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Leaky Gut_Final

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>> Hi, welcome back. How about we shake things up and start this lecture off a little differently? Let's test your knowledge. What's needed for an autoimmune disease in the gut to occur? Any ideas? If we break this down, there are three elements that must be present. One, a genetic predisposition. By this, I mean a gene that is ready to turn on or some type of deficiency depending on the disease or disorder. Two, exposure to an antigen. This is a toxin that causes your immune system to react. And three, the toxin or antigen must be able to pass through the gut and irritate the immune system in the mucosal lining. A strong healthy gut will prevent toxins from getting through the mucosal barrier. Remember, the lumen of your gut is part of the external world and provides a barrier between you and anything that potentially could be harmful. Everything in your gut is screened before your gut allows it to enter and the job of that lining is to be permeable, yet smart enough to identify and transport the nutrients that should be let in while protecting against toxins and pathogens that shouldn't. A genetic predisposition and environmental trigger and an entryway through the gut is the recipe for many conditions that not only affect gut health but autoimmunity, thyroid function, and just about any breakdown in the body. As you can see, it's really problematic when the system doesn't function correctly. A breakdown in either the lining of the gut or the function of that lining will expose the body to toxins or triggers. One way this could happen is through what's now being called leaky gut, a dysfunction in the permeability of the gut lining. Let me draw you a picture. Did you ever play the game Red Rover as a child? This is a game where the children hold hands in a line and a child from the other team runs across trying to break through the chain. To conceptualize the gut lining, imagine a bunch of cells lined up holding hands and playing the game of Red Rover. In most cases, the hands are held tight and no big molecules can get through. The only passage is made by small nutrients that had been broken down by the digestive system and its enzymes. But a leaky gut also allows a toxin to pass from the lumen into the mucosal lining. Leaky gut is a buzzword that's been tossed around in the alternative circles for the past decade. It's a relatively new concept because this condition is a result of our modern lifestyle and an increase in toxins, antibiotic use, and processed foods. In the past, we weren't aware that anything can cross the barrier unless there was a physical injury. Thirty years ago, a man named Jacob Fine coined the concept of leaky gut. He observed that, under this condition, the gut's normal function of protecting the body against bacterial toxins was suppressed. And two things could happen, toxin could find their way through the permeable gut lining or there was a breakdown in the natural barrier allowing bacteria to find their way into places they shouldn't enter. It's frequently debated whether leaky gut is a legitimate condition. The argument is whether macromolecules could really cross the gut lining enter the bloodstream. Whether or not these particles pass through still up for debate, but the idea is becoming increasingly accepted that toxins or food particles are entering the mucosal lining, which leads to inflammation. Inflammation in the blood can cause autoimmune responses including food allergies, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and even autism. The term leaky gut is now just starting to become more mainstream and commonplace in the discussions about GI dysfunction. More and more research is popping up around this more recent phenomenon. Leaky gut refers to the permeability of the intestinal wall which allows for large molecules, toxins, or pathogens to go where they're not supposed to go. The doctors, you work with, might refer to leaky gut as impaired intestinal barrier permeability or intestinal hyperpermeability. The intestinal barrier includes the physical barrier, the mucosal layer, and the epithelial layer in addition to the immune and neurological functions they possess. Intestinal permeability is a normal function of this barrier in healthy people. Impaired permeability occurs when a lasting change affects this function and disrupts the normal homeostasis. This is useful information because some doctors and some clients may not resonate with the idea of leaky gut but do subscribe to the idea of impaired permeability. Disruptions in the development of the gut microbiota early in life can lead to a patchier thin gut lining. Did you know that we're born with a permeable gut lining? The purpose for this is so that the mother can pass on antibodies and all her wisdom from her immune system, which is done partially via the ingestion of colostrum. Colostrum is a form of milk produced just before birth and for three to four days following birth, after which time, the mother's body returns to making normal human breast milk. Colostrum is richer than milk. It's very concentrated low volume liquid with a lower fat content and higher antibody content than normal milk. It's also a mild laxative which helps to stimulate the baby to pass its first stools, ridding itself of toxins that they may have built up over time. This is why it is recommended that babies be breastfed for the first six months. Taking a closer look at the gut lining, we can break it down into three parts. The physical barrier, which is made up of the mucosa and the epithelial lining. The chemical barrier which is home to your immune system and digestive enzymes, antimicrobials, and inflammation response. And the microbial layer, which is your gut bacteria. Microbes are essential to both the physical and chemical barrier. They secrete antibodies, which is an immune response that can protect against pathogens or bad bacteria. However, if they travel into the gut lining where they shouldn't be, they can cause problems and stimulate the immune system to react in a negative way. The immune system and the antibodies it produces are the body's second line of defense from toxins and pathogens. Food particles trigger antibodies when they pass through undigested. You'll recall that during digestion, only small digestion molecules can be absorbed. But when the gut is leaky, undigested particles can sneak by even when they haven't been fully digested. So your immune system doing its job senses this and signals the alarm. It creates antibodies for these antigens or invaders. So now the immune system is on edge and on the lookout for more of these types of foods, and even when they just touch the lining, your immune system mounts an inflammatory response. And guess what that means, more leaky gut. What may have started as a minor irritation becomes a continuous feedback loop, and foods that were once your favorites become irritating and harmful to the body. Any particle that gets into your bloodstream becomes an antigen. Your body may attempt to purge these antigens through acne or hives. This is why many clients discover that upon taking food intolerance tests that they often are intolerant to foods they eat the most. It can be upsetting for them to discover that their favorite foods are making them sick. You may be wondering when the gut is leaky, what exactly does it leak. It's believed the answer to this question is lipopolysaccharide or LPS for short. LPS is a bacterial endotoxin that's released into the bloodstream when bacteria die. This is harmless when it happens in the lumen. But when this leaks through the gut lining, it's a big problem. However, there's still a lot of research happening with this topic and while bacteria LPS has been shown to increase permeability. Once permeability is increased, the effect is compounded as in many different proteins are able to leak through. Another key question is how does the gut become leaky? In between epithelial cells or protein structures that seal up the cells called tight junctions, when tight junctions are doing their job during digestion, they stay close. Nutrients make it through the gut either by a process of diffusion through the cell or active transport, meaning they're carried through by a protein or a molecule. Tight junctions can stretch and tighten, imagine them as a piece of cheesecloth. The holes are so small that they'll filter out most things and as you pull on this cheesecloth, the holes get bigger and more can pass through. A protein called zonulin regulates the opening or loosening of these tight junctions. This is useful if something needs to exit the gut quickly, but sometimes the body releases too much zonulin and the tight junctions loosen too much. When this happens, leaky gut can occur. When the tight junctions loosen, the liver has to work harder, the immune system kicks into overdrive and the body is overloaded. This can lead to further damage the intestinal wall and inflammation, which causes even more damage. Then the microvilli in the small intestine can become damaged which leads to nutrient deficiency. As you can see, when left unchecked, this condition can turn into a downward spiral. The good news is that microvilli are highly regenerative. If given a total rest from everything that irritates them, individual microvilli can repair themselves within four to five days. Tight junctions are also believed to play a role in celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. Leaky gut is now being thought of as a precursor to Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, irritable bowel syndrome, and even asthma. Individuals with leaky gut can experience symptoms such as food intolerances, brain fog, bloating, diarrhea, and other GI symptoms, thyroid issues, skin rash, joint pain, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies due to poor absorption. How does this happen? What causes a leaky gut or an increase in zonulin? One, diet, particularly foods that produce allergens and processed foods which are known to irritate the gut lining. Two, an imbalanced microbiome, which includes yeast overgrowth. And three, our modern lifestyle, including antibiotics, and NSAIDs, environmental toxins, and stress. Let's explore each of these in further detail. So one, diet. The most powerful trigger for an increase in zonulin are gluten and gliadin, which are proteins in wheat. Some studies have found that wheat including may activate zonulin, and therefore create a leaky gut regardless of whether a person is allergic to wheat. In addition to gluten, wheat also contains wheat lectin. Lectins are defenses that plants and seeds used to protect themselves from being eaten which may be harmful to the gut. Foods that contain lectins are grains, nightshades, legumes, and dairy. Processed foods are also powerful triggers. These foods contain many additives such as emulsifiers, which are a food stabilizer that prevents foods from separating when they sit on a shelf. For example, shelf-stable almond milk often contains emulsifier carrageenan, otherwise the water and almonds would separate. Studies have shown that even small amounts of an emulsifier can disrupt the mucous membrane and microbiome inflaming the gut. So we've provided a list of emulsifiers for you and a handout called Identify Emulsifiers, so be sure to check it out after this lecture. I want to pause here for a second to remind you to be careful when it comes to making recommendations for clients to cut foods out of their diet or pointing the finger at a wrong food. This truly varies from person to person even over the span of one person's life. You'll do well to approach eliminations and recommendations as a process of trial and error, hypotheses that may help your clients start to feel better or not, and remember to make practical well-paced recommendations. If you tell a client if they eliminate a list of bad foods from their diet, they'll feel better and they don't, this will likely be very discouraging. All right, let's move on to number two, an imbalanced microbiome. An overgrowth of candida often precedes leaky gut. Candida secretes a toxin which can cause epithelial cells to shrink. This is another way the gut can become leaky. What happens here is that the immune system becomes the sole defender and eventually it wears itself out, like the first string of a sports team that can't rely on its bench for relief. Number three, modern lifestyle. As we mentioned earlier, leaky gut seems to be a new phenomenon that is perhaps caused by our modern lifestyle. Think about this, the first antibiotic penicillin did not enter the picture until 1939. So you can see why a leaky gut would be a fairly recent condition. Use of prescription antibiotics dramatically went up in the 1950s and 1960s, and we're frequently misused for illnesses that were viral in nature. NSAIDs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen have also been shown to damage the small intestine lining. They may suppress inflammation in other areas of the body but at what cost. Environmental toxins can also be triggers. These days between all of the antibacterial products we use and the range of chemicals in and around our food, and our homes, our modern lifestyle is wreaking havoc on our gut lining and altering our microbiomes. Not only is non-organic food wiped clean but the chemical pesticides on it have the same effect on our gut. Finally, stress can take its toll on leaky gut. Stress weakens the immune system which can lead to excess irritation and inflammation in the gut which in turn can cause the gut to become leaky. Stress can also slow down digestion throwing off your digestive juices and causing imbalance in your microbiome. Well, that was a lot of great information. So let's recap. Leaky gut is a condition of permeability of the intestinal wall that allows for large molecules, toxins, or pathogens to go where they're not supposed to. Offenders pass through the gut lining when the protein zonulin is overproduced, which causes tight junctions in the gut lining to loosen. Excess zonulin production is triggered by diet, and imbalance microbiome, and lifestyle factors. Whether through one of these three factors or a combination, an increase in antigens will irritate the immune system and inflammation can push tight junctions further apart creating a vicious cycle. Whether we call it leaky gut or an impaired intestinal barrier permeability, we can all agree that irritation of the gut lining has far reaching consequences. Again, this is why the root of health comes back to the gut. We encourage you to emphasize this message and the importance of diet and lifestyle to your clients. We can't control our genetics, well, at least not yet, but we can minimize the possibility of triggering those genetics and activating a condition. The microbiome can also be modulated by diet and lifestyle, areas where we can take control of our health. We hope that by the end of this course, you'll recognize the importance of gut health and understand how the gut interacts with the rest of the body. Your experience and attention to this process will help you transform your client's health and the way they think about healing. Have you ever worked with a client who had a leaky gut or perhaps you had an experience with this condition yourself? As always, share your thoughts and experiences in the Facebook group. This conversation can help all of us move forward. Thanks for tuning in. I'll see you soon.

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Duration: 15 minutes and 8 seconds
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Language: English
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Posted by: ninaz on Mar 22, 2018

Leaky Gut_Final

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