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Annotated captions of Margaret Gould Stewart: How YouTube thinks about copyright in English

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So, if you're in the audience today,

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or maybe you're watching this talk in some other time or place,

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you are a participant in the digital rights ecosystem.

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Whether you're an artist, a technologist,

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a lawyer or a fan,

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the handling of copyright directly impacts your life.

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Rights management is no longer

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simply a question of ownership,

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it's a complex web of relationships

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and a critical part of our cultural landscape.

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YouTube cares deeply about the rights of content owners,

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but in order to give them choices about what they can do

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with copies, mashups and more,

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we need to first identify

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when copyrighted material is uploaded to our site.

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Let's look at a specific video so you can see how it works.

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Two years ago, recording artist Chris Brown

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released the official video of his single "Forever."

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A fan saw it on TV,

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recorded it with her camera phone,

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and uploaded it to YouTube.

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Because Sony Music had registered Chris Brown's video

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in our Content ID system,

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within seconds of attempting to upload the video,

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the copy was detected,

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giving Sony the choice of what to do next.

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But how do we know that the user's video was a copy?

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Well, it starts with content owners

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delivering assets into our database,

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along with a usage policy

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that tells us what to do when we find a match.

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We compare each upload

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against all of the reference files in our database.

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This heat map is going to show you

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how the brain of the system works.

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Here we can see the original reference file

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being compared to the user generated content.

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The system compares every moment

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of one to the other to see if there's a match.

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This means that we can identify a match

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even if the copy used is just a portion of the original file,

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plays it in slow motion

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and has degraded audio and video quality.

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And we do this every time

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that a video is uploaded to YouTube.

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And that's over 20 hours of video every minute.

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When we find a match,

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we apply the policy that the rights owner has set down.

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And the scale and the speed of this system

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is truly breathtaking.

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We're not just talking about a few videos,

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we're talking about over

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100 years of video every day,

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between new uploads and the legacy scans

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we regularly do across all of the content on the site.

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When we compare those hundred years of video,

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we're comparing it against millions

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of reference files in our database.

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It would be like 36,000 people

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staring at 36,000 monitors

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each and every day, without so much as a coffee break.

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Now, what do we do when we find a match?

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Well, most rights owners, instead of blocking,

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will allow the copy to be published.

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And then they benefit through the exposure,

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advertising and linked sales.

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Remember Chris Brown's video "Forever"?

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Well, it had its day in the sun and then it dropped off the charts,

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and that looked like the end of the story,

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but sometime last year, a young couple got married.

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This is their wedding video.

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You may have seen it.

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(Music)

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What's amazing about this is,

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if the processional of the wedding was this much fun,

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can you imagine how much fun the reception must have been?

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I mean, who are these people?

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I totally want to go to that wedding.

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So their little wedding video went on

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to get over 40 million views.

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And instead of Sony blocking,

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they allowed the upload to occur.

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And they put advertising against it

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and linked from it to iTunes.

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And the song, 18 months old,

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went back to number four on the iTunes charts.

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So Sony is generating revenue from both of these.

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And Jill and Kevin, the happy couple,

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they came back from their honeymoon

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and found that their video had gone crazy viral.

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And they've ended up on a bunch of talk shows,

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and they've used it as an opportunity to make a difference.

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The video's inspired over 26,000 dollars in donations

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to end domestic violence.

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The "JK Wedding [Entrance] Dance" became so popular

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that NBC parodied it on the season finale of "The Office,"

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which just goes to show,

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it's truly an ecosystem of culture.

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Because it's not just amateurs borrowing from big studios,

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but sometimes big studios borrowing back.

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By empowering choice, we can create a culture of opportunity.

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And all it took to change things around

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was to allow for choice through rights identification.

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So why has no one ever solved this problem before?

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It's because it's a big problem,

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and it's complicated and messy.

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It's not uncommon for a single video

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to have multiple rights owners.

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There's musical labels.

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There's multiple music publishers.

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And each of these can vary by country.

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There's lots of cases

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where we have more than one work mashed together.

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So we have to manage many claims

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to the same video.

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YouTube's Content ID system addresses all of these cases.

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But the system only works through

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the participation of rights owners.

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If you have content that others are uploading to YouTube,

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you should register in the Content ID system,

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and then you'll have the choice

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about how your content is used.

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And think carefully about the policies that you attach to that content.

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By simply blocking all reuse,

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you'll miss out on new art forms,

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new audiences,

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new distribution channels

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and new revenue streams.

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But it's not just about dollars and impressions.

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Just look at all the joy

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that was spread through progressive rights management

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and new technology.

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And I think we can all agree that joy is definitely an idea worth spreading.

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Thank you.

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(Applause)