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Annotated captions of The Power Principle - Part III: Apocalypse in English

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This film contains controversial subject matter.

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Interview subjects and creators of some source material

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may not agree with certain views presented.

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The power principle is a non-profit documentary and has been released online for free.

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It is essential to release humanity from the false fixations of yesterday,

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which seem now to bind it to a rationale of action leading only to extinction. - Buckminster Fuller

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The sooner strong enough forces can be assembled in Europe

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under united command

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the more effective will be the deterrent against a third world war.

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If I may say this, members of the Congress

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be careful above all things, therefore,

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not to let go of the atomic weapon until you are sure and more than sure

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that other means of preserving peace are in your hands.

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[Applause]

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Right here is an ironic, but accurate fact:

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that the two strongest powers

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are the two in the most danger of devastation.

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All we have built, all we have worked for

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would be destroyed in the first 24 hours.

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And even in the Cold War

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which brings burdens and dangers to so many countries

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including this nation's closest allies

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our two countries bear the heaviest burdens

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for we are both devoting massive sums of money to weapons

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that could be better devoted to combat ignorance

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poverty and disease.

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The Power Principle

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III. Apocalypse

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(Narrator) They called it M.A.D.: Mutually Assured Destruction.

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If one of the superpowers attacked,

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their own nation would be annihilated, in turn.

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Nuclear bombs, the most destructive weapons ever created

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would actually maintain the peace.

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Yet at the time of the Cuban missile crisis,

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it was not a level playing field.

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American missiles in Turkey were already pointed at the heart of Moscow.

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For Soviet strategists, this produced

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a dangerous first strike capability by the enemy.

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(TV narrator) Now, the Russians were trying to catch up.

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There was a syndrome to catch up and overtake,

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to try and show everyone that we weren't far behind the Americans,

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that we too had nuclear weapons.

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There were those who said we could only prevent a nuclear war

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if we opposed world imperialism with a force of similar strength.

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For the Soviets, the fear of a first strike

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was not just the product of a paranoid imagination.

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Introducing Gen. Curtis E. Lemay, Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command

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Just a short time ago on March 21st, we passed the 10th anniversary

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of the United States Air force's Strategic Air Command.

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That date marked a decade of hour by hour preparedness.

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Ten years of exercising a potent stabilizing force

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that has been a major factor in preventing the outbreak of global war.

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(Narrator) Representing the super-hawks at the Pentagon

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was General Curtis Lemay.

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A decade earlier, he had drawn up a war plan

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which involved dropping the entire stockpile of atomic bombs

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in a single massive attack on the Soviet Union.

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133 atomic bombs

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on 70 cities within 30 days.

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Lemay was later quoted by the Washington Post to stating:

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"Every major American city: Washington, New York,

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Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, Los Angeles,

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will be reduced to rubble.

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Similarly, the principal cities of the Soviet Union will be destroyed."

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Well before the Cuban missile crisis,

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Lemay quipped to 'stratojet' crew member Hal Austin

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of the 91st strategic reconnaissance that:

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"maybe if we do these over flights right,

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we can get World War III started."

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His comment was not meant in jest.

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According to Defense Secretary Robert McNamara:

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"Lemay was absolutely certain

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that the U.S. was going to have to fight a nuclear war with the Soviet Union

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and that we should fight it sooner rather than later."

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Our own policy toward them

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has been one strictly of watchful non-intrusive friendship.

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Giving help was help was asked for,

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but otherwise keeping hands off their internal affairs.

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It was the United States that provoked the Soviet Union.

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The strategic air command was flying strategic bombers over the North Pole

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deep into the Soviet Union when they had no defenses,

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just to see how far they could get.

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This is why the Soviets built up missile defenses, etc.

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They didn't have the money for this, but we pushed them into an arms race.

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That was our mistake, and the public was completely ignorant of the fact

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that the U.S. was pushing the Soviet Union into defending itself.

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(Narrator) Once the arms race began in earnest,

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the Soviets engaged in their own provocations.

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In 1961, they broke the ban on nuclear testing

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by detonating the largest nuclear bomb yet created.

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We don't want to threaten you, God forbid,

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but don't fly over the Soviet Union or the Socialist countries.

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Respect our sovereignty and our borders.

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If you don't know where your borders are, we'll show you!

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It's an obvious commie trick Mr. President, we're wasting valuable time!

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Look at the big board! They're getting ready to clobber us!

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(Narrator) Stanley Kubrick's outlandish satire 'Doctor Strangelove'

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portrays events that were frighteningly close

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to what was actually going on behind the scenes.

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The character of Jack D. Ripper

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is widely believed to be a representation of Curtis Lemay,

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while the Strangelove character, played by Peter Sellers

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is believed to be an amalgam of leading minds from the Rand Corporation,

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a think-tank then largely devoted to war gaming

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and nuclear apocalypse.

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One of Rand's most notorious strategists was Herman Kahn.

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He believed that the U.S. atomic arsenal was a wasting resource.

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So long as the Soviet Union continued to build its own arsenal,

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America's would decrease in value.

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For Kahn, nuclear weapons were like a precious commodity

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in danger of depreciation on the global marketplace.

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Though Kahn did not advocate a first strike,

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he believed that a nuclear war was winnable and that the United States

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should develop a credible first strike capability.

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The Rockefeller Foundation gave him a million dollar grant.

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- Just because you go to war, that itself may be an irrational act or may not.

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But even if you irrationally decide to go to war, it doesn't mean you have to fight

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in a wildly irrational fashion.

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- Many people feel that if they survive a nuclear war

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that things are going to be so awful, life is going to be

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so destroyed everywhere that they'd actually rather be dead.

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- That's an almost completely standard reaction,

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and it's really a reaction to try to prevent thinking about the subject.

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I make a comment

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which always gets me into a great deal of criticism; let me make it anyway:

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objective studies indicate that the post-war environment,

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while hostile to human life, more hostile than the prewar environment,

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will not be so hostile as to "preclude normal and happy lives".

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(Narrator) Having examined the apocalyptic thinking

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among high level military strategists leading up to the Cuban missile crisis

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we now turn to Cuba itself.

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Historian Louis Perez notes that Cuban independence

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had been anathema to all North American policy makers

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since Thomas Jefferson.

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In a letter to James Madison, Thomas Jefferson remarked

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that Spain could rule the island "until our people are sufficiently advanced

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to take those territories from the Spanish, bit by bit."

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In 1878, Secretary of State James Blane remarked:

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"There are only three places that are of value enough to be taken:

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one is Hawaii, the others are Cuba and Puerto Rico."

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They took all three, but one successfully revolted.

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Before the revolution, 75% of Cuba's arable land

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was owned by foreign individuals or corporations,

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mostly American.

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The revolution was not bloodless.

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Castro's forces executed over 500 people.

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Yet, the gorillas had the support of the vast majority of Cubans.

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(N. Chomsky) John F. Kennedy came into office.

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He had a Latin American study group

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led by Arthur Schlesinger, a well-known liberal historian.

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Schlesinger reported back to him

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the report of the study group with regard to Cuba, which was a main concern,

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that the threat is "the Castro idea of taking matters into your own hands"

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which could inspire others in the region

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who faced problems similar to those of the Cuban poor

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to take matters into their own hands too,

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especially if the Castro idea succeeds.

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Now they'll be more encouraged to do so,

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and pretty soon the dominoes will fall.

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That's the threat of a good example.

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What the imperialists cannot forgive

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is that we have made a socialist revolution

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under the very nose of the United States.

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(Narrator) The danger of a good example,

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namely one of independence, helps to explain why Cuba

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has been subjected to literally hundreds of terrorist attacks by the United States

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since the overthrow of the Batista dictatorship in 1959.

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There will not be, under any conditions,

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an intervention in Cuba by the United States Armed Forces.

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This government will do everything it possibly can,

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I think it can meet its responsibilities to make sure

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that there are no Americans involved in any actions inside Cuba.

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The United States has committed no aggression against Cuba

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and no offensive has been launched

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from Florida or from any other part of the United States.

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Under the government aegis,

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we had task forces that were striking at Cuba constantly.

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We were attempting to blow up power plants.

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We were attempting to ruin sugar mills.

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We were attempting to do all kinds of things during this period.

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This is a matter of American government policy; this wasn't the CIA.

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(Narrator) The terrorist attacks have included the deployment of biological weapons.

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(Announcer) Denied the products of our farms and factories,

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we could not wage war on any front.

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We can be attacked in spite of our excellent defenses.

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Attacks may be made in many ways: with bombs,

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or with biological weapons.

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This might be one form of biological warfare.

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Biological warfare?

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What do they expect me to do about it?

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It's not my headache.

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(Announcer) You are wrong. You had better find out the facts

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about biological warfare or B.W.

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It can be aimed

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at you in your home

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or at work

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at your food crops,

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your livestock.

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(Announcer) Not very far from Edgewood in historic Frederick, Maryland

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are the biological warfare laboratories.

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Here, men and women of science are doing basically the same type of work

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as in other government, university and industrial laboratories:

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a combination of medical and public health research.

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While I was at Fort Dietrich, I was able to follow part way

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through an experiment to determine the effectiveness of an agent.

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(Narrator) The American government's use of what is sometimes termed 'unconventional warfare'

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was hinted at in "The good shepherd" directed by Robert De Niro.

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- I believe that's what you're looking for.

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- That'll do it.

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This coffee plantation

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shows that when our people work together,

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the result is a more just and productive society.

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To progress and win economic stability

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the imperialists that suppress our workers

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will now be conquered.

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With the satisfaction of one who believes he has done his duty,

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with faith in the future,

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long live the revolution!

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Long live our beloved country!

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(Narrator) In the case of Cuba, these attacks have reportedly ranged

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from the introduction of the Thrips palmi insect plague

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to African swine virus.

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According to Newsday, a U.S. intelligence source admitted

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that he was given the swine virus in a sealed, unmarked container

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at a U.S. army base and CIA training ground in the Panama Canal zone

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with instructions to turn it over to the anti-Castro group.

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The CIA has concocted no less than 600 schemes to kill Castro.

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Plots have ranged from poisoned cigars

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to bacterial poisons to be placed in Castro's handkerchief

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to exploding mollusks painted in bright colors

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designed to lure a scuba diving Castro to an underwater grave.

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It took some time before Cuba elected to create a deterrent

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in the form of potential nuclear war.

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Initially, Castro followed the procedures required by international law

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calling on the UN for help in July 1960.

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He provided the security council with records of more than 20 bombings

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including the names of pilots, plane registration numbers

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and other specific evidence.

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No help was forthcoming.

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Instead, the U.S. responded with the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion,

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laying the groundwork for one of the most dangerous moments in human history.

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(Castro) The privileged,

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the parasites and the sons of parasites

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want to hoist the [shameful flag of crime]...

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(Castro) I thought if we expected the Soviets to fight on our behalf

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to run risks for us

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and even involve themselves in a war for our sake,

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it would be immoral and cowardly on our part

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to refuse to accept the presence of those missiles here.

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(Narrator) The standoff came to a head in a little known incident

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when commanders of a Soviet submarine positioned near Cuba

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believed they were under attack.

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A group of United States Navy destroyers

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began dropping practice depth charges on the submarine

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in order to force it to the surface.

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This is a special report from CBS news.

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At its beginning, this day looked as though it might be one of armed conflict

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between Soviet vessels and American warships on the sea lanes leading to Cuba.

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But there has been no confrontation as far as we know

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and some hope has been generated by suggestions of negotiation.

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(Narrator) According to military protocol,

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the Soviet commanders had previous permission to launch missiles

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if all three commanders reach consensus.

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Two said yes.

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One said no.

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An argument broke out among the three in which only Vasili Arkhipov

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was against the launch.

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Thomas Blanton, a director of the national security archive

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would later remark: "a guy called Vasili Arkhipov saved the world".

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Arthur Schlesinger was in the government and called it

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the most dangerous moment in human history.

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There was actually a moment there

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when one Russian submarine commander

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prevented what could have been a nuclear war.

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They were attacked by U.S. destroyers [with] depth charges.

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The commanders of the submarines, who had authority to fire

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nuclear missiles, the same is true of U.S. systems,

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they thought a war had started.

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There were three commanders,

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two of them decided to send off the missiles.

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The third, Vasili Arkhipov,

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who should get 20 Nobel peace prizes,

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rejected the order.

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They had to have all three agreeing, so they didn't fire them.

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If they had fired nuclear tipped missiles

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the U.S reaction (we know from the internal plans) was...

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They do something like that: "We take out Moscow

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they take out London" and it goes on from that, you should read

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the studies, we know what they were. It came that close!

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27 years later...

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(Narrator) For most of the 20th century

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the philosophy of communism served as a justification

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for the imperial ambitions of the West.

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Yet, the fall of the Soviet Union wasn't even predicted by the CIA itself.

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The collapse was caused by numerous factors.

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In the West, analysts often point to a corrupt bureaucracy,

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the desire for more consumer goods, lack of civil liberties

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and the weakening of the old guard.

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Perhaps the greatest factor

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was the Soviet Union's own internal contradictions.

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Mikhail Gorbachev cited Chernobyl as the primary determinant.

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"The nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl", Gorbachev stated,

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"even more than my launch of perestroika was perhaps the real cause

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of the collapse of the Soviet Union 5 years later."

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Gorbachev believes that the West has radically mischaracterized

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the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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In a 2012 article, he suggested that the end of the Cold War

tzmofficial 23:22
23:27

should not be equated with the collapse of the Russian economy.

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23:32

While the former was enacted with the goal of preventing nuclear war

tzmofficial 23:32
23:37

and decentralizing power, the latter actually occurred 2 years later

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23:41

when Russian president Boris Yeltsin and the leaders of the Ukraine

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23:45

and Belorussia staged a violent coup d'état.

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23:50

20 million Russians were thrown into poverty.

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23:55

Internationally, the result was "a winner's complex

tzmofficial 23:55
23:57

among the American political elite

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24:00

in a less stable, more dangerous world."

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24:03

70's, roughly 10,000 days

tzmofficial 24:03
24:06

not including Vietnam, ongoing conflicts.

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24:09

We're focusing on crisis response with some level of combat,

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24:12

so not humanitarian assistance, disaster relief.

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24:18

80's: rough doubling, spiking and inter-state war across the system

tzmofficial 24:18
24:21

according to the great data from University of Maryland.

tzmofficial 24:21
24:26

Soviets go away; demand for our services increase 4 to 5-fold.

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24:31

How do we deal with that spike? In a variety of ways. We outsource the contractors:

tzmofficial 24:31
24:33

all the Brown and Roots.

tzmofficial 24:33
24:37

We created a new category: military operations other than war,

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24:39

and frankly, we simply denied it.

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24:44

Our denial was dubbed the Powell doctrine

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24:50

which said we don't go into any situation unless we have a clear exit strategy,

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24:53

meaning as soon as the guns stop shooting

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24:56

we're out of there as quickly as possible.

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25:03

I'm going to draw a line here. Everything below it: basically cats and dogs.

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25:07

You're going to do this every decade no matter what,

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25:12

like our every decade intervention in Haiti.

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25:20

Contrary to what is sometimes asserted, the Soviet Union was not destroyed by any foreign power

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25:23

but as a result of internal developments. - Mikhail Gorbachev

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25:26

(Narrator) In the West, there's a widespread belief

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25:28

that the Soviet Union's collapse was caused

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25:32

by increased military spending by Ronald Reagan.

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25:35

But was this truly a significant factor?

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25:41

♫...[proud to] be an American, where at least I know I'm free. ♫

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25:45

♫ And I won't forget the men who died ♫

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25:47

♫ who gave that right to me. ♫

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25:50

♫ And I gladly stand up, ♫

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25:55

♫ next to you and defend her still today. ♫

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26:00

♫ 'Cause there ain't no doubt I love this land, ♫

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26:04

♫ God bless the USA. ♫

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26:13

Grenada, 1983

tzmofficial 26:16
26:20

(Narrator) President Reagan reinvigorated American militarism

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26:22

during his invasion of Grenada,

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26:27

overcoming what policy analysts described as the Vietnam syndrome:

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26:32

a widespread disgust by American citizens over imperialism and war.

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26:38

After Reagan took office,

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26:42

military spending literally skyrocketed.

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26:46

Yet insiders from both the East and West are adamant

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26:51

that not only did Reagan's actions failed to hasten the Soviet Union's collapse,

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26:53

they actually prolonged it.

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26:57

According to leading U.S. cold warrior George Kennan:

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27:01

"The general effect of Cold War extremism was to delay

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27:05

rather than hasten the great change that overtook the Soviet Union.

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27:09

(Announcer) The temperature of a nuclear fireball is 20 million degrees,

tzmofficial 27:09
27:12

as hot as the center of the Sun.

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27:16

This is the first effect: a pulse of intense heat and light.

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27:18

Across large areas of Central London,

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27:22

people and objects burst into flames, melt or char.

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27:51

(Narrator) The film is called: "Nuclear War: a Guide to Armageddon".

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27:56

Simulating a nuclear attack on London circa 1982

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28:00

it was symptomatic of growing calls for nuclear disarmament.

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28:04

(Announcer) [The cathedral's] great bronze cross;

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28:08

it vaporizes the liquid metal as it runs down the dome.

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28:11

It melts the stained glass windows

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28:15

and ignites objects inside the cathedral.

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28:19

However, the most widespread injuries are from flying glass.

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28:22

This is what flying glass can do to a pumpkin.

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28:49

Animal fats melt and burn.

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28:53

Tissues are charred to black carbon.

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28:57

This is at 4.5 miles.

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29:01

The temperature is around 1800 degrees.

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29:07

Only at the fringes of this area, here at Wimbledon,

tzmofficial 29:08
29:10

do the burns become treatable.

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29:13

At the lawn tennis ground, the heat scorches plywood.

tzmofficial 29:13
29:16

This makeup shows what it does to flesh.

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29:20

A third degree burn through the full thickness of the skin looks like this.

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29:24

All these effects have happened in the first 3 seconds

tzmofficial 29:24
29:26

of a one megaton explosion.

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29:31

Many people will be completely shielded even quite close to ground zero.

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29:35

However, up to 650,000 people will have suffered major burns

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29:39

from the fireball in these first few seconds.

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29:47

My fellow Americans, thank you for sharing your time with me tonight.

tzmofficial 29:48
29:51

Let me share with you a vision of the future which offers hope.

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29:58

(Narrator) Reagan's strategic defense initiative, popularly known as "Star wars",

tzmofficial 29:58
30:02

was only one facet of his military buildup.

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30:06

The most dangerous venture was his proposal for the stationing

tzmofficial 30:06
30:10

of new medium range missiles throughout Europe in November, 1983.

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30:15

[...] To ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire

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30:20

to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself

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30:23

from the struggle between right and wrong, and good and evil.

tzmofficial 30:24
30:28

A really dangerous thing was that the flight time of these missiles

tzmofficial 30:28
30:30

was only 6 to 8 minutes

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30:34

which allowed the Americans to inflict a sudden nuclear strike

tzmofficial 30:34
30:36

and decapitate the Soviet Union.

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30:40

That is, to destroy the leadership inside the Kremlin,

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30:43

where launching a counterstrike would have been almost impossible.

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30:48

In the middle of 1982, I had a private discussion with General Kryuchkov.

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30:51

Kryuchkov was very concerned by an imminent nuclear strike

tzmofficial 30:51
30:53

of NATO against the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 30:54
30:56

He even talked about the start of a third world war.

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30:59

(Narrator) The logic is simple:

tzmofficial 30:59
31:02

in the insulated world of the Soviet leadership,

tzmofficial 31:02
31:06

Reagan bellicose rhetoric and military threats

tzmofficial 31:06
31:09

did not have a softening effect.

tzmofficial 31:09
31:13

Rather, such tactics actually strengthened hard-liners.

tzmofficial 31:14
31:19

"The Gipper" (Reagan) is now widely perceived as the man who ended the Cold War.

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31:22

In fact, he nearly ended the world as we know it.

tzmofficial 31:38
31:42

On the evening of September 29, 1983

tzmofficial 31:42
31:46

a computer malfunction at a nuclear warning facility near Moscow

tzmofficial 31:46
31:50

falsely indicated a nuclear attack by the United States.

tzmofficial 31:50
31:54

The probability indicator was at level number 1,

tzmofficial 31:54
31:56

the highest possible.

tzmofficial 31:57
32:00

Manning the station was Stanislav Petrov.

tzmofficial 32:11
32:13

[Alarm bell] Start Alert

tzmofficial 32:18
32:23

(Narrator) Petrov did not have the ability to launch a retaliatory strike.

tzmofficial 32:23
32:27

However, were he to pass on the information to the top command,

tzmofficial 32:27
32:30

they would have only had a few minutes to decide

tzmofficial 32:30
32:32

whether to launch a counter attack,

tzmofficial 32:33
32:35

noting that under Ronald Reagan

tzmofficial 32:35
32:39

U.S.-Russia relations could not possibly have been worse.

tzmofficial 32:39
32:42

Petrov broke military protocol and waited.

tzmofficial 32:53
32:57

Petrov concluded that the warning was a false alarm.

tzmofficial 32:57
33:01

He was right ; it was caused by a realignment of sunlight

tzmofficial 33:01
33:04

on high altitude clouds and satellites.

tzmofficial 33:04
33:08

(Petrov) My cosy armchair felt like a red-hot frying pan.

tzmofficial 33:09
33:11

One of my legs went limp.

tzmofficial 33:11
33:13

I felt like I couldn't even stand up

tzmofficial 33:13
33:17

that's how nervous I was when I was taking this decision.

tzmofficial 33:17
33:20

Petrov stuck to his decision, broke Soviet military rules

tzmofficial 33:21
33:24

by not telling his superiors and was proved right:

tzmofficial 33:24
33:26

there were no missiles.

tzmofficial 33:26
33:29

Petrov broke military doctrine, but possibly saved the world.

tzmofficial 33:30
33:32

He has since been given an award by the Association

tzmofficial 33:32
33:35

of World Citizens and honored by the U.N.

tzmofficial 33:35
33:38

He says he's not a hero and was just doing his job.

tzmofficial 33:39
33:41

Stanislav now lives a quiet life

tzmofficial 33:41
33:43

in this block of flats northeast of Moscow.

tzmofficial 33:44
33:47

But although he says what happened that night in 1983

tzmofficial 33:47
33:49

is just a footnote, it may turn out to be

tzmofficial 33:49
33:52

the most important footnote of Cold War history.

tzmofficial 33:55
33:58

(Narrator) Brice Blair, a Cold War nuclear strategist

tzmofficial 33:58
34:01

later stated that the top Soviet leadership

tzmofficial 34:02
34:04

given only a couple of minutes to decide

tzmofficial 34:04
34:06

and told that an attack had been launched

tzmofficial 34:06
34:10

would have made a decision to retaliate.

tzmofficial 34:21
34:25

The Soviets weren't the only ones having computer glitches.

tzmofficial 34:26
34:30

A few years earlier, in November 1979,

tzmofficial 34:30
34:34

NORAD saw on-screen indications of a full scale Soviet attack

tzmofficial 34:35
34:39

leading to emergency retaliation preparations.

tzmofficial 34:39
34:42

Fail-safe measures prevented catastrophe

tzmofficial 34:42
34:46

but a Senator who was inside the NORAD facility at the time

tzmofficial 34:46
34:49

recalled an atmosphere of absolute panic.

tzmofficial 34:51
34:55

In 1983, the crisis reached its peak

tzmofficial 34:56
34:59

with the Soviet leadership convinced that the American administration

tzmofficial 34:59
35:04

was dangerously unhinged, their worst fears appeared to be realized

tzmofficial 35:04
35:07

when NATO began a massive war exercise.

tzmofficial 35:07
35:11

The scenario: an all out nuclear attack

tzmofficial 35:11
35:13

on the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 35:20
35:23

It was code named: "Able Archer".

tzmofficial 35:23
35:27

When the Third Reich invaded Russia during World War II

tzmofficial 35:27
35:30

they did so under the guise of a war game.

tzmofficial 35:31
35:35

Soviet hard-liners were convinced that history was about to repeat itself.

tzmofficial 35:42
35:45

In the run-up to the exercise,

tzmofficial 35:45
35:50

the Soviets secretly mobilized all key components of their military forces.

tzmofficial 35:51
35:55

One mistake by either side and holocaust would have resulted.

tzmofficial 36:23
36:28

Miraculously, Able Archer and related incidents passed without conflict.

tzmofficial 36:30
36:32

In the late 1980s,

tzmofficial 36:32
36:37

Mikhail Gorbachev began his policies of perestroika and glasnost.

tzmofficial 36:37
36:41

Gorbachev proposed cutting offensive strategic arms in half,

tzmofficial 36:41
36:44

jointly safeguarding the environment,

tzmofficial 36:44
36:47

banning weapons in outer space,

tzmofficial 36:47
36:50

ending exploitation of the third world

tzmofficial 36:50
36:52

and canceling third world debt payments.

tzmofficial 36:54
36:58

Elites in the United States had something different in mind.

tzmofficial 36:59
37:05

In 1989, the Berlin wall fell, the Soviet Union collapsed.

tzmofficial 37:05
37:09

Anybody who believed the propaganda over the last 50 years

tzmofficial 37:09
37:12

would have said NATO would be disbanded.

tzmofficial 37:12
37:16

In fact, there was a promise to Gorbachev.

tzmofficial 37:17
37:21

George Bush number 1, who was president at the time,

tzmofficial 37:21
37:24

made sure that the promise was never in writing.

tzmofficial 37:24
37:27

It was a verbal agreement. This has been well studied.

tzmofficial 37:27
37:31

It was a verbal agreement which Gorbachev naively took seriously

tzmofficial 37:31
37:33

and not realizing who he was dealing with.

tzmofficial 37:34
37:36

It was a verbal agreement

tzmofficial 37:36
37:41

that if Gorbachev permitted Germany to be reunified

tzmofficial 37:41
37:45

and incorporated within NATO, which was quite a concession,

tzmofficial 37:45
37:48

then NATO would guarantee

tzmofficial 37:49
37:54

that they wouldn't extend "one inch to the East", that was the phrase that was used.

tzmofficial 37:54
37:57

They wouldn't go to East Germany and certainly not beyond.

tzmofficial 37:57
38:01

But Bush was careful not to put in writing

tzmofficial 38:02
38:05

so that promise went out the window very quickly.

tzmofficial 38:06
38:09

In fact, Clinton quickly expanded it to the East and so on.

tzmofficial 38:09
38:12

But why wasn't NATO disbanded?

tzmofficial 38:12
38:14

There's no Russia to defend yourself against.

tzmofficial 38:15
38:17

But there's still a reason: you have to make sure

tzmofficial 38:17
38:20

that Europe doesn't go off in an independent course.

tzmofficial 38:22
38:26

NATO prevents that and keeps it under U.S. command.

tzmofficial 38:26
38:30

In fact, NATO was expanded after the Russians disappeared.

tzmofficial 38:30
38:34

Not only was it expanded to the East, it was expanded to the world.

tzmofficial 38:34
38:39

NATO has been turned into a U.S. run global intervention force:

tzmofficial 38:40
38:44

in the Balkans, in Afghanistan and in fact beyond.

tzmofficial 38:45
38:48

The current NATO mission, officially,

tzmofficial 38:48
38:53

is to protect oil resources, energy resources, pipelines and sea lanes ;

tzmofficial 38:54
38:56

that is, to protect the global energy system.

tzmofficial 38:56
38:59

Protect means "make sure we run it".

tzmofficial 38:59
39:01

(Reporter) March 1999.

tzmofficial 39:01
39:05

The US and its NATO allies bomb Yugoslavia.

tzmofficial 39:05
39:09

Armed forces joined our NATO allies in air strikes against Serbian forces

tzmofficial 39:09
39:11

responsible for the brutality in Kosovo.

tzmofficial 39:12
39:14

March 2011.

tzmofficial 39:14
39:18

America's next president and the new coalition of the willing attack Libya.

tzmofficial 39:19
39:21

The U.N. security council passed a strong resolution

tzmofficial 39:21
39:25

that demands an end to the violence against citizens.

tzmofficial 39:26
39:28

It authorizes the use of force...

tzmofficial 39:28
39:31

The attacks on Libya were sanctioned by the U.N. security council

tzmofficial 39:32
39:34

in contrast to the bombings of Yugoslavia.

tzmofficial 39:34
39:38

There was no such green light in 1999 and the bombings were led by NATO,

tzmofficial 39:38
39:42

the first time the military alliance attacked a sovereign nation.

tzmofficial 39:42
39:45

and non NATO member, posing no threat to the group.

tzmofficial 39:45
39:48

Similarly, Libya poses no external threat

tzmofficial 39:48
39:52

and there are other parallels between the conduct of these wars.

tzmofficial 39:52
39:56

The enemy then, Slobodan Milošević, dubbed 'the new Hitler'.

tzmofficial 39:56
39:59

The enemy of today: the eccentric Muammar Gaddafi

tzmofficial 39:59
40:04

in power for over 40 years, now similarly villainized by the U.S.

tzmofficial 40:04
40:09

(Obama) Colonel Gaddafi needs to step down from power and leave.

tzmofficial 40:09
40:12

(Reporter) The goal now and back then: getting rid of a leader

tzmofficial 40:12
40:17

no longer favored by the West, taking sides with a questionable opposition

tzmofficial 40:17
40:19

in what started as a civil war.

tzmofficial 40:19
40:21

(R. Rozoff) What we're seeing is a full-fledged war,

tzmofficial 40:21
40:25

including attempting evidently to kill the head of state

tzmofficial 40:25
40:29

of the targeted country and other leaders of the government.

tzmofficial 40:29
40:33

That, again, is a page from the Yugoslav book of 12 years ago.

tzmofficial 40:33
40:35

What does the world learn? Evidently, not much.

tzmofficial 40:36
40:38

(Reporter) The official reason for Western involvement:

tzmofficial 40:38
40:44

a so-called humanitarian mission, a term coined amid the bombings of 1999.

tzmofficial 40:44
40:46

(M. Chossudovsky) You can bomb a country

tzmofficial 40:47
40:49

because you're coming to save its people.

tzmofficial 40:49
40:54

Essentially, that was the rationale behind the war in Yugoslavia.

tzmofficial 40:55
40:58

(Reporter) A rationale still relied upon, but widely questioned.

tzmofficial 40:58
41:02

(MC) You do not come to the rescue of civilians

tzmofficial 41:02
41:05

with bombs and missiles, OK?

tzmofficial 41:05
41:08

Bombs and missiles are part of a killing machine

tzmofficial 41:08
41:11

and they inevitably will kill civilians.

tzmofficial 41:12
41:16

(Reporter) The engine of that machine bought then and now a no-fly zone

tzmofficial 41:16
41:20

fueled in Libya by the additional "all necessary measures"

tzmofficial 41:20
41:22

where the line between an enemy in a foreign land

tzmofficial 41:22
41:25

and its civilians often gets blurred;

tzmofficial 41:25
41:28

it did in Yugoslavia, with thousands of people killed

tzmofficial 41:29
41:30

and close to one million displaced.

tzmofficial 41:31
41:34

(S. Flounders) After the war, when they did a count, they found that

tzmofficial 41:34
41:38

U.S./NATO bombs had destroyed 14 tanks in Serbia.

tzmofficial 41:40
41:45

But they had also bombed 437 schools.

tzmofficial 41:45
41:48

(Reporter) A similar scenario is now predicted in Libya.

tzmofficial 41:48
41:51

Now we're seeing the involvement of NATO first in Libya

tzmofficial 41:51
41:53

and perhaps elsewhere in Africa.

tzmofficial 41:53
41:57

You see at the same time in parallel to a rising NATO role,

tzmofficial 41:57
42:01

you see the role of AFRICOM, the U.S. Africa command

tzmofficial 42:01
42:03

which at least at the beginning of the NATO engagement

tzmofficial 42:03
42:06

was in command of U.S. forces in NATO.

tzmofficial 42:07
42:11

Despite efforts to claim that AFRICOM is really about

tzmofficial 42:11
42:14

healthcare, AIDS education and women's rights

tzmofficial 42:15
42:17

to be carried out by the U.S. military,

tzmofficial 42:18
42:23

we have a very serious reality that Africa now provides more oil

tzmofficial 42:23
42:25

to the United States than the entire Middle East.

tzmofficial 42:25
42:29

So, the notion that this is somehow a humanitarian goal

tzmofficial 42:29
42:33

which just coincidentally is going to be carried out by the U.S. military

tzmofficial 42:33
42:37

in the name of Africa command simply boggles the imagination.

tzmofficial 42:37
42:41

This is the expansion of U.S. military control of Africa.

tzmofficial 42:41
42:46

If we look at NATO as a whole and who are the powerful military forces within NATO,

tzmofficial 42:46
42:49

these are the former colonial powers in Africa;

tzmofficial 42:49
42:51

I think this is something

tzmofficial 42:51
42:54

that the African Union is going to be very much on guard against

tzmofficial 42:54
42:57

and I think people across Africa are going to be seeing it that way.

tzmofficial 42:57
43:00

The Air Force and the army all send troops

tzmofficial 43:00
43:03

to say, Somalia, for a hundred days each;

tzmofficial 43:03
43:07

I'm going to call that 4x100 = 400

tzmofficial 43:07
43:12

cumulative combined crisis response days from the services,

tzmofficial 43:12
43:15

billable hours, which I think is the best measure.

tzmofficial 43:15
43:18

This is your expeditionary theater for the 21st century.

tzmofficial 43:18
43:21

It's not going away.

tzmofficial 43:23
43:27

You can vote Bush-Cheney out of office, it'll still be there.

tzmofficial 43:28
43:31

President after president, administration after administration,

tzmofficial 43:32
43:35

republican and democrat are going to have to deal with this.

tzmofficial 43:36
43:40

One of the first things we discover in this global war on terrorism,

tzmofficial 43:40
43:43

we got a lot of different cooks work in this broth.

tzmofficial 43:43
43:48

Southern command, European command, Central command, Pacific command,

tzmofficial 43:49
43:52

basically precinct captains,

tzmofficial 43:52
43:55

in what's logically described as an undercover war.

tzmofficial 43:55
43:59

We are seeing a redefinition of strategic command as a global strike force.

tzmofficial 43:59
44:02

The beginnings of a matrix organization. War fighting is going to migrate

tzmofficial 44:02
44:07

in the direction of these 2 commands previously considered just supporting,

tzmofficial 44:07
44:09

now leads in their own right.

tzmofficial 44:09
44:14

In fact, the whole Cold War became very greatly clarified

tzmofficial 44:14
44:17

in 1989 and 1990.

tzmofficial 44:18
44:21

Interesting that it's not studied, but if you want to understand the Cold War,

tzmofficial 44:21
44:26

that's the first place you'd look: what happened when Russia disappeared?

tzmofficial 44:26
44:29

OK? The Soviet Union disappeared, no Russian threat.

tzmofficial 44:31
44:33

Bush, immediately, in 1990,

tzmofficial 44:34
44:38

had a new national security strategy right after the fall of the Berlin wall

tzmofficial 44:38
44:40

and it was very interesting.

tzmofficial 44:40
44:44

It said "Nothing is going to change, except pretexts".

tzmofficial 44:44
44:48

It said "We have to keep a massive military force"

tzmofficial 44:48
44:52

just like before, but now it's not to protect ourselves from the Russians.

tzmofficial 44:52
44:57

It's because of the level of technological sophistication of the third world.

tzmofficial 44:57
45:01

That's why we need a military force the size of the rest of the world combined.

tzmofficial 45:01
45:04

People didn't laugh. In fact, it wasn't even reported.

tzmofficial 45:04
45:08

It said: "We have to keep the defense industrial base."

tzmofficial 45:08
45:12

What's that? The defense industrial base is high tech industry.

tzmofficial 45:13
45:18

A lot of it developed within the state system

tzmofficial 45:18
45:21

and under a Pentagon cover, under pretext of defense.

tzmofficial 45:21
45:24

It's called the defense industrial base.

tzmofficial 45:24
45:27

That's computers, the internet,

tzmofficial 45:27
45:32

the IT revolution, in fact the whole electronics-based high tech economy.

tzmofficial 45:32
45:37

You have to maintain that. People can talk about free markets

tzmofficial 45:37
45:40

or economics if they like, but we're in the real world.

tzmofficial 45:40
45:43

It's a state based... The dynamic center

tzmofficial 45:43
45:46

of research and development is going to be in the state sector.

tzmofficial 45:46
45:49

The most interesting part was about the Middle East.

tzmofficial 45:49
45:52

It said: "We have to maintain intervention forces

tzmofficial 45:52
45:55

directed at the Middle East energy system."

tzmofficial 45:55
45:57

And then came an interesting phrase:

tzmofficial 45:57
46:02

"Where the threats to our interests that required military intervention

tzmofficial 46:02
46:05

could not be laid at the Kremlin's door."

tzmofficial 46:05
46:11

In short: "We've been lying to you for 50 years.

tzmofficial 46:11
46:13

The threats were not at the Kremlin's door."

tzmofficial 46:13
46:16

They were radical, but they were called radical nationalism,

tzmofficial 46:16
46:20

independent nationalism. Now we're back to the mafia doctrine.

tzmofficial 46:20
46:24

All our initiatives - the reforms

tzmofficial 46:25
46:28

more democracy and more say to the workers councils:

tzmofficial 46:28
46:33

this is the only way forward.

tzmofficial 46:33
46:35

Only this can give you real power.

tzmofficial 46:37
46:40

(Narrator) Gorbachev had envisioned for post-Soviet Russia

tzmofficial 46:40
46:44

a social democracy similar to the Scandinavian nations.

tzmofficial 46:44
46:49

Instead, the West insisted on savage free market reforms.

tzmofficial 46:50
46:53

They amounted to a mass pillaging of Russian resources

tzmofficial 46:53
46:58

with some industries being sold for as low as 2% of their actual value.

tzmofficial 46:59
47:04

The Russian parliament disapproved of the measures by a rate of 10 to 1.

tzmofficial 47:05
47:07

After a coup and counter coup,

tzmofficial 47:07
47:10

Boris Yeltsin bombed his own parliament.

tzmofficial 47:47
47:50

We feel that Boris Yeltsin

tzmofficial 47:51
47:54

is the best hope for democracy in Russia.

tzmofficial 48:00
48:03

(Narrator) In the year after the fall of the Soviet Union,

tzmofficial 48:03
48:06

a third of all Russians fell below the poverty line.

tzmofficial 48:07
48:12

In a further 8 years, the poverty rate increased by another 72 million.

tzmofficial 48:19
48:22

Such patterns have been emulated throughout the former bloc.

tzmofficial 48:23
48:28

I worked at the U.S. information agency from 1992 to 1994,

tzmofficial 48:28
48:32

so it was on the heels of the end of the Cold War.

tzmofficial 48:32
48:35

But what really struck me

tzmofficial 48:35
48:39

was that we were merging democracy with free market.

tzmofficial 48:39
48:43

I would listen to these speeches made by Clinton

tzmofficial 48:44
48:48

and others who were high up in the Clinton administration and I thought

tzmofficial 48:48
48:51

why is it, instead of talking about the economy

tzmofficial 48:51
48:54

and pushing business interests, because I knew internally

tzmofficial 48:54
48:57

that's what we were being asked to do, even through

tzmofficial 48:57
49:01

Fulbright exchanges or art exchanges.

tzmofficial 49:01
49:06

It was all about promoting American commercial and business interests,

tzmofficial 49:06
49:09

but we didn't want to frame it that way

tzmofficial 49:09
49:12

to the public audience, the consuming audience,

tzmofficial 49:12
49:15

so we said: "What is it that people love more than anything?"

tzmofficial 49:16
49:18

What is a feel-good term

tzmofficial 49:18
49:23

what in a propaganda context would be called 'a glittering generality'

tzmofficial 49:24
49:27

where you don't really define it but it just makes you feel good.

tzmofficial 49:27
49:30

It makes your... You get goose bumps.

tzmofficial 49:30
49:36

It's words like democracy, liberty, freedom and equality.

tzmofficial 49:37
49:41

We use those words as substitutes

tzmofficial 49:41
49:45

for the business, the commercial interests.

tzmofficial 49:45
49:48

This corporate interest, this rise of corporate power

tzmofficial 49:48
49:53

was taking place but within this context of: "We're doing this

tzmofficial 49:53
49:57

because we want to liberate these people behind the iron curtain."

tzmofficial 49:57
50:02

They were living in darkness; they were seeking the light,

tzmofficial 50:03
50:06

the trouble was, the light in this case was:

tzmofficial 50:06
50:10

"You can now go shop at Macy's."

tzmofficial 50:10
50:14

I'll never forget the end

tzmofficial 50:15
50:20

of the separation between East and West Germany and the fall of the Berlin wall

tzmofficial 50:20
50:22

which was October 1989.

tzmofficial 50:22
50:26

It's been 20 some years.

tzmofficial 50:26
50:30

There were many East-Germans asked later, after that liberation

tzmofficial 50:32
50:36

whether they were still excited about this reunification of Germany

tzmofficial 50:36
50:39

and for many of them it was a little bit

tzmofficial 50:40
50:43

like the old song "Is That All There Is?"

tzmofficial 50:43
50:45

because after they walked the KaDeWe,

tzmofficial 50:45
50:49

the great commercial avenue in West Berlin

tzmofficial 50:49
50:54

they thought: "So this is what they meant by liberty, freedom and democracy?"

tzmofficial 50:54
50:58

It's about buying, it's about consuming

tzmofficial 50:58
51:04

It's not very sustainable, it's not really driven by any larger principles

tzmofficial 51:04
51:08

other than creating almost commercial automatons,

tzmofficial 51:08
51:11

people who just do things mindlessly,

tzmofficial 51:11
51:14

impulse buy... And I think it was a letdown;

tzmofficial 51:14
51:18

not that these people in East Germany wanted to live under

tzmofficial 51:18
51:21

the East-German regime. I'm not trying to play up

tzmofficial 51:21
51:24

these regimes or even the Soviet Union,

tzmofficial 51:24
51:26

but we have to think about

tzmofficial 51:26
51:29

what were we projecting in the Cold War

tzmofficial 51:29
51:32

versus what was the reality.

tzmofficial 51:32
51:35

The reality was that the Cold War

tzmofficial 51:36
51:39

and going against this enemy, the big bear of the Soviet Union,

tzmofficial 51:42
51:47

that was the bitter pill, and the sugar coating

tzmofficial 51:47
51:51

was this commercial part of it, the consumerism.

tzmofficial 51:51
51:54

Ultimately, many looking back would say

tzmofficial 51:55
51:58

in the end, people were seeking freedom;

tzmofficial 51:58
52:00

what they found was the marketplace.

tzmofficial 52:00
52:04

♫ Is that all there is? ♫

tzmofficial 52:05
52:08

♫ Is that all there is? ♫

tzmofficial 52:09
52:13

♫ If that's all there is my friends ♫

tzmofficial 52:14
52:18

♫ then let's keep dancing ♫

tzmofficial 52:18
52:22

♫ Let's break out the booze ♫

tzmofficial 52:22
52:26

♫ and have a ball ♫

tzmofficial 52:28
52:34

♫ If that's all there is ♫

tzmofficial 52:58
53:00

Will you shut the fuck up!

tzmofficial 53:14
53:16

Vast new opportunities for the Russian mafia.

tzmofficial 53:17
53:20

According to an estimate by the Kremlin, the underworld now controls

tzmofficial 53:20
53:23

as much as 40% of the nation's economy.

tzmofficial 53:23
53:28

(Narrator) In 2009, 20 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union,

tzmofficial 53:28
53:33

The Pew Charitable Trusts conducted a poll of Eastern Europeans.

tzmofficial 53:34
53:38

It revealed a deep ambivalence about the transition from communism

tzmofficial 53:38
53:40

to free market capitalism.

tzmofficial 53:41
53:45

The poll notes that in many nations, majorities or pluralities

tzmofficial 53:46
53:50

say that most people were actually better off under communism.

tzmofficial 53:52
53:56

The figure is lowest in East Germany and highest in Hungary

tzmofficial 53:56
53:59

where fully 72% of the population

tzmofficial 53:59
54:02

preferred the communist model.

tzmofficial 54:09
54:11

In Eastern Europe as a whole,

tzmofficial 54:11
54:15

only one third believes their country is run for the benefit of all people.

tzmofficial 54:16
54:19

Only one quarter believes that most elected officials

tzmofficial 54:19
54:21

care about what ordinary people think

tzmofficial 54:21
54:26

and only one in three is satisfied with capitalist democracy.

tzmofficial 54:27
54:30

The poll gave participants two options:

tzmofficial 54:30
54:34

Soviet style communism or free market capitalism.

tzmofficial 54:35
54:38

A third choice was not offered.

tzmofficial 54:39
54:41

Postscript

tzmofficial 54:43
54:46

If you improve schooling, if you improve healthcare

tzmofficial 54:46
54:52

if you improve education, if you improve living conditions of people

tzmofficial 54:52
54:54

they become stronger and more confident,

tzmofficial 54:54
54:56

they become insulated against fear

tzmofficial 54:57
55:00

and they're able to demand still more. That's the reason it doesn't happen.

tzmofficial 55:01
55:04

It's not that the people at the top are sadists.

tzmofficial 55:04
55:10

The people at the top don't get pleasure from making others suffer.

tzmofficial 55:10
55:14

But they do guard against others getting strong,

tzmofficial 55:14
55:18

others taking away their wealth, taking away their power

tzmofficial 55:18
55:22

others rising up. It turns out to be pretty similar.

tzmofficial 55:22
55:25

If you're going to prevent people from rising, you have to fragment them.

tzmofficial 55:25
55:30

You have to keep them weak, afraid and relatively uneducated.

tzmofficial 55:30
55:34

So you wind up with policies and programs which have that effect.

tzmofficial 55:34
55:38

When the economy needs to be stimulated, a good meaning [person],

tzmofficial 55:38
55:43

somebody who was truly representing the interests of the population

tzmofficial 55:43
55:46

or simply had a good heart, however you want to look at it

tzmofficial 55:49
55:55

would spend, the government would engage with the economy

tzmofficial 55:55
56:01

to make it come back to life, to make it engage and interact, but we'd do it

tzmofficial 56:01
56:05

by fostering programs and activities that would benefit those below.

tzmofficial 56:05
56:09

To the extend that you want to save government funds?

tzmofficial 56:10
56:13

Fine! Cut the defense budget in half.

tzmofficial 56:13
56:16

Cut it by 80%. No loss.

tzmofficial 56:16
56:18

What's the problem with that?

tzmofficial 56:18
56:22

Well, what about the people in the army who would lose their jobs?

tzmofficial 56:22
56:24

No problem! Let's have them build housing.

tzmofficial 56:24
56:27

Let's take the military bases, and keep funding them

tzmofficial 56:28
56:30

but now we fund them to build low cost housing,

tzmofficial 56:30
56:33

to build schools, to build roads

tzmofficial 56:33
56:37

to protect people from environmental decay, etc.

tzmofficial 56:38
56:41

Just think for a minute: the tsunami hits in Indonesia,

tzmofficial 56:41
56:44

Thailand and all over the place. The U.S. army could have done something great.

tzmofficial 56:44
56:48

It could have dropped food to all those people. Easily, right? No.

tzmofficial 56:49
56:53

We don't do that. We just sit and wait for the opportunity to bomb them.

tzmofficial 56:53
56:57

So it's not as if you can't think of ways

tzmofficial 56:57
57:00

to not have great disruption

tzmofficial 57:00
57:03

even though you're reducing military expenditure.

tzmofficial 57:03
57:05

You just transfer the military expenditure

tzmofficial 57:06
57:11

to uses that will better people's lives, including the soldier's.

tzmofficial 57:11
57:13

Would the soldiers get angry? You tell me!

tzmofficial 57:13
57:16

Take a massive military base that's located in Texas

tzmofficial 57:16
57:20

or right here on the Cape. What's it called?

tzmofficial 57:21
57:24

Or in various other places in the country.

tzmofficial 57:25
57:28

Imagine that we hold a little vote

tzmofficial 57:28
57:30

among the G.I.'s, here's the vote:

tzmofficial 57:30
57:33

we can continue to be a military base

tzmofficial 57:33
57:36

whose existence is basically a waste of time

tzmofficial 57:36
57:39

in which none of us are doing anything except running in circles,

tzmofficial 57:40
57:42

following orders, making believe, etc.

tzmofficial 57:43
57:46

on the off chance that there's going to be

tzmofficial 57:46
57:49

some war someplace that we can then go, die and kill in

tzmofficial 57:49
57:52

or we can change our base.

tzmofficial 57:52
57:54

We're going to produce low-income housing.

tzmofficial 57:54
57:57

The first recipients will be ourselves.

tzmofficial 57:57
58:00

That is, we'll produce low income houses, nice houses;

tzmofficial 58:00
58:03

by low income I mean the cost will be low, not the quality.

tzmofficial 58:04
58:08

High quality houses. Who will get the first ones? We will.

tzmofficial 58:08
58:11

We'll get to live in them and then we'll produce them for the community;

tzmofficial 58:11
58:14

the community will get to live in them. We'll also produce roads.

tzmofficial 58:14
58:18

We'll pay other bridges, etc. Which one would you rather do?

tzmofficial 58:18
58:22

Which would you rather do with the next 5 or 10 years of your life?

tzmofficial 58:22
58:26

Not only that, we'll do it with worker self-management.

tzmofficial 58:26
58:29

You'll have a say in this. You won't be a subordinate

tzmofficial 58:29
58:33

who is bossed around by some foolish colonel who struts like a peacock.

tzmofficial 58:33
58:36

You'll have a say over your own life and making these decisions

tzmofficial 58:37
58:40

and doing this activity. Of course, everybody would opt for it.

tzmofficial 58:40
58:45

That's why you go through this horrendous military training, so that you lose

tzmofficial 58:45
58:49

your ability to realize: "Wait a minute, we could be doing things differently!"

tzmofficial 58:50
58:53

As long as nuclear weapons exist,

tzmofficial 58:53
58:57

the chances of survival of the human species are quite slight.

tzmofficial 58:57
59:01

There have been repeated occasions, over and over again,

tzmofficial 59:02
59:05

when we've come very close to nuclear war.

tzmofficial 59:05
59:08

In fact, we have declassified U.S. records...

tzmofficial 59:09
59:11

Russian systems are obviously much worse

tzmofficial 59:12
59:15

so whatever is true of us has to be worse for them.

tzmofficial 59:15
59:18

There are literally dozens of occasions

tzmofficial 59:18
59:24

where the nuclear weapons were on automated response systems;

tzmofficial 59:24
59:28

if automated systems detect something going on somewhere

tzmofficial 59:28
59:33

and the computers calculate and you get an order to fire the weapons.

tzmofficial 59:33
59:35

There are literally dozens of cases

tzmofficial 59:35
59:38

where it came up to within a couple of minutes

tzmofficial 59:39
59:43

of sending off nuclear missiles that was aborted by human intervention.

tzmofficial 59:44
59:48

OK, that's the U.S. side. The Russian side, undoubtedly, is a lot worse

tzmofficial 59:48
59:51

because their systems are no good, etc.

tzmofficial 59:52
59:54

That's just playing with fire!

tzmofficial 59:59
1:00:02

(Announcer) The bombardier watches over controls

tzmofficial 1:00:02
1:00:04

as safe as human ingenuity can make them

tzmofficial 1:00:04
1:00:07

to prevent accidental bomb release.

tzmofficial 1:00:07
1:00:11

But nuclear weapons have been dropped inadvertently.

tzmofficial 1:00:13
1:00:16

A report by the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation

tzmofficial 1:00:16
1:00:21

lists over 20 "close calls" involving a potential nuclear exchange

tzmofficial 1:00:21
1:00:23

during the Cold War.

tzmofficial 1:00:27
1:00:31

In 1998, a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine

tzmofficial 1:00:31
1:00:34

suggested that the risk of accidental nuclear war

tzmofficial 1:00:34
1:00:37

had increased since the fall of the Soviet Union.

tzmofficial 1:00:38
1:00:44

Globally there are now over 23,000 nuclear warheads.

tzmofficial 1:00:44
1:00:48

The United States and Russia possess the vast majority of the total.

tzmofficial 1:00:48
1:00:53

China, Israel, France and the U.K. also possess huge arsenals.

tzmofficial 1:00:56
1:01:00

In 1963, the U.S. began testing the "Neutron Bomb".

tzmofficial 1:01:00
1:01:04

The weapon was explicitly designed to kill humans with radiation

tzmofficial 1:01:04
1:01:07

while preserving property.

tzmofficial 1:01:13
1:01:18

In January 2001, a congressionally mandated space commission headed by Donald Rumsfeld

tzmofficial 1:01:18
1:01:23

recommended the U.S. government "vigorously pursue" weapons in outer space.

tzmofficial 1:01:27
1:01:29

(Reporter) To meet the challenge, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld

tzmofficial 1:01:29
1:01:32

is making space a top Pentagon priority,

tzmofficial 1:01:32
1:01:36

putting a 4-star general at the head of the new Air Force space command

tzmofficial 1:01:37
1:01:40

to take charge of all military space activity

tzmofficial 1:01:40
1:01:43

including any new anti-missile defense.

tzmofficial 1:01:43
1:01:48

We pay careful attention to protecting, promoting our interests in space.

tzmofficial 1:01:48
1:01:51

(Reporter) Pentagon officials say it's the first step toward eventually

tzmofficial 1:01:51
1:01:53

putting weapons into space.

tzmofficial 1:01:54
1:01:57

We wouldn't really want to see in the future

tzmofficial 1:01:57
1:02:00

an Earth surrounded by an outer layer

tzmofficial 1:02:00
1:02:05

of weapons which will make mankind

tzmofficial 1:02:05
1:02:09

even more vulnerable than the situation today.

tzmofficial 1:02:10
1:02:13

In response to the U.S. push to weaponize space,

tzmofficial 1:02:13
1:02:17

Chinese ambassador Sha Zukang stated in 2005 that:

tzmofficial 1:02:17
1:02:20

"China... may be forced to review the arms control

tzmofficial 1:02:20
1:02:25

and nonproliferation policies it has adopted since the end of the Cold War."

tzmofficial 1:02:27
1:02:32

On September 17, 2002, the U.S. released its new National Security Strategy.

tzmofficial 1:02:32
1:02:36

It announced that the United States would "make no distinction

tzmofficial 1:02:36
1:02:41

between terrorists and the nations that harbor them, and that American forces

tzmofficial 1:02:41
1:02:46

would preventively attack other nations "before threats materialize".

tzmofficial 1:02:49
1:02:54

In 2002, the United States unilaterally withdrew from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

tzmofficial 1:02:55
1:03:00

in order to pursue space weaponization and a "missile defense shield" in Europe.

tzmofficial 1:03:02
1:03:07

The "missile defense shield", which the Obama administration continues to support,

tzmofficial 1:03:07
1:03:11

would "neutralize Russia's nuclear deterrence potential",

tzmofficial 1:03:11
1:03:15

according to a top-level Russian diplomat quoted in Der Spiegel.

tzmofficial 1:03:15
1:03:19

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev warned in 2011

tzmofficial 1:03:19
1:03:22

that Russian will deploy missiles against the "shield"

tzmofficial 1:03:22
1:03:26

and may opt out of the New START nuclear reductions agreement.

tzmofficial 1:03:28
1:03:32

Under the Obama administration, drone attacks against Pakistan

tzmofficial 1:03:32
1:03:37

and other nations have increased dramatically, killings thousands of people.

tzmofficial 1:03:42
1:03:45

(Obama) I want to make sure that people understand:

tzmofficial 1:03:45
1:03:49

actually, drones have not caused a huge number of civilian casualties.

tzmofficial 1:03:49
1:03:52

For the most part, they have been very precise

tzmofficial 1:03:52
1:03:56

precision strikes against al-Qaeda and their affiliates.

tzmofficial 1:04:46
1:04:48

Libya, 2011

tzmofficial 1:05:12
1:05:16

The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan reports that 957 civilians were killed inside Pakistan in 2010 alone.

tzmofficial 1:05:17
1:05:20

According to an investigation carried out by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism,

tzmofficial 1:05:20
1:05:22

50 civilians are murdered for every "militant" targeted.

tzmofficial 1:05:23
1:05:29

The military budget of the United States is 25 times ours.

tzmofficial 1:05:30
1:05:36

That signifies that their house is their fortress.

tzmofficial 1:05:37
1:05:39

Clever,

tzmofficial 1:05:39
1:05:41

very clever.

tzmofficial 1:05:42
1:05:48

It means that we too must build a strong and resistant house

tzmofficial 1:05:49
1:05:51

because we can see what is going on in the world.

tzmofficial 1:05:51
1:05:53

We know what is going on.

tzmofficial 1:05:54
1:05:57

Our comrade Mr. Wolf knows who to eat!

tzmofficial 1:05:57
1:05:59

He devours other countries, heedless...

tzmofficial 1:05:59
1:06:02

He has no intention of listening to anyone.

tzmofficial 1:06:02
1:06:04

[Applause]

tzmofficial 1:06:17
1:06:22

Israel and the Unites States continue to openly threaten Iran with military aggression,

tzmofficial 1:06:22
1:06:26

while also funding covert terrorist attacks within Iranian borders.

tzmofficial 1:06:37
1:06:41

PEACE ON EARTH? MR. OBAMA: END THESE WARS!

tzmofficial 1:06:41
1:06:44

Not tomorrow. Not next year. Now! - Veterans for peace.

tzmofficial 1:06:45
1:06:50

Dmitry Rogozin, Russia's deputy prime minister and former envoy to NATO,

tzmofficial 1:06:50
1:06:55

has warned that "Any conflict on Iran is a direct threat to Russia's security".

tzmofficial 1:06:57
1:07:00

Iran supplies 15% of China's oil and natural gas,

tzmofficial 1:07:00
1:07:05

making Iranian oil more important to China than Saudi Arabia (11%) to the United States.

tzmofficial 1:07:11
1:07:15

On February 12,2012, Hezbollah warned that an attack against Iran

tzmofficial 1:07:15
1:07:18

would set the entire Middle East ablaze.

tzmofficial 1:07:21
1:07:25

There are enough nuclear weapons to destroy most life on Earth.

tzmofficial 1:07:30
1:07:36

The report U.S. military spending, fiscal years 1945-2008 by the Center for Defense information

tzmofficial 1:07:36
1:07:41

calculates that the U.S. has spent $21 trillion on "defense" since World War II.

tzmofficial 1:07:41
1:07:46

The Campaign Against Arms Trade estimates that it would cost $17 billion per year

tzmofficial 1:07:46
1:07:51

to provide adequate food, water, education, health and housing to everyone in the world.

tzmofficial 1:07:52
1:07:55

According to these figures, war is 20.5 times more expensive

tzmofficial 1:07:56
1:08:00

than lifting the entire world out of poverty, based on U.S. spending alone.

tzmofficial 1:08:00
1:08:04

(Bo Filter - "Slaying Goliath - Give David a Stone")

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1:08:11

Premium on deterrence and strike, we have to stay out there.

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1:08:14

We have to avoid what we have been doing the last 15 years

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1:08:16

which is sucking the troops back home.

tzmofficial 1:08:16
1:08:20

So are the boys coming home? No, they are never coming home.