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[MUSIC PLAYING] [MUSIC PLAYING] Anyone who has worked at sea would have heard many stories about people who entered enclosed spaces without taking precautions and died as a result. The lessons learned have been discussed in many training sessions. But accidents continue to take place. It's impossible to know what these victims were thinking before entering such spaces. But they must have considered the workplace to be safer entry. After all, it looks all right. So what could possibly go wrong inside? Before you enter an enclosed space, you must know the dangers of enclosed spaces. You must follow safe entry procedures. And you must be prepared for rescue operations should an emergency occur. This program is about the dangers of enclosed spaces. First, we will talk about different types of spaces that are found on ships. Then, we will discuss the types of hazards found in enclosed spaces. The most serious hazard is not having safe air to breathe. We will also discuss how we can detect hazards in enclosed spaces. Dangerous gases may be invisible or odorless. It is important to test the atmosphere in a correct manner. Finally, we give tips about protecting ourselves from the hazards in enclosed spaces. [MUSIC PLAYING] On board ships like this one, an enclosed space is usually defined as any compartment that is confined by bulkhead and a deckhead. It is normally cut off from the atmosphere. It has limited or restricted means of entry. And it could be occupied by solid or liquid cargoes, ballast, or machinery. A confined space is a space that not only is tight, but it's one we don't enter normally. And I think that's a big-- because there's tight places that we crawl into all the time. And I would not put those on a list of confined spaces necessarily. But ones we don't normally enter that we're going to have to take extra considerations prior to entering. It is often the responsibility of the chief engineer to make sure that enclosed space entry procedures are followed correctly. The ventilator will be on the deck. And then he will take a trunk from the ventilator all the way to the bottom of the tank. Practically speaking, any tank or enclosed compartment that has been cut off from outside fresh air for a period of time should be regarded as dangerous. Entering such spaces without taking precautions has caused many serious injuries and deaths. The dangers are rarely visible. The calm and quiet inside an enclosed space has tempted many seamen to take a shortcut and enter without following the procedures-- often with a tragic ending. [ALARM SOUND] Any space with no ventilation may be dangerous to enter. Always test the air inside. The dangers associated with enclosed spaces are not all the same. Some dangers, such as toxic fumes or lack of oxygen, are easily detectable with the proper equipment. But injuries may also be caused by lack of safety equipment, such as inadequate lighting or lack of personal protective equipment like hard hats and safety shoes. Due to frequent and easy access it is common for a crew member to overlook the possible dangers when entering spaces, such as pump rooms, paint lockers, cargo holds, and other compartments with restricted ventilation. For example, if I paint locker ventilation system fails, dangerous fumes may build up inside the closed space. Some spaces, such as chain lockers, the duct keel, or coffer dams, may be sealed for long periods of time. Also, cargo holds are sealed while the vessel is at sea. During that time the oxygen levels maybe depleted or dangerous gases created by chemical reactions taking place inside these enclosed spaces. [ALARM SOUND] Be aware of spaces that have been closed for a long time. [MUSIC PLAYING] The hazards of enclosed spaces can broadly be categorized as air hazards; engulfment hazards; slips, trips, and fall hazards. The condition of the air is the most common hazard that seamen face when entering an enclosed space. This may be due to lack of oxygen, accumulation of flammable gases and vapors, or toxic fumes. Oxygen deficiency, or lack of oxygen, can occur through rusting of steel in a freshwater or ballast water tank that has been isolated from the outside atmosphere. Some types of cargoes that can cause oxygen deficiency are forest products, like packaged lumber and logs, certain grains, iron and steel, natural fibers like jute and hemp, and oil seeds. Oxygen depletion can also occur in cargo holds, which contain cargoes prone to self-heating or spontaneous ignition, such as coal. Normal air contains 21% oxygen. Between 19.5% and 15%, your coordination may be impaired. And you cannot do strenuous work. Between 15% and 10%, it would be hard for you to breathe. And your lips would turn blue. Between 10% and 8%, you would feel nauseated or sick to your stomach. And you may even faint. If you spend eight minutes below 8%, you could go into a coma and die. In 2001, a welder entered the hull of a barge in British Columbia and became unconscious in the oxygen deficient atmosphere. Four other workers entered the hull to rescue the worker. All four rescuers also became unconscious. The welder died. And the other workers barely survived. [ALARM SOUND] Do not enter any space with less than 21% oxygen or a level as required by national administrations without proper safety equipment, such as a self-contained breathing apparatus. Flammable gases are another air hazard in enclosed spaces. Application of paint inside an enclosed space traps the vapors from thinners and solvents. Paint lockers, where open paint cans and thinners are stored, can build up vapors if the ventilation gets cut off. Explosive hydrocarbon vapors and gases may be found in fuel oil tanks and pump rooms or around faulty oxyacetylene welding equipment. The hydrocarbon content should not be more than 1% lower exposure limit, or LEL, for purpose of entry. The third important air hazard is the danger of toxic fumes. One type of toxic fume that may be found on board is hydrogen sulfide in sewage, oil, and bunker tanks. Carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide can be found around welding work or enclosed cargo holds loaded with coal. For purpose of entry, there should not be more than 50% of the occupational exposure limit, or OEL, of any toxic vapors. [ALARM SOUND] Having sufficient oxygen is not enough. Always check for flammable gases and toxic fumes too. Another serious hazard associated with entering an enclosed space is the danger of accidentally being engulfed by liquids or solids in the space. This may happen when equipment associated with the space is accidentally activated. To prevent engulfment accidents, it is very important to follow proper lockout and tag out procedures. Any ballast or cargo pump that could flood a compartment must be tagged do not operate. On the other hand, forced ventilation fans supplying fresh, clean air to the compartment must be tagged do not switch off. [ALARM SOUND] Follow lockout tag out procedures for all equipment that could harm the workers in enclosed spaces. Finally, slips, trips, and falls are more serious when they occur in enclosed spaces because of the difficulty and hazards associated with rescuing an injured crew member. [MUSIC PLAYING] Testing the air inside an enclosed space should be carried out in a prescribed sequence before entering the space. Testing should be started with ventilation stopped for at least 10 minutes prior to the test. Ventilation should continue during the period that the space is occupied and during temporary breaks. Before reentry after a break, the atmosphere should be retested. In the event of failure of the ventilation system, any persons in the space should leave immediately. First, check the oxygen level with an oxygen analyzer. Next, check for the presence of flammable gases and vapors with an explosimeter. Lastly, test for toxic gases to determine their danger. Due to differing densities of gases, testing must be carried out at upper, middle, and lower levels of an enclosed space. Gases such as ammonia, hydrogen, and methane are lighter than air and tend to rise to the top of the enclosed space. Carbon monoxide and methanol can be found at all levels, while carbon dioxide, gasoline vapors, and chlorine are heavy and tend to settle down in low spots. [ALARM SOUND] Any abnormal smell should be a cause for concern and should be investigated. However, do bear in mind that some dangerous gases, such as carbon monoxide, do not have any smell. [MUSIC PLAYING] Entry into enclosed spaces must be a well-planned operation. The air inside must be well ventilated, using blowers and ducting that supply fresh air to the most remote parts of the enclosed space. The exhaust air should be discharged to the outside atmosphere and must not affect the attendant outside the enclosed space. Prior to entry, tests must confirm that the air is breathable and does not have any flammable or toxic gases. We do not rely on breathing apparatus for entry in normal work. The space has to be breathable. Beyond that, we have required safety equipment that must be readily available for extracting people if they've had a problem. Complacency is one of the biggest causes of accidents in enclosed spaces. Shortcuts, such as not following proper entry procedures, lead to accidents. No matter how many times workers have been in and out of an enclosed compartment, the proper procedures must be followed. Study the company enclosed space procedures manual. And plan the work accordingly. Use the right equipment. And make sure it's in good condition. Finally, stay alert. Now if you find someone lying motionless in an enclosed space, do not rush in to help without taking precautions. Raise the alarm. Get the rescue equipment and the rescue team together. Follow procedure. Failure to do so will only result in more casualties. [MUSIC PLAYING]

Video Details

Duration: 14 minutes and 3 seconds
Country: Andorra
Language: English
License: Dotsub - Standard License
Genre: None
Views: 7
Posted by: maritimetraining on Jan 26, 2018


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