosed spaces are not all the same, some dangers, such as, toxic fumes or lack of oxygen are easily detectable with the proper equipment, but injuries may also be caused by lack of safety equipment, such as, inadequate lighting or a lack of personal protective equipment like, hard hats and safety shoes. Due to frequent or easy access, it is common for a crewmember to overlook the possible dangers when entering spaces, such as, [Cargo holds, Paint Lockers] cargo hold, paint lockers, [Cargo pump rooms] cargo pump rooms. For example, if a paint longer ventilation system fails, dangerous fumes may build up inside the closed space. Some spaces, such as, chain lockers, the duct keel, or cofferdams may be sealed for long periods of time. Also, cargo holds are sealed while the vessel is at sea. [CLOSED, OXYGEN LEVELS, DANGEROUS GASES] During that time, the oxygen levels may be depleted or dangerous gases created by chemical reactions taking place inside these enclosed spaces. [BEWARE OF SPACES THAT HAVE BEEN CLOSED FOR A LONG TIME] Beware of spaces that have been closed for a long time. The hazards of enclosed spaces can be broadly categorized [Air hazards, Engulfment hazards] as air hazards, Engulfment hazards, [Slips, trips and falls] or slips, trips, and falls. The condition of the air is the most common hazard that seamen face when entering an enclosed space. This may be due to lack of oxygen, [OXYGEN DEFICIENCY] accumulation of flammable gases and vapors [ACCUMULATION OF FLAMMABLE GASES AND VAPORS, TOXIC FUMES] or toxic fumes. Oxygen deficiency can occur through rusting of steel in a fresh water or ballast tank that has been isolated from the outside atmosphere. Some types of cargoes that can cause oxygen deficiency include forest products like, packaged lumber and logs, certain grains, iron and steel, natural fibers like, jute and hemp, and oil seeds. Oxygen depletion can also occur in cargo holds, which contain cargos prone to self-heating or spontaneous ignition, such as, coal. [FRESH AIR OXYGEN LEVELS] The nominal oxygen level in fresh air is 20.9% by volume. The effective depleted oxygen levels on people differs depending on the percentage of oxygen left in the atmosphere. Below 20.9% to 16% [PULSE/BREATHING LEVEL, MENTAL FUNCTIONS IMPAIRED] pulse and breathing rates drop and mental functions are impaired. [DEPLETED OXYGEN LEVELS] Below 14% severe symptoms are experienced, [INCREASING FATIGUE, EMOTIONAL DISTRESS,] including increasing fatigue, emotional distress, [POOR JUDGMENT, FAULTY COORDINATION] poor judgment, and faulty coordination. Further reductions resulting [NAUSEA, VOMITING, PERMANENT HEART DAMAGE,] nausea, vomiting, permanent heart damage, [LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS] and loss of consciousness. [FATAL OXYGEN LEVELS] Below 5%, [COMA WITHIN 40 SECONDS EMERGENCY OXYGEN REQUIRED] a coma may occur within 40 seconds, requiring emergency administration of oxygen to have any chance of survival. [PERMANENT BRAIN DAMAGE] There is a danger of permanent brain damage after only four minutes in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. IMO Regulations leave it to the discretion of each flag state to determine the lowest oxygen level not acceptable for entry. [ACCUMULATION OF FLAMMABLE GASES AND VAPORS] Flammable gases are another air hazard in enclosed spaces. Application of paint inside an enclosed space traps the vapors from thinners and solvents, paint lockers where open paint cans and thinners are stored, can build up vapors if the ventilation gets cut off. Explosive hydrocarbon vapors and gases may be found in fuel oil tanks and pump rooms or around faulty acetylene welding equipment. One type of gas that may be found on board is hydrogen sulfide in sewage tanks and in various types of liquid cargoes. Carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide can be found around welding work or enclosed cargo holds loaded with coal. Having sufficient oxygen is not enough. Always check for flammable gases and toxic fumes too. Another serious hazard associated with entering an enclosed space is the danger of accidentally being engulfed by liquids or solids in the space. This may happen when equipment associated with the space is accidentally activated. To prevent engulfment accidents, it is very important to follow proper lockout and tag out procedures. Any ballast or cargo pump that could flood a compartment must be tagged, "Do Not Operate." On the other hand, forced ventilation fan supplying fresh clean air to the compartment must be tagged, "Do Not Switch Off." Follow a lockout, tag out procedures for all equipment that could harm the workers in enclosed spaces. Finally, slips, trips, and falls are much more serious when they occur in enclosed spaces because of the difficulty and hazards associated with rescuing an injured crewmember. [HOW TO DETECT HAZARDS] Testing the air inside in enclosed space should be carried out in a prescribed sequence before entering the space. First, check for oxygen level with an oxygen analyzer. Next, check for the presence of flammable gases and vapors with an explosimeter. Lastly, test for toxic gases to determine their danger. Due to differing densities of gases, testing must be carried out at upper, middle, and lower levels of an enclosed space. [AMMONIA, HYDROGEN, METHANE] Gases such as ammonia, hydrogen, [LIGHTER THAN AIR] and methane are lighter than air and tend to rise to the top of the enclosed space. [CARBON MONOXIDE METHANOL] Carbon monoxide and methanol can be found at all levels. [CARBON DIOXIDE, GASOLINE VAPORS, CHLORINE] Carbon dioxide, gasoline vapors, and chlorine are heavy [HEAVIER THAN AIR] and tend to settle down in low spots. For these reasons, testing must be carried out at different levels and locations within the space. Before testing, the ventilation system [THE VENTILATION SYSTEM MUST BE TURNED OFF] must be turned off [FOR AT LEAST 10 MINUTES BEFORE READINGS ARE TAKEN] for at least 10 minutes before readings are taken. The system is turned back on while workers remain in the enclosed space. Any abnormal smell should be a cause of concern and should be investigated. However, some dangerous gases, such as, carbon monoxide do not have any smell. [PROTECTING OURSELVES FROM HAZARDS] Before entering any enclosed space, an entry permit must be obtained and extensive planning must be conducted. The air inside must be well-ventilated using blowers and ducting that supply fresh air to the most remote part of the enclosed space. The exhaust gas should be discharged to the outside atmosphere and must not affect the attendant outside the enclosed space. Prior to entry, tests must confirm that the air is breathable and does not have any flammable or toxic gases. We do not rely on breathing apparatus for entry and normal work. The space has to be breathable. Resuscitation equipment ready for use at the entrance should be available. This must consist of breathing apparatus with fully charged spare bottles, lifelines, rescue harness, oxygen resuscitator, and if appropriate, a means of hoisting a disabled person. We have required safety equipment that must be readily available for extracting people, if they had a problem. Complacency is one of the biggest causes of accidents in enclosed spaces. Shortcuts lead to accidents. No matter, how many times workers have been in and out of an enclosed compartment, the proper procedures must be followed at all times. [ENCLOSED SPACE PROCEDURES MANUEL] Study the company enclosed space procedures manual [Plan the work accordingly] and plan the work accordingly. Use the right equipment and make sure it's in good condition. Finally, stay alert. If you find someone lying motionless in an enclosed space, [REMEMBER, DO NOT RUSH IN TO HELP] do not rush in to help. Raise the alarm, get the rescue equipment and the rescue team together, and follow procedure. Failure to do so will only result in more casualties. [MTS, Maritime Training Services.]

Video Details

Duration: 12 minutes and 38 seconds
Country: Andorra
Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 17
Posted by: maritimetraining on Nov 5, 2018

Enclosed Space Entry_Hazard Awareness

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