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Annotated captions of Bill Gates on energy: Innovating to zero! in English

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tedtalks 00:01
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I'm going to talk today about energy and climate.

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And that might seem a bit surprising because

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my full-time work at the Foundation is mostly about vaccines and seeds,

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about the things that we need to invent and deliver

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to help the poorest two billion live better lives.

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But energy and climate are extremely important to these people --

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in fact, more important than to anyone else on the planet.

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The climate getting worse means that many years, their crops won't grow:

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There will be too much rain, not enough rain,

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things will change in ways

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that their fragile environment simply can't support.

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And that leads to starvation, it leads to uncertainty, it leads to unrest.

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So, the climate changes will be terrible for them.

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Also, the price of energy is very important to them.

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In fact, if you could pick just one thing to lower the price of,

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to reduce poverty, by far you would pick energy.

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Now, the price of energy has come down over time.

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Really advanced civilization is based on advances in energy.

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The coal revolution fueled the Industrial Revolution,

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and, even in the 1900s we've seen a very rapid decline in the price of electricity,

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and that's why we have refrigerators, air-conditioning,

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we can make modern materials and do so many things.

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And so, we're in a wonderful situation with electricity in the rich world.

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But, as we make it cheaper -- and let's go for making it twice as cheap --

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we need to meet a new constraint,

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and that constraint has to do with CO2.

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CO2 is warming the planet,

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and the equation on CO2 is actually a very straightforward one.

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If you sum up the CO2 that gets emitted,

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that leads to a temperature increase,

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and that temperature increase leads to some very negative effects:

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the effects on the weather; perhaps worse, the indirect effects,

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in that the natural ecosystems can't adjust to these rapid changes,

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and so you get ecosystem collapses.

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Now, the exact amount of how you map

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from a certain increase of CO2 to what temperature will be

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and where the positive feedbacks are,

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there's some uncertainty there, but not very much.

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And there's certainly uncertainty about how bad those effects will be,

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but they will be extremely bad.

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I asked the top scientists on this several times:

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Do we really have to get down to near zero?

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Can't we just cut it in half or a quarter?

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And the answer is that until we get near to zero,

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the temperature will continue to rise.

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And so that's a big challenge.

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It's very different than saying "We're a twelve-foot-high truck trying to get under a ten-foot bridge,

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and we can just sort of squeeze under."

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This is something that has to get to zero.

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Now, we put out a lot of carbon dioxide every year,

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over 26 billion tons.

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For each American, it's about 20 tons;

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for people in poor countries, it's less than one ton.

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It's an average of about five tons for everyone on the planet.

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And, somehow, we have to make changes

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that will bring that down to zero.

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It's been constantly going up.

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It's only various economic changes that have even flattened it at all,

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so we have to go from rapidly rising

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to falling, and falling all the way to zero.

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This equation has four factors,

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a little bit of multiplication:

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So, you've got a thing on the left, CO2, that you want to get to zero,

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and that's going to be based on the number of people,

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the services each person's using on average,

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the energy on average for each service,

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and the CO2 being put out per unit of energy.

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So, let's look at each one of these

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and see how we can get this down to zero.

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Probably, one of these numbers is going to have to get pretty near to zero.

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Now that's back from high school algebra,

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but let's take a look.

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First, we've got population.

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The world today has 6.8 billion people.

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That's headed up to about nine billion.

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Now, if we do a really great job on new vaccines,

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health care, reproductive health services,

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we could lower that by, perhaps, 10 or 15 percent,

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but there we see an increase of about 1.3.

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The second factor is the services we use.

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This encompasses everything:

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the food we eat, clothing, TV, heating.

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These are very good things:

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getting rid of poverty means providing these services

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to almost everyone on the planet.

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And it's a great thing for this number to go up.

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In the rich world, perhaps the top one billion,

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we probably could cut back and use less,

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but every year, this number, on average, is going to go up,

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and so, over all, that will more than double

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the services delivered per person.

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Here we have a very basic service:

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Do you have lighting in your house to be able to read your homework?

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And, in fact, these kids don't, so they're going out

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and reading their school work under the street lamps.

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Now, efficiency, E, the energy for each service,

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here finally we have some good news.

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We have something that's not going up.

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Through various inventions and new ways of doing lighting,

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through different types of cars, different ways of building buildings --

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there are a lot of services where you can bring

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the energy for that service down quite substantially.

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Some individual services even bring it down by 90 percent.

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There are other services like how we make fertilizer,

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or how we do air transport,

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where the rooms for improvement are far, far less.

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And so, overall here, if we're optimistic,

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we may get a reduction of a factor of three to even, perhaps, a factor of six.

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But for these first three factors now,

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we've gone from 26 billion to, at best, maybe 13 billion tons,

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and that just won't cut it.

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So let's look at this fourth factor --

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this is going to be a key one --

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and this is the amount of CO2 put out per each unit of energy.

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And so the question is: Can you actually get that to zero?

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If you burn coal, no.

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If you burn natural gas, no.

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Almost every way we make electricity today,

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except for the emerging renewables and nuclear, puts out CO2.

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And so, what we're going to have to do at a global scale,

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is create a new system.

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And so, we need energy miracles.

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Now, when I use the term "miracle," I don't mean something that's impossible.

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The microprocessor is a miracle. The personal computer is a miracle.

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The Internet and its services are a miracle.

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So, the people here have participated in the creation of many miracles.

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Usually, we don't have a deadline,

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where you have to get the miracle by a certain date.

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Usually, you just kind of stand by, and some come along, some don't.

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This is a case where we actually have to drive at full speed

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and get a miracle in a pretty tight timeline.

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Now, I thought, "How could I really capture this?

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Is there some kind of natural illustration,

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some demonstration that would grab people's imagination here?"

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I thought back to a year ago when I brought mosquitos,

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and somehow people enjoyed that.

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(Laughter)

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It really got them involved in the idea of,

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you know, there are people who live with mosquitos.

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So, with energy, all I could come up with is this.

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I decided that releasing fireflies

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would be my contribution to the environment here this year.

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So here we have some natural fireflies.

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I'm told they don't bite; in fact, they might not even leave that jar.

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(Laughter)

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Now, there's all sorts of gimmicky solutions like that one,

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but they don't really add up to much.

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We need solutions -- either one or several --

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that have unbelievable scale

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and unbelievable reliability,

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and, although there's many directions people are seeking,

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I really only see five that can achieve the big numbers.

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I've left out tide, geothermal, fusion, biofuels.

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Those may make some contribution,

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and if they can do better than I expect, so much the better,

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but my key point here

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is that we're going to have to work on each of these five,

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and we can't give up any of them because they look daunting,

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because they all have significant challenges.

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Let's look first at the burning fossil fuels,

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either burning coal or burning natural gas.

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What you need to do there, seems like it might be simple, but it's not,

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and that's to take all the CO2, after you've burned it, going out the flue,

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pressurize it, create a liquid, put it somewhere,

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and hope it stays there.

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Now we have some pilot things that do this at the 60 to 80 percent level,

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but getting up to that full percentage, that will be very tricky,

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and agreeing on where these CO2 quantities should be put will be hard,

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but the toughest one here is this long-term issue.

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Who's going to be sure?

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Who's going to guarantee something that is literally billions of times larger

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than any type of waste you think of in terms of nuclear or other things?

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This is a lot of volume.

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So that's a tough one.

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Next would be nuclear.

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It also has three big problems:

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Cost, particularly in highly regulated countries, is high;

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the issue of the safety, really feeling good about nothing could go wrong,

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that, even though you have these human operators,

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that the fuel doesn't get used for weapons.

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And then what do you do with the waste?

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And, although it's not very large, there are a lot of concerns about that.

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People need to feel good about it.

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So three very tough problems that might be solvable,

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and so, should be worked on.

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The last three of the five, I've grouped together.

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These are what people often refer to as the renewable sources.

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And they actually -- although it's great they don't require fuel --

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they have some disadvantages.

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One is that the density of energy gathered in these technologies

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is dramatically less than a power plant.

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This is energy farming, so you're talking about many square miles,

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thousands of time more area than you think of as a normal energy plant.

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Also, these are intermittent sources.

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The sun doesn't shine all day, it doesn't shine every day,

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and, likewise, the wind doesn't blow all the time.

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And so, if you depend on these sources,

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you have to have some way of getting the energy

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during those time periods that it's not available.

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So, we've got big cost challenges here,

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we have transmission challenges:

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for example, say this energy source is outside your country;

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you not only need the technology,

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but you have to deal with the risk of the energy coming from elsewhere.

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And, finally, this storage problem.

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And, to dimensionalize this, I went through and looked at

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all the types of batteries that get made --

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for cars, for computers, for phones, for flashlights, for everything --

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and compared that to the amount of electrical energy the world uses,

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and what I found is that all the batteries we make now

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could store less than 10 minutes of all the energy.

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And so, in fact, we need a big breakthrough here,

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something that's going to be a factor of 100 better

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than the approaches we have now.

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It's not impossible, but it's not a very easy thing.

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Now, this shows up when you try to get the intermittent source

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to be above, say, 20 to 30 percent of what you're using.

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If you're counting on it for 100 percent,

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you need an incredible miracle battery.

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Now, how we're going to go forward on this -- what's the right approach?

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Is it a Manhattan Project? What's the thing that can get us there?

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Well, we need lots of companies working on this, hundreds.

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In each of these five paths, we need at least a hundred people.

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And a lot of them, you'll look at and say, "They're crazy." That's good.

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And, I think, here in the TED group,

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we have many people who are already pursuing this.

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Bill Gross has several companies, including one called eSolar

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that has some great solar thermal technologies.

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Vinod Khosla's investing in dozens of companies

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that are doing great things and have interesting possibilities,

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and I'm trying to help back that.

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Nathan Myhrvold and I actually are backing a company

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that, perhaps surprisingly, is actually taking the nuclear approach.

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There are some innovations in nuclear: modular, liquid.

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And innovation really stopped in this industry quite some ago,

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so the idea that there's some good ideas laying around is not all that surprising.

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The idea of TerraPower is that, instead of burning a part of uranium --

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the one percent, which is the U235 --

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we decided, "Let's burn the 99 percent, the U238."

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It is kind of a crazy idea.

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In fact, people had talked about it for a long time,

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but they could never simulate properly whether it would work or not,

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and so it's through the advent of modern supercomputers

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that now you can simulate and see that, yes,

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with the right material's approach, this looks like it would work.

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And, because you're burning that 99 percent,

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you have greatly improved cost profile.

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You actually burn up the waste, and you can actually use as fuel

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all the leftover waste from today's reactors.

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So, instead of worrying about them, you just take that. It's a great thing.

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It breathes this uranium as it goes along, so it's kind of like a candle.

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You can see it's a log there, often referred to as a traveling wave reactor.

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In terms of fuel, this really solves the problem.

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I've got a picture here of a place in Kentucky.

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This is the leftover, the 99 percent,

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where they've taken out the part they burn now,

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so it's called depleted uranium.

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That would power the U.S. for hundreds of years.

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And, simply by filtering seawater in an inexpensive process,

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you'd have enough fuel for the entire lifetime of the rest of the planet.

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So, you know, it's got lots of challenges ahead,

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but it is an example of the many hundreds and hundreds of ideas

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that we need to move forward.

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So let's think: How should we measure ourselves?

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What should our report card look like?

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Well, let's go out to where we really need to get,

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and then look at the intermediate.

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For 2050, you've heard many people talk about this 80 percent reduction.

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That really is very important, that we get there.

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And that 20 percent will be used up by things going on in poor countries,

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still some agriculture,

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hopefully we will have cleaned up forestry, cement.

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So, to get to that 80 percent,

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the developed countries, including countries like China,

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will have had to switch their electricity generation altogether.

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So, the other grade is: Are we deploying this zero-emission technology,

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have we deployed it in all the developed countries

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and we're in the process of getting it elsewhere?

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That's super important.

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That's a key element of making that report card.

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So, backing up from there, what should the 2020 report card look like?

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Well, again, it should have the two elements.

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We should go through these efficiency measures to start getting reductions:

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The less we emit, the less that sum will be of CO2,

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and, therefore, the less the temperature.

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But in some ways, the grade we get there,

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doing things that don't get us all the way to the big reductions,

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is only equally, or maybe even slightly less, important than the other,

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which is the piece of innovation on these breakthroughs.

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These breakthroughs, we need to move those at full speed,

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and we can measure that in terms of companies,

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pilot projects, regulatory things that have been changed.

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There's a lot of great books that have been written about this.

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The Al Gore book, "Our Choice"

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and the David McKay book, "Sustainable Energy Without the Hot Air."

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They really go through it and create a framework

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that this can be discussed broadly,

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because we need broad backing for this.

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There's a lot that has to come together.

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So this is a wish.

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It's a very concrete wish that we invent this technology.

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If you gave me only one wish for the next 50 years --

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I could pick who's president,

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I could pick a vaccine, which is something I love,

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or I could pick that this thing

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that's half the cost with no CO2 gets invented --

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this is the wish I would pick.

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This is the one with the greatest impact.

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If we don't get this wish,

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the division between the people who think short term and long term will be terrible,

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17:34

between the U.S. and China, between poor countries and rich,

tedtalks 17:34
17:39

and most of all the lives of those two billion will be far worse.

tedtalks 17:39
17:41

So, what do we have to do?

tedtalks 17:41
17:46

What am I appealing to you to step forward and drive?

tedtalks 17:46
17:49

We need to go for more research funding.

tedtalks 17:49
17:51

When countries get together in places like Copenhagen,

tedtalks 17:51
17:54

they shouldn't just discuss the CO2.

tedtalks 17:54
17:56

They should discuss this innovation agenda,

tedtalks 17:56
18:01

and you'd be stunned at the ridiculously low levels of spending

tedtalks 18:01
18:03

on these innovative approaches.

tedtalks 18:03
18:07

We do need the market incentives -- CO2 tax, cap and trade --

tedtalks 18:07
18:10

something that gets that price signal out there.

tedtalks 18:10
18:12

We need to get the message out.

tedtalks 18:12
18:15

We need to have this dialogue be a more rational, more understandable dialogue,

tedtalks 18:15
18:18

including the steps that the government takes.

tedtalks 18:18
18:22

This is an important wish, but it is one I think we can achieve.

tedtalks 18:22
18:24

Thank you.

tedtalks 18:24
18:35

(Applause)

tedtalks 18:35
18:37

Thank you.

tedtalks 18:37
18:39

Chris Anderson: Thank you. Thank you.

tedtalks 18:39
18:44

(Applause)

tedtalks 18:44
18:50

Thank you. So to understand more about TerraPower, right --

tedtalks 18:50
18:55

I mean, first of all, can you give a sense of what scale of investment this is?

tedtalks 18:55
18:59

Bil Gates: To actually do the software, buy the supercomputer,

tedtalks 18:59
19:01

hire all the great scientists, which we've done,

tedtalks 19:01
19:04

that's only tens of millions,

tedtalks 19:04
19:07

and even once we test our materials out in a Russian reactor

tedtalks 19:07
19:11

to make sure that our materials work properly,

tedtalks 19:11
19:13

then you'll only be up in the hundreds of millions.

tedtalks 19:13
19:16

The tough thing is building the pilot reactor;

tedtalks 19:16
19:21

finding the several billion, finding the regulator, the location

tedtalks 19:21
19:23

that will actually build the first one of these.

tedtalks 19:23
19:27

Once you get the first one built, if it works as advertised,

tedtalks 19:27
19:31

then it's just clear as day, because the economics, the energy density,

tedtalks 19:31
19:33

are so different than nuclear as we know it.

tedtalks 19:33
19:37

CA: And so, to understand it right, this involves building deep into the ground

tedtalks 19:37
19:41

almost like a vertical kind of column of nuclear fuel,

tedtalks 19:41
19:43

of this sort of spent uranium,

tedtalks 19:43
19:46

and then the process starts at the top and kind of works down?

tedtalks 19:46
19:49

BG: That's right. Today, you're always refueling the reactor,

tedtalks 19:49
19:52

so you have lots of people and lots of controls that can go wrong:

tedtalks 19:52
19:55

that thing where you're opening it up and moving things in and out,

tedtalks 19:55
19:57

that's not good.

tedtalks 19:57
20:02

So, if you have very cheap fuel that you can put 60 years in --

tedtalks 20:02
20:04

just think of it as a log --

tedtalks 20:04
20:07

put it down and not have those same complexities.

tedtalks 20:07
20:12

And it just sits there and burns for the 60 years, and then it's done.

tedtalks 20:12
20:16

CA: It's a nuclear power plant that is its own waste disposal solution.

tedtalks 20:16
20:18

BG: Yeah. Well, what happens with the waste,

tedtalks 20:18
20:23

you can let it sit there -- there's a lot less waste under this approach --

tedtalks 20:23
20:25

then you can actually take that,

tedtalks 20:25
20:28

and put it into another one and burn that.

tedtalks 20:28
20:32

And we start off actually by taking the waste that exists today,

tedtalks 20:32
20:36

that's sitting in these cooling pools or dry casking by reactors --

tedtalks 20:36
20:38

that's our fuel to begin with.

tedtalks 20:38
20:41

So, the thing that's been a problem from those reactors

tedtalks 20:41
20:43

is actually what gets fed into ours,

tedtalks 20:43
20:46

and you're reducing the volume of the waste quite dramatically

tedtalks 20:46
20:48

as you're going through this process.

tedtalks 20:48
20:50

CA: I mean, you're talking to different people around the world

tedtalks 20:50
20:52

about the possibilities here.

tedtalks 20:52
20:55

Where is there most interest in actually doing something with this?

tedtalks 20:55
20:58

BG: Well, we haven't picked a particular place,

tedtalks 20:58
21:06

and there's all these interesting disclosure rules about anything that's called "nuclear,"

tedtalks 21:06
21:08

so we've got a lot of interest,

tedtalks 21:08
21:12

that people from the company have been in Russia, India, China --

tedtalks 21:12
21:14

I've been back seeing the secretary of energy here,

tedtalks 21:14
21:18

talking about how this fits into the energy agenda.

tedtalks 21:18
21:21

So I'm optimistic. You know, the French and Japanese have done some work.

tedtalks 21:21
21:25

This is a variant on something that has been done.

tedtalks 21:25
21:29

It's an important advance, but it's like a fast reactor,

tedtalks 21:29
21:31

and a lot of countries have built them,

tedtalks 21:31
21:36

so anybody who's done a fast reactor is a candidate to be where the first one gets built.

tedtalks 21:36
21:41

CA: So, in your mind, timescale and likelihood

tedtalks 21:41
21:44

of actually taking something like this live?

tedtalks 21:44
21:49

BG: Well, we need -- for one of these high-scale, electro-generation things

tedtalks 21:49
21:51

that's very cheap,

tedtalks 21:51
21:55

we have 20 years to invent and then 20 years to deploy.

tedtalks 21:55
22:00

That's sort of the deadline that the environmental models

tedtalks 22:00
22:02

have shown us that we have to meet.

tedtalks 22:02
22:07

And, you know, TerraPower, if things go well -- which is wishing for a lot --

tedtalks 22:07
22:09

could easily meet that.

tedtalks 22:09
22:12

And there are, fortunately now, dozens of companies --

tedtalks 22:12
22:14

we need it to be hundreds --

tedtalks 22:14
22:16

who, likewise, if their science goes well,

tedtalks 22:16
22:19

if the funding for their pilot plants goes well,

tedtalks 22:19
22:21

that they can compete for this.

tedtalks 22:21
22:23

And it's best if multiple succeed,

tedtalks 22:23
22:26

because then you could use a mix of these things.

tedtalks 22:26
22:28

We certainly need one to succeed.

tedtalks 22:28
22:31

CA: In terms of big-scale possible game changes,

tedtalks 22:31
22:34

is this the biggest that you're aware of out there?

tedtalks 22:34
22:38

BG: An energy breakthrough is the most important thing.

tedtalks 22:38
22:40

It would have been, even without the environmental constraint,

tedtalks 22:40
22:45

but the environmental constraint just makes it so much greater.

tedtalks 22:45
22:48

In the nuclear space, there are other innovators.

tedtalks 22:48
22:51

You know, we don't know their work as well as we know this one,

tedtalks 22:51
22:54

but the modular people, that's a different approach.

tedtalks 22:54
22:58

There's a liquid-type reactor, which seems a little hard,

tedtalks 22:58
23:00

but maybe they say that about us.

tedtalks 23:00
23:03

And so, there are different ones,

tedtalks 23:03
23:06

but the beauty of this is a molecule of uranium

tedtalks 23:06
23:10

has a million times as much energy as a molecule of, say, coal,

tedtalks 23:10
23:13

and so -- if you can deal with the negatives,

tedtalks 23:13
23:16

which are essentially the radiation --

tedtalks 23:16
23:19

the footprint and cost, the potential,

tedtalks 23:19
23:21

in terms of effect on land and various things,

tedtalks 23:21
23:25

is almost in a class of its own.

tedtalks 23:25
23:29

CA: If this doesn't work, then what?

tedtalks 23:29
23:33

Do we have to start taking emergency measures

tedtalks 23:33
23:36

to try and keep the temperature of the earth stable?

tedtalks 23:36
23:38

BG: If you get into that situation,

tedtalks 23:38
23:43

it's like if you've been over-eating, and you're about to have a heart attack:

tedtalks 23:43
23:47

Then where do you go? You may need heart surgery or something.

tedtalks 23:47
23:51

There is a line of research on what's called geoengineering,

tedtalks 23:51
23:54

which are various techniques that would delay the heating

tedtalks 23:54
23:57

to buy us 20 or 30 years to get our act together.

tedtalks 23:57
23:59

Now, that's just an insurance policy.

tedtalks 23:59
24:01

You hope you don't need to do that.

tedtalks 24:01
24:03

Some people say you shouldn't even work on the insurance policy

tedtalks 24:03
24:05

because it might make you lazy,

tedtalks 24:05
24:09

that you'll keep eating because you know heart surgery will be there to save you.

tedtalks 24:09
24:12

I'm not sure that's wise, given the importance of the problem,

tedtalks 24:12
24:16

but there's now the geoengineering discussion

tedtalks 24:16
24:20

about -- should that be in the back pocket in case things happen faster,

tedtalks 24:20
24:23

or this innovation goes a lot slower than we expect?

tedtalks 24:25
24:30

CA: Climate skeptics: If you had a sentence or two to say to them,

tedtalks 24:30
24:34

how might you persuade them that they're wrong?

tedtalks 24:35
24:39

BG: Well, unfortunately, the skeptics come in different camps.

tedtalks 24:39
24:43

The ones who make scientific arguments are very few.

tedtalks 24:43
24:46

Are they saying that there's negative feedback effects

tedtalks 24:46
24:48

that have to do with clouds that offset things?

tedtalks 24:48
24:51

There are very, very few things that they can even say

tedtalks 24:51
24:54

there's a chance in a million of those things.

tedtalks 24:54
24:57

The main problem we have here, it's kind of like AIDS.

tedtalks 24:57
25:01

You make the mistake now, and you pay for it a lot later.

tedtalks 25:01
25:05

And so, when you have all sorts of urgent problems,

tedtalks 25:05
25:08

the idea of taking pain now that has to do with a gain later,

tedtalks 25:08
25:11

and a somewhat uncertain pain thing --

tedtalks 25:11
25:17

in fact, the IPCC report, that's not necessarily the worst case,

tedtalks 25:17
25:19

and there are people in the rich world who look at IPCC

tedtalks 25:19
25:23

and say, "OK, that isn't that big of a deal."

tedtalks 25:23
25:27

The fact is it's that uncertain part that should move us towards this.

tedtalks 25:27
25:30

But my dream here is that, if you can make it economic,

tedtalks 25:30
25:32

and meet the CO2 constraints,

tedtalks 25:32
25:34

then the skeptics say, "OK,

tedtalks 25:34
25:36

I don't care that it doesn't put out CO2,

tedtalks 25:36
25:38

I kind of wish it did put out CO2,

tedtalks 25:38
25:42

but I guess I'll accept it because it's cheaper than what's come before."

tedtalks 25:42
25:46

(Applause)

tedtalks 25:46
25:50

CA: And so, that would be your response to the Bjorn Lomborg argument,

tedtalks 25:50
25:54

that basically if you spend all this energy trying to solve the CO2 problem,

tedtalks 25:54
25:56

it's going to take away all your other goals

tedtalks 25:56
25:59

of trying to rid the world of poverty and malaria and so forth,

tedtalks 25:59
26:03

it's a stupid waste of the Earth's resources to put money towards that

tedtalks 26:03
26:05

when there are better things we can do.

tedtalks 26:05
26:08

BG: Well, the actual spending on the R&D piece --

tedtalks 26:08
26:12

say the U.S. should spend 10 billion a year more than it is right now --

tedtalks 26:12
26:14

it's not that dramatic.

tedtalks 26:14
26:16

It shouldn't take away from other things.

tedtalks 26:16
26:19

The thing you get into big money on, and this, reasonable people can disagree,

tedtalks 26:19
26:22

is when you have something that's non-economic and you're trying to fund that --

tedtalks 26:22
26:25

that, to me, mostly is a waste.

tedtalks 26:25
26:28

Unless you're very close and you're just funding the learning curve

tedtalks 26:28
26:30

and it's going to get very cheap,

tedtalks 26:30
26:34

I believe we should try more things that have a potential

tedtalks 26:34
26:36

to be far less expensive.

tedtalks 26:36
26:41

If the trade-off you get into is, "Let's make energy super expensive,"

tedtalks 26:41
26:43

then the rich can afford that.

tedtalks 26:43
26:46

I mean, all of us here could pay five times as much for our energy

tedtalks 26:46
26:48

and not change our lifestyle.

tedtalks 26:48
26:50

The disaster is for that two billion.

tedtalks 26:50
26:52

And even Lomborg has changed.

tedtalks 26:52
26:57

His shtick now is, "Why isn't the R&D getting more discussed?"

tedtalks 26:57
26:59

He's still, because of his earlier stuff,

tedtalks 26:59
27:01

still associated with the skeptic camp,

tedtalks 27:01
27:04

but he's realized that's a pretty lonely camp,

tedtalks 27:04
27:07

and so, he's making the R&D point.

tedtalks 27:07
27:12

And so there is a thread of something that I think is appropriate.

tedtalks 27:12
27:15

The R&D piece, it's crazy how little it's funded.

tedtalks 27:15
27:18

CA: Well Bill, I suspect I speak on the behalf of most people here

tedtalks 27:18
27:21

to say I really hope your wish comes true. Thank you so much.

tedtalks 27:21
27:23

BG: Thank you.

tedtalks 27:23
27:26

(Applause)